Intersections: Gender and Sexuality in Asia and the Pacific
Monograph 1: The Philippines at the Turn of the Sixteenth Century

Malcolm W. Mintz

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Chapter 16



This chapter opens with the view from Quipayó, the main Franciscan mission in Bikol and Marcos de Lisboa's residence during his time as the Vicario Provincial of the region. Lisboa noted differences in language preferences of the people living downstream in the towns around Quipayó compared to those in villages further upstream. He also named locations, some of which have disappeared over time, but others which can still be identified with some degree of accuracy, places where people went fishing, or bought boats, or were simply on the way to somewhere else.

This is followed by a section on towns, their estimated population, where they were located, and questions asked of strangers to determine where they had come from. What happens when people had to leave their towns and establish residency elsewhere, through marriage or work, or the seeking of refuge, follows, including some of the agreements people reached regarding forms of abstinence where their absence was considered temporary.

Towns, out of necessity, needed each other. They cooperated when labour was in short supply to harvest or plant crops, or to man boats when there were not enough individuals to form complete crews. This need would serve to quell the all too common periods of conflict, but conflict did occur both within and between towns, and a discussion of this ends the section.

Section 3 is about trade. Just as towns needed each other to supplement labour, they also needed each other for trade, with the produce of the coast exchanged regularly with the that of the communities further upriver. Included in this section is a brief discussion of international trade, with goods arriving primarily from China and Macao to ports on the South China Sea, and then moved by local traders to various parts of Luzon. The section focuses primarily on local trade and traders.

In Section 4, the discussion is about travel, overland and by sea, some of the dangers faced, the preference to travel with a companion, and the use of guides to make sure the proper trail was taken. This is followed by a discussion of the reasons for travel whether simply out of a sense of adventure, or more pressing reasons such as the search for food, for employment or for treatment for a serious medical condition. Included in this section is the preparation for departure, the carrying of provisions, the breaking of the journey and routes taken to reach one's destination.

(i) Quipayó and Nueva Cáceres
One of the main Franciscan missions in the Philippines was established in the Bikol region at Quipayó in 1578. The mission included the large area which stretched from Siruma in the north to Libmanan, Calabanga and Bombon in the south, basically circling the area to the east and south of San Miguel Bay. Beginning in 1586 with the formation of Libmanan as an independent municipality, followed by Siruma in 1687 and Calabanga (including Bombon) in 1749, Quipayó was dramatically reduced in size. Its importance, too, declined with the subsequent establishment of other missions. Eventually it was incorporated into the township of Calabanga and is now a small area in one of its barangays. The historical centre of Quipayó is its church, renamed the Church of the Immaculate Conception in 1659, the present structure built in 1616, replacing the original church of wood and palm leaves.[1]

Nueva Cáceres (originally La Ciudad de Cáceres) was the Spanish settlement established in 1575 across the Bikol River from the existing town of Naga. It was named in honour of Francisco de Sande, Governor-General of the Philippines from 1575 to 1580, who originated from the town of Cáceres in the Extramadura region of Spain[2]. Eventually the two areas on opposite sides of he river grew and merged and were given the single name of Nueva Cáceres, a name which remained until the American occupation of the country in 1898 when the name, Naga, was restored.[3]

Although Nueva Cáceres was made the see of Cáceres in 1595 and came directly under the archdiocese of Manila, it seems evident from the references in his dictionary that Marcos de Lisboa, serving as the Vicario Provincial from 1609 to 1611, must have been stationed or chose to live in Quipayó. As will be made clear in the discussion which follows, references to terms used in Quipayó, as well as to terms which differed both upstream and upland from the town, show this town as his locus in the compiling of the Vocabulario de la lengua Bicol.

Residents of Quipayó were referred to as tagá amihánan 'the people of the north'. This is a reference most likely made by those living in the central part of Camarines Sur, probably in the populated areas surrounding Naga City. Also unclear is how much of the area of Quipayó was intended by this reference as the initial expanse of the mission encompassed towns along the river systems from above the Himoragat in the north to the Libmanan in the south and the Hinagyanan, Tigman and Inarihan river systems between them.
    amíhan the north or northeast wind; trade wind; ... [MDL: the north wind; MA- or MAG- to blow (the wind from the north); (PAG-)-ON to be blown by the north wind); -AN direction of such a wind; tagá amihánan referring to people from Quipayó]
As for the name Quipayó, if we convert this from the Spanish to the Bikol writing system, we have ki payó giving us the meanings of either 'to the head' or 'of the head', with the 'head' here having the more figurative meaning of 'leader'. The reference would have to be to Quipayó being the main Franciscan mission in the region. While this is probably the derivation of the town's name, there is one problem; Lisboa defines payó with only its most basic meaning of 'head'. The more figurative meanings encompassing the term 'leader' are subsequent developments, although possibly originating with references such as this.
    ki singular, nonsubject indirect object and locative marker occurring before names: Naghapót akó ki Jose kon igwá siyáng sigarílyo I asked Jose if he had any cigarettes; also shows posses sion [+MDL: Ita'ó mo ki Pédro Give it to Pedro; ki Juán na buláwan Juan's gold]

    payó head (part of the body); ma'ínit an payó hotheaded; to have a temper; makulóg an payó to have a headache; gamíton an payó to use one's head (think) [+MDL: MA-, -AN or MAG-, PAG--AN to place the head on a figure, statue; MA-, I- or MAG-, IPAG- to put a head in place on a figure]

    payó head, leader; chief, chairman, commander, officer; MANG-, PANG--AN to direct, head, lead; to command, conduct, preside over or supervise s/t; to chair s/t; to rule or reign over s/o; PANG- leadership, supervision

(ii) Localised Terms
The terms which Lisboa defines as used exclusively in the areas around Quipayó are few but varied in their reference, ranging from words for plants and clothing, to the more abstract terms for speech and feelings. It is interesting to examine some of the differences he became aware of through his residence in different parts of the region.

The temporary shelter erected in the rice fields to offer protection from sun or rain is lungálong in Quipayó. Elsewhere in the region it is agád, this second, more widespread term, also appearing in Cebuano where reference in to a hut made from the branches of trees.[4]
    lungálong a temporary hut or shelter in the forest or fields; MAG- to take shelter in such a structure [MDL: a temporary shelter erected in the fields, probably no more than an overhead covering to offer protection from the sun or rain (una sombra); MA- or MAG- to take shelter in such a structure; MA-, -ON or MAG-, PAG--ON to build such a structure from particular materials; MA-, -AN or MAG-, PAG--AN to shelter s/o; the term is used in areas around Quipayó, elsewhere the term used is agád]
There is also reference to the edible stalks of two giant species of taro, galyáng (Cyrtosperma merkusii) and bíga' (Alocasia macrorrhizos),[5] This is lúpa in Quipayó and pakláng elsewhere in the region. Of both of these terms, only Bergaño in his dictionary of Kapampangan has a reference to lupa, defining it generally as a well-known plant, commonly eaten.[6]
    lúpa' leaf stalks of the taro species, galyáng (Cyrtosperma merkusii) and bíga' (Alocasia macrorrhizos); MANG- to go in search of such stalks to eat or to feed to pigs; this term is used in Quipayó, elsewhere the term is pakláng [MDL]
The small to medium tree endemic in the Philippines and known as amihí in Quipayó and bali'gáng elsewhere in the region (Syzygium polycephaloides) produces a purple to black acidic fruit hanging in clumps much like grapes. The fruit is edible, both cooked or raw, and used locally by the Chinese in the making of preserves. The tree grows throughout the Philippines, but its name varies greatly. Neither of the two terms in Bikol can be found in the dictionaries of the other central Philippine languages.[7]
    amihí tree (typ- growing up to 15 meters, producing a black, acidic, edible fruit which grows in bunches like grapes; (Syzygium polycephaloides); this term is used in Quipayó, elsewhere it is called bali'gáng [MDL]
In the downstream areas of the Bikol River basin, where Quipayó is located, the term for bird was yámon. Further upstream the term, more widespread and more widely used, was, and still is, gamgám. Interestingly, there is a crossover in terminology when reference is to 'a flock of birds'. Here, both terms are used in reversed order where gamgám means 'flock' when yámon means 'bird', and the opposite situation applying when gamgám is the term for bird.
    yámon bird (used in towns along the river up to Quipayó); gamgám kayamónan a flock of birds [MDL]

    gamgám bird [+MDL: the term most commonly used in the area of the Bikol river; MA-, -ON or MAG-, PAG- -ON to eat s/t (birds); yámon kagamgáman a flock of birds]
With reference to clothing, the commonly worn ankle-length tunic in Quipayó was yambóng while elsewhere in the region this was referred to as lambóng. It is the second term which is found in each of the Visayan languages discussed here with Mentida for Hiligaynon defining it simply as a smock or tunic [8] and Alcina for Waray describing its use in Samar as a housecoat worn by women, tied at the waist and reaching the feet at full-length.[9] Encarnacion's description for Cebuano is as a long, black smock, tunic or blanket worn by married women in place of the shorter shawl when attending church (see Chapter 11, 'Fibre, Cloth and Clothing,' Section 7 (i)).[10]
    yambóng an ankle-length tunic, commonly worn; MAG- to wear such a tunic; MA- to dress s/o in such a tunic; this term is used near Quipayó; elsewhere the term is lambóng [MDL]
Lisboa also identifies more abstract terms such as the negative ngutón, used uniquely in Quipayó, and ngálo', more commonly recognisable in the form hingálo', which in the rest of the region carries the meaning 'to rest' whereas in Quipayó it means 'tired', expressed as yayá elsewhere.
    ngúton used in the negative, or positively with a ironic meaning; used only in Quipayó: Harí ngúton, Da'í ngúton or Ngúton Don't believe it [MDL]

    ngálo' MAGPAHING- to rest; to take a break, relax, lounge about; MAKA-, MA--AN to be tired out by a particular job or task; PAGPAHING- respite, rest; a break [+MDL: the term means 'tired' in Quipayó; elsewhere 'tired' is yayá; MAPAHING- or MAGPAHING- or MAKAHING- to rest; MAPAHING-, PAHING--AN or MAGPAHING-, PAGPAHING--AN or MAKAHING-, MAHING--AN to give s/o a break, rest MAKA- to be tiring (work); MA--AN to be tired from working on s/t]
Bisára, carrying the fixed meaning of 'said' and occurring only in a single, unconjugated form in Quipayó, is the general term for 'to speak' or 'to converse' in Rinconada Bikol, identified by Lisboa in his dictionary entry as a term fully conjugated in upstream towns. There will always be a question as to how far 'upstream' we are meant to go in identifying the use of terms referred to in this way by Lisboa. For bisára, however, it is quite clear that upstream puts us at the Rinconada towns of Iriga, Baao, Bato, Bula and Nabua. Bisára is a borrowing of the Malay bicara which in turn is a borrowing of the Sanskrit vicāra meaning 'dispute' or 'discussion'.[11]

Retana in his Diccionario de Filipinismos has an extended definition of bichara identifying it as a term of discussion used in diplomatic negotiations such as that between the Spanish and the Moslem leaders in Jolo and Mindanao, and similarly between the Portuguese in Ternate and the king of Tidore in the Moluccas. The term, however, need not always refer to diplomatic communications. It can also refer simply to an extended social discussion. In all likelihood, particularly as Malay was the donor language, it was the unconjugated form of the verb as used in Quipayó which was borrowed with subsequent conjugation added in the upstream towns to adjust the form to the local language.[12]
    bisára what was said: Anó an bisára mo? What did you say?; Anó an bisára ko saímo so-ba'gó? What did I tell you earlier?; not conjugated in Quipayó, but conjugated and used in ordinary conversation in the towns upstream [MDL]
Three other differences recorded by Lisboa are the fish lure, tá'an, the fish, kalayo'án, called respectively, kawíl and ramágan in upstream towns, and sinupót, a small bag or sack no longer used downstream, but still in use in towns further up river. Sinupót is an inflected form of supót meaning 'bag' or 'pouch'. It is this latter form which is found commonly in Bikol as well as all of the other central Philippine languages.[13]
    sinupót a small bag or sack carried by women; no longer used except in upriver towns; see supót [MDL]
As for tá'an and kawíl, both are found commonly across the central Philippine languages, with tá'an in all but Kapampangan, and kawíl in all but Cebuano. The meanings are close, from fishooks to wide-mesh nets with fishing locations ranging from rivers to the sea.[14]
    tá'an fish lure (typ- used for catching fish in rice fields and streams, called kawíl in upstream towns); also refers to a hook left suspended in a river to catch fish when no one is present and fishing; MA-, -AN or MAG-, PAG--AN to catch fish with such a lure; -AN: tinata'ánan fish caught with such a lure [MDL]
Kalayo'án is a small river fish about 13 centimetres in length known popularly by a variety of names, including Mountian bass, Dark-margined flagtail and Spotted flagtail and scientifically as Kuhlia marginata.[15] It is the upstream term ramágan, however, which is traceable across two of the central Philippine languages, realised as damag in Waray and damagan in Cebuano.[16] There are a number of references to damagan in Tagalog, but I have not been able to confirm this with entries in Tagalog dictionaries.
    kalayo'án fish (typ- river, called ramágan in towns upriver) [MDL]
The references which Lisboa has to areas in the upland are undoubtedly to the foothills of Mt Isarog inhabited by the Agtá' or Negritos, seen as the original inhabitants of the archipelago and whose presence would have been far more conspicuous four hundred years ago than now. Lawrence Reid has an article touching on both the general and linguistic aspects of the Negritos throughout the Philippines and I have included a reference for those who would like to pursue this further.[17]
    Agtá' Negrito, Aeta, Philippine aborigine [+MDL: Agtá MA- or MAG- to grow black; MA-, -ON or MAG-, PAG--ON to blacken s/o; Da'í máyo' palán maghigdá' sa kinakátal an Agtá' The Negritos never sleep on s/t raised from the ground; payóng Agtá' flower (typ- large, called this because of its similarity to the hair of the Negritos, see payó); pipinítan nin Agtá' instep; súsong Agtá', bee (typ-), see súso']
The two entries where Lisboa makes a specific reference to the upland are both items of jewellery, ra'ós, a belt made of beads and interspersed with gold, and túgot, a chain of thin rattan worn as a bracelet (also see Chapter 8, 'Jewellery and Body Ornamentation,' Section 7).
    ra'ós belt (typ- worn by women in upland towns, made of beads interspersed with gold) [MDL]

    túgot a thin chain of rattan, used as a bracelet by women living in the mountains [MDL]
There is one other reference to the Negritos in the Lisboa dictionary, and that is to the Mangyans, a name which applies to eight indigenous groups who are not Negrito and who are not found on Luzon. They inhabit the island of Mindoro. Reference to the Mangyans must have been brought to Bikol by traders. Chinese and Japanese ships called into ports on both Luzon and Mindoro (see Section 3), off-loading goods that were then carried by local merchants to different parts of the neighbouring islands. The name, and the rather negative description of the Mangyans, no doubt, reached Bikol in this way.
    Mangyán Negrito group, more primitive than the others; (fig-) MAG- to flee to the forest or mountains [MDL]
Lisboa also makes reference to other differences in language use found in the region, on one occasion mentioning the specific town in which the variation occurred, and on other occasions simply indicating that such variation existed within the region without reference to areas upstream or downstream along the Bikol River.

The variation in the first person singular pronouns, sakó' and sakúya' and the first person plural exclusive pronouns samó' and samúya' (but not the variation between the first person plural inclusive pronouns sató' and satúya', possibly an oversight) he attributes to usage in the town of Minalabac, found along the Bikol River south of Naga City and just beyond the town of Milaor.
    sakó' me; to, from or by me; nonsubject indirect object and locative 1st person singular pronoun [+MDL: Itina'ó sakó' It was given to me; Gíkan sakó' iyán That came from me; MA-, I- or MAG-, IPAG- to attribute s/t said or done to o/s; sakúya' is used in Minalabag (now Minalabac)]

    samó' us; to, from or by us; nonsubject indirect object and locative 1st person plural exclusive pronoun; our, ours; postposed possessive pronoun [+MDL: samóng buláwan our gold; Himinampák samó' We were whipped; samúya' is used in Minalabag (now Minalabac); var- sa'mó']
Lisboa's awareness of the word-final glottal stop is also shown in noting the variation between amá' 'father', pronounced as either amá' (with the glottal stop) or amá (without the glottal stop) in different towns. He identifies this difference through the addition of the suffix -ON, realised as -on on roots with a glottal stop, and -hon on those without.
    amá' father; MAG- father and child; MAG-, -ON to call s/o father (a natural father or a guardian); makó-amá' nephew; pakó-ama'ón uncle; Amá' Niámo' The Lord's Prayer (lit: Our Father) [+MDL: the variation between amá and amá' is found in different towns; MA-, -ON or MAG-, PAG--ON to call s/o father (a natural father or guardian)]
In terms of social acceptance, Lisboa makes rare reference to expressions which may be more or less acceptable in difference towns. An example of this is use of atúbang meaning, basically, 'in front of' or 'in the presence of'. The relevant section is found following the arrow in the entry below.
    atúbang ... [+MDL: MAG- to face one another (two people, houses); to be face to face; to be together, eating or discussing s/t; MAG-, PAG--ON to place two things facing each other; MAG-, IPAG- to face one thing toward another; MAG-, PAG--AN to turn things so that they face others or face in a particular direction; to come together before the food that one is going to eat; MA-, -ON to turn to face s/o (as if to start an argument); MA-, -AN to turn to face s/t or face in a particular direction; to place o/s in front of s/o to discuss s/t or to eat or drink s/t; Atúbang kamó sa altár Face the altar; → Digdí ka sa atubángan nin dakól na táwo Come here in front of every one; in some towns this expression is taken as too direct or impolite and the following expressions are used: Digdí ka sa kaatúbang kainíng dakól na táwo or Digdí ka sa inaatubángan kainíng dakól na táwo Come here in front of everyone; ... ]
More generally, the definition of darás is given as a 'piece of fish' with some areas also attributing the term to 'a slice of meat'.
    darás piece of fish; in several areas this also refers to a piece or slice of meat; MA-, -ON or MAG-, PAG--ON to cut off pieces of fish, meat; MA-, -AN or MAG-, PAG--AN to cut pieces from fish, meat [MDL]

(iii) Identifying Named Locations
In various dictionary entries, Lisboa also mentions a number of towns and regional areas most of which are still identifiable. The town of Paniquian (now Panicuason),[18] currently lies within the bounds of Naga City and is an area partially comprising the foothills and slopes of Mt Isarog. The dictionary reference, baság, is to the roofing materials used in the vicinity, most likely a reflection of the availability of bamboo in greater abundance than fronds of the báhi', nípa' and anáhaw palms or the various grasses suitable for thatching (also see Chapter 14, 'Construction and Infrastructure,' Section 8).
    baság split bamboo used for roofing in towns like Paniquian; MA-, -AN or MAG-, PAG--AN to roof a house with split bamboo; MA-, I- or MAG-, IPAG- to use split bamboo for roofing [MDL]
Bintíg is an area of swamp located between Naga City and Milauod (now Milaor). These are adjacent towns, with Milaor situated immediately to the south of Naga City along a meandering stretch of the Bikol River. There are any number of places which could fit this description, but I have not been able to identify the specific place bintíg might refer to.
    bintíg an area of swamp found between Naga and Milauod (Milaor) [MDL]
The mountain range which Lisboa identifies as Tungdól, found between Quipayó and Naga, is difficult to place. Except for a single, dramatically raised area in what is now the barangay Binaliw of Calabanga, there is little significantly raised ground between Naga and Quipayó. Ridges don't appear until one heads to the northeast in the direction of Tinambac (historically included within the bounds of Quipayó), that one crosses the lower ridges of Mt Isarog which would have more likely been the refuge of those who had fled the increasingly Spanish dominated towns.
    Tungdól mountain range located between Quipayó and Nága, home to those who have fled the towns [MDL]
Ponong, referred to as an area where people would fish over a number of nights spent away from home, hiksán, is now a barangay of of Magarao. It is located on the Libmanan River, just below its confluence with the Bikol River, about six kilometres upstream from San Miguel Bay. Fishing still remains a mainstay of the community.[19]
    hiksán MA- or MAG- to spend a number of nights away from home for the purpose of fishing or collecting crabs (bibí); MAG-, -ON to spend these nights fishing for fish or crabs; Paghiksán kitá sa Punóng Let's spend a few days fishing at Punong [MDL]
Kalampínay is referred to by Lisboa as a small town located further on than Ligmanan (now Libmanan), in the direction of Paracale, the coastal gold mining town in Camarines Norte. There are two possible modern locations for the town. Francisco Mallari, in his Muslim Raids in Bikol, 1580-1792, identifies it as a visita of Libmanan which is located at the mouth of the Manga River where it empties into San Miguel Bay. This area is now named Barceloneta and is currently a barangay of Cabusao.[20] A current search of maps identifies Kalampinay (spelled Calampinay) as a small town on the shores of of San Miguel Bay, a barangay of Sipocot, only two kilometres to the north of the Manga River. Considering their locations, the first at a strategic point at the mouth of a river, and the second a small enclave in a more isolated area surrounded by farmland which may not have even existed at the time Lisboa was writing, it is probably the current location of Barceloneta which is intended by the Lisboa entry.
    Kalampínay small town, further on than Ligmanan, in the direction of Paracali [MDL]
Moving further to the north and northwest, in the direction of Manila, is an area which Lisboa refers to as bangán. This is a term which could be applied to any number of areas in the modern provinces of Camarines Norte or Quezon, but I have not been able to find any further information to identify the area more specifically. The identification is complicated by its literary reference, calling into question its actual existence.
    bangán referring to the regions or lands in the direction of Manila; MANG- to travel to that particular area; -AN + -NON: banganánon someone from that region; the term is used most commonly in stories [MDL]
Lisboa also refers to two islands, Tanglád and Tangláw, the first of which is clearly identifiable, the second which is not. Tanglád, also appearing as Tanglar on modern maps, is identified as a small island off the coast of Hinagyanan, mentioned by Lisboa as the island where the residents of Quipayó went to buy their boats. Hinagyanan is no longer identifiable as a town, although a river of the same name empties into San Miguel Bay near this island. The river's name is based on the root hagyán meaning 'step' or 'stair', with the inflected form carrying the meaning 'a place with steps or stairs'. Reference is most likely to the course of the river as it descends from the slopes of Mt Isarog.
    Tanglád small island off Hinagyanan where the people from Quipayó go to get their boats (paráw) [MDL]
Neither the island, Tangláw, indicated as the place where the shellfish kalang-kalangan were found and collected, nor the town of Himoragat appear on modern maps, although the Himogarat River exists and flows into the San Miguel Bay at the port of Sabang in Tinambac. The official website for the Municipality of Tinambac has a quite extensive discussion of the history of the region. Drawing on information contained in a letter from the Alcalde Mayor of the territory (which would have been known at the time as Partido de Camarines), Jose de Eguia, to the Governor General of the Philippines, Rafael Maria de Aguilar, the existence of the Franciscan mission known as Himoragat was recorded as late as 1794. By 1796, however, there was no trace of the town or its inhabitants. This was attributed to the Moslem raids that led to a destruction of the infrastructure and the capture, killing or dispersal of the residents.[21] Although I have not been able to confirm this account with access to the original letter, Francisco Mallari, in 'Camarines Towns Under Siege' makes it very clear that Bikol, and in particular the area of San Miguel Bay, suffered greatly well into the nineteenth century by the depredations of the Moslem raiders from the south.[22]

Norman Owen in 'Problems in Partido: 1741-1810' makes reference to the founding of a town on the northern slopes of Mt Isarog named Himoragat in 1701 by the Franciscan missionary, Fr. Oropesa.[23] This is undoubtedly the town referred to in the letter by Jose de Eguia, but not the town which Lisboa refers to almost 100 years earlier even though it possesses the same name. Considering the destructive nature of the Moslem raids, it is probable that the original town by this name just disappeared, as did the town founded 100 years later. It was common that after such raids the surviving inhabitants would abandon the area for one or two generations, possibly never returning if the memory of the earlier depredations remained unforgotten.
    kalang-kalangan shellfish (typ- edible. found off the island of Tanglaw across from Himoragat [MDL]
The towns of Himoragat, clearly take their name from the river rising on the slopes of Mt Isarog. The name is complex, but is analysable in the following way. The root word here is dágat referring to the open ocean or sea. The change from the intial d to r, dagatragat, occurs when the d appears intervocallically, a change common more in old than modern Bikol. We then have a series of two prefixes, hing- indicating transitional action, and what appears to be the fossilised prefix, pu-, for which a specific meaning has been particularly had to determine.[24] Some of these fossilised affixes are probably remnants of words which have lost much of their original meaning. In the case here, it appears as if pu- may be a remnant form of puró meaning 'rim' or 'edge'. With the application of predictable changes due to assimilation, as well as an unmotivated loss of the final syllable of puró, we end up with the final derivation, himoragat, with the meaning 'approaching the edge of the sea'. The change from u to o is a spelling convention: hing- + puró + dágat → himuró + dágat → himu + rágat → himurágat.
    puró edge, rim; tip; end, (as of a road); NASA at the edge, end; MAGHING-, HING--ON to cut off the end; MAGHING-, HING--AN to cut the end off s/t [+MDL: SA at the tip, end; (PAG-) -AN to come to a point; MAKA- to run along the edge of a net without triggering it (animals); MAHING-, HING--ON or MAGHING-, PAGHING- -ON to cut off the end; MAHING-, HING--AN or MAGHING-, PAGHING--AN to cut the end off s/t]
The Drumstick or Horseradish tree (Moringa oleifera), known in Bikol as kalúnggay, is found widespread not only in the Philippines, but throughout the world. It comes originally from the north of India, Nepal and Pakistan although the names it bears in these areas have little resemblance to the common names in the Philippines.[25] In addition to the Bikol kalúnggay, Tagalog has malunggay and Cebuano kalamunggay and, less commonly, kamalunggay.[26] The closest name in India to those found in the Philippines is in the south, in particular the Tamil, murungai.[27]

The names used in Malaysia and Indonesia also vary greatly, but of interest here is murunggai [28] found in various areas of the Malay peninsula and the Indonesian islands. The introduction of the tree to the Bikol region was clearly within the historical memory of the people living in Quipayó when Lisboa was compiling his dictionary for they referred to such a tree lining their streets as 'from Ternate'.

The Portuguese first reached Ternate in the Moluccas in 1512 and had intermittent contact followed by a weak, extended rule until the later decades of the century.[29] The Spanish arrived in 1521 and until 1545, basing themselves for the most part on the island of Tidore, were in conflict with the Portuguese over control of what was the lucrative trade in spices. In 1545 they surrendered control to the Portuguese. This was a period before they had established themselves in the Philippines.

The Spanish returned to the Moluccas in 1582, sending an expedition from Manila to aid the Portuguese in their fight against the Sultan of Ternate. Things had changed with the Iberian Union in 1580 (lasting until 1640) when both Spain and Portugal were ruled by the Spanish kings.[30] The Spanish were to remain on both Tidore and Ternate until 1663.[31] It is likely that at some point in the late sixteenth century, as it was already established when Lisboa arrived, the kalúnggay tree was brought to the Bikol region. How the particular name for the tree came to be used in Bikol is unclear, although it is closet to the names found in Cebuano to the south.
    kalúnggay drumstick tree (typ- tree containing edible leaves and long, thin, edible seed pods; Moringa oleifera) [+MDL: kalungáy tree (typ- possessing high, delicate branches, and roots which are used as an antidote for poison; many line the streets of Quipayó and are referred to as 'from Ternate')]
The Kamúkon, referred to commonly by the Spanish as the Camucones, receive intermittent mention in many of the early Spanish texts. The islands Lisboa refers to in his entry are identified elsewhere as those which lie between the southern tip of Palawan and the most northerly part of Borneo.[32] An account of 1638, while not mentioning a specific location, does indicate that the Kamúkon inhabited islands which were subject to the rule of the Sultan of Brunei.[33] They are also identified as inhabiting areas along the northeast coast of Borneo.[34]

W.E. Retana in his Diccionario de Filipinismos, equates the Camucón with the Tirón and offers two variants of the latter name: Tidon and Tidong, the last of which is identifiable as the Malay Orang Tedong.[35] Retana, as part of his definition, indicates that these people were Moslems, although this is most likely incorrect. Casamiro Diaz in his 'The Augustinians in the Philippines' mentions that some of them were Moslems, and that others were heathens,[36] but references in texts looking more closely at the situation in Borneo, describe the Orang Tedong as 'barbarian' or 'savage',[37] references which Mallari clearly summarises with the statement: 'The Camucones were not Muslims, but pagans'. [38] The Spanish also recorded conflict between the people of Jolo and the Camucones, although this might not offer definitive proof of a difference of religion.[39]
    Kamúkon referring to the inhabitants of a particular island who have turned to piracy and periodically attack the other islands of the region [MDL]
Different regional groups could also be identified generally by topographic location as well as other striking characteristics such as a particular food which was commonly eaten. The apári, for example, is a white-fleshed yam which was also used to refer to the people who ate it. Presumably, at least some of these people resided in the Bikol region. Additionally, the term is found in Waray with Sánchez de la Rosa defining it as the yam which was eaten in Samar, and most likely in the northern part as the term in Borongan, to the south and east, was different: baribaran.[40]
    apári' yam (typ- white); also used to refer to those who eat this as a staple food [MDL]
While topographic references are usually general, referring to any number of groups residing in a particular type of area, they can become quite specific when we consider who is doing the referencing. People who live along the river may all be called siminálog (see sálog), but speakers will generally have a specific river and a specific group of people in mind when they refer to them in this way.

Similarly, those who live inland from the sea or far from a major river may all be referred to as tinatáhok or timináhok (see táhok) but people living along a particular river or on a particular section of coast, will most commonly have a specific group in mind when they use this reference.

The people of the mountains were referred to as bukídnon (see búkid), and while this may have been a general reference to those living in mountain towns, it could have also been more specifically directed at the Agtá' (see Section 1(ii)), the Negritos, ancestrally associated with such areas. Similarly, the reference for dumágat (see dágat), refers to people who spend most their time at sea making a living from fishing. It is doubtful that Lisboa's reference is to specific groups of Negritos or Agtá', as may generally be assumed, as the derivation of their name may have no relationship to dágat or 'sea'. This is discussed in some detail in Reid.[42]
    sálog river; PANG- fluvial [+MDL: salóg river (large, main); MA- or MAG- to navigate a river; to travel by river; → -IMIN-: siminálog describing those who live along a river]

    táhok inland, the interior; -ON: tináhok people from the interior [+MDL: → -ON or -IMIN- tinatáhok or timináhok people who live in the interior, far from the sea or a major river; MA-, -AN or MAG-, PAG--AN or MAPA-, PA--AN to go into the interior; MA-, -ON or MAG-, PAG--ON or MAPA-, PA--ON to go into the interior for s/t; MA-, I- or MAG-, IPAG- or MAPA-, IPA- to carry s/t into the interior; Táhok an samóng banwá'an Our town is inland (far from the sea)]

    búkid hill, mountain; MA- hilly, mountainous; KA--AN mountainous terrain, range of mountains; bukíd-búkid knoll, small hill [+MDL: gabán nin búkid base of a mountain; taruntóng nin búkid summit of a mountain; → -NON: bukídnon people of the mountains; KA--AN: kabukíran or -AN: bukíran hills, mountains; also towns in the mountains or located in the uplands]

    dágat ocean, sea; KA--AN high seas, open sea; sa dágat marine; ... [+MDL: ... MA- or MAG- to become choppy (the sea or a river when the wind blows); (PAG-)-ON to become seasick; (PAG-)-AN to be affected by a heavy swell (a boat and its crew); MA- a heavy swell; → -UM-: dumágat people who spend most of their time at sea, living on its islands and making a livelihood from fishing ...]

(i) Population
The population of the Bikol region upon the arrival of the Spanish was not large. The total number of inhabitants was determined by counting the individuals living on the encomiendas. These were the estates established by the Spanish and given as a reward to those who were willing to settle newly acquired territory. The encomiendas comprised both the land and its inhabitants (also see Chapter 3, 'Christianity ,' Section 3). G.P. Dasmariñas, writing in 1591, gives a population estimate for the entire Bikol region, including the island of Catanduanes, but excluding Masbate, of between 86,000 and 87,000 people, although, clearly, there were also those who were not under Spanish control and, therefore, not counted.[41] Miguel de Loarca, writing nine years earlier, in 1582, had a more detailed breakdown of population, determining, for example, that the densely populated area around the administrative centre of Nueva Cáceres, which included seven encomiendas of approximately 700 individuals each and one encomienda of 2,000 individuals, had a total population approximately 51,000.[43]

The counting of these individuals was made easier due to their payment of a tax or tribute, given in return for what was expected to be assistance during times of need and protection from outside interference. This was a tax (buhís) that would have been paid to the traditional rulers of the area, but was now collected by the encomendero or the Spanish owner of the estate (also see Chapter 7, 'Money, Weights and Measures,' Section 1(i)).
    buhís MA-, I- or MAG-, IPAG- to pay tribute, tax; MA-, -AN or MAG-, PAG--AN to pay tribute or tax to s/o or to a state; (fig-) Garó na iwinasák an dakól na táwo na nagpanhahánap nin ibubuhís It's as if all of the people are scattered about looking to collect things for their payment of tribute or tax; -AN: bubuhísan the person or state paid tribute; PA--AN the tributary state or town; the person paying tax [MDL]
For the most part, towns (banwá') were small and scattered, either along the coast or with access to a major river or its tributaries (also see Chapter 14, 'Construction and Infrastructure,' Section 1 (i)). The various affix possibilities in the entry below give some sense of what it meant to be part of a town and its culture, and a offers a hint of the difficulties which might arise if one were resident in another town. This will be made clearer in sections which follow.
    banwá' town, country; MAGPA- to go to town; MANG--AN: namamanwá'an citizen, subject; the people of a particular country or region; PANG--AN pamamanwá'an citizenship, nationality; KA-: kababanwá' or KA--AN: kababanwá'an townmate, townsman, fellow countryman, compatriot; -AN town, town proper; nation; nása ibáng banwá'an in another town or country; abroad, overseas [+MDL: ibáng banwá' stranger; s/o from another town; KA- townmate: Bagá na kamó saró kabanwá' It's like you're from the same town (as me); Ibá gayód kabanwá' You're probably from another town; MANG-, PANG--AN to go to another town; MANG-, PANG--ON to go to another town in search of s/t; MANG-, IPANG- to take s/t to another town; HING- a stranger; one who lives in another town MAHING- to be resident in another town; MAGHING- to live in neighboring towns; KAHING- s/o from the same town; MAGKAHING- to be from the same town; PAGHING-: paghirimanwá' being from the same town; PAG- or PAGKA- the sense of conforming to a community's ideals or beliefs (the people of that town): mará'ot an pagbanwá' or mará'ot an pagkabanwá' to be a town where people are unable to work together, not sharing a common set of beliefs; -AN town; MAG--AN: magbinanwa'án to go to live in different towns (two people originally from the same town); MAG--AN, PAG--AN to populate or found a town; MANG--AN, PANG--ON to govern or administer a town; baró-banwá' all towns]
Towns along the coast referred to the location of other towns further inland or upriver as iráya, and those in upriver towns referred to the location of towns further downstream or along the coast as iláwod, and towns even further upstream or further inland as iráya. The prefix i- on these terms is directional. The root of iláwod is clearly, lawód, carrying the meaning of 'the open sea'. This is a term whose cognate forms are found in all of the central Philippine languages.[44] The Proto-Austronesian reconstruction is *lahud.[45]

Iráya appears in identical form in Waray, and the cognate form, ilaya, in Cebuano and Hiligaynon.[46] The prefix is the directional i-.The root word which is reconstructed in Proto-Austronesian as *daya, is not one I have been able to identify in any of the central Philippine languages,[47] although it clearly carries the reconstructed meaning of 'inland' or 'upstream'.
    iláwod the west wind; downstream [MDL: the lower reaches of a town, village; the direction opposite to iráya; MA- or MAG- to go downstream; to go down a trail, down a road; MA-, -ON or MAG-, PAG--ON to go downstream or down a trail for s/t; MA-, I- o MAG-, IPAG- to carry s/t downstream or down a trail]

    lawód the open sea; MAGPA- or MAGHING- to go to sea [+MDL: the deepest part of the sea or river; the high seas; sa lawód nin dágat the deepest part of the sea; sa lawód nin sálog the deepest part of a river; MA-, -AN or MAG-, PAG--AN to go to the deepest part of a river, the sea; MA-, -ON or MAG-, PAG--ON to go to the deepest part to get s/t; MAPA-, PA--ON to go to sea for s/t or for a particular reason; MAPA-, IPA- to carry s/t out to sea; Garó na ginimbál an lawód The sea is being beaten like a drum (Said when the waves are very high)]

    iráya upstream; inland [+MDL: the direction opposite to iláwod; MA- or MAG- to go upstream; MA-, -ON or MAG-, PAG--ON to go upstream for s/t; MA-, I- or MAG-, IPAG- to carry s/t upstream]
Towns which formed natural groups were referred to as magdarapít or pagdarapít (see dapít) and areas where people lived which were far from any town were referred to as sa uláng. Uláng carries the central meaning of 'obstruction' or 'barrier', an indication of the difficulty involved in reaching people who lived in the interior, far from the coast or a major waterway.
    dapít regarding, with regard to, pertaining to ... [+MDL: ... toward, in the vicinity of: dapít sa Nága in the vicinity of Naga; dapít sa itá'as upward; dapít digdí toward here; dapít dumán toward there; dapít sa walá toward the left; Sa'ín dapít? Toward where?; → MAG- magdarapít or PAG-: pagdarapít all the towns in a province, region or locality; KA- that area which is close to another; MAPA-, PA--AN to go toward a particular area or region; MAPA-, IPA- to move s/t toward a particular place; MAKA-, MA--AN to end up near somewhere; to find o/s in a particular locality]

    uláng a bar, barricade, barrier, hurdle; ... [+MDL: MA-, -ON or MAG-, PAG- -ON to impede or obstruct s/o; MA-, I or MAG-, IPAG- to place a particular obstacle in s/o's way; MAKA-, MA- to be an impediment to s/o; to obstruct s/o; PAGKA- an obstruction, impediment to s/o; KA--AN obstruction, impediment; → sa uláng far from a town; in an unpopulated area]
Bikol towns would have had fairly homogeneous populations, When it came to a location where people of differing backgrounds lived, Lisboa used Manila as an example (see saláhan, sápak).
    saláhan used to describe a great variety of food, or a large number of ethnic groups in one place; MAG- to be varied; to be of many varieties or types (food, ethnic groups): ... Nagsaláhan an táwo sa Maníla' There are many different kinds of people in Manila [MDL]

    sápak a grouping of a large number or great variety of different, species, such as the animals on Noah's ark, gold of different carats or qualities, people from different towns or regions; MA--AN to be gathered in a particular place (a great variety or number of people, animals, things); Sápak an mga táwo sa Manila There are many different types of people in Manila; ... [MDL]
The population of a village (dulóhan) would have remained fairly stable with individuals and families, once resident (írok), retaining that residence for much of their lives. As we will see below, there were reasons why people left their towns, reasons such as business, or marriage, or the search for refuge, but for the most part, they stayed home.
    dulóhan the inhabitants of a particular village; MAG-, PAG--AN to govern or rule over a particular municipality; KAG- ruler, the head of a village, town; KA- s/o from the same village [MDL]

    írok MAG-, -AN to dwell; to reside; to settle in or inhabit a particular place; an nagiírok residents, inhabitants; -AN: an iniirókan domicile, habitat, residence, abode [+MDL: irók MA-, -AN: irokán or idkán or MAG-, PAG--AN: pagirokán or pagidkán to live or reside in a particular house or town: Habóng imirók sa Quipayó I don't want to live in Quipayó; -AN: iidkán dwelling, residence; PAG- the habitation of, one's residence in; (fig-) MAG-, PAG--AN to spend a long time at a place where one has been sent; Anó an pagirók mo dumán? Why was it you spent a long time there?]
With a stable and familiar population it was immediately recognisable when there were strangers in town. Knowing where people were from was important, and so this was the question which was asked when meeting a someone new. If one recognised the customs, dress or language of the newcomer, then the question was phrased with tagá: Tagá anó ka? The response would then locate the stranger within a particular known area. When one was not familiar with the language of a newcomer whose customs and dress also were different, then the question asked was anó-ánon: Anó-ánon kamó. To identify people from a particular place, the suffix -non was used; for example, Oasnón the people from Oas, a municipality in the province of Albay, where Lisboa served as administrator in 1605. The question asked when one is simply coming from a particular place without reference to origin, was, and is, gíkan.
    tagá from, indigenous to, native to; to come from: Tagá sa'ín ka? Where are you from?; ... [+MDL: Tagá anó kamó? Where are you from? (asked by s/o who already knows the customs, dress, and language of the person, but only needs to know the specific area of origin); Tagá anó ka? - Tagá Cana'mán Where are you from? - From Cana'mán]

    anó-ánon Where are you from?, asked when one is not familiar with the language, dress or customs of the person being addressed: Anó-ánon kamó? - Katandongánon; Where are you from? - I'm from Catanduanes; ... [MDL]

    -non nominal affix indicating 'the people of': Bikolnón people of the Bikol region; dagatnón sea people [+MDL: Paniquiánon from Paniquian; Hibongánon from Hibongan; Oasnón from Oas; Camalignón from Camalig ...]

    gíkan: gíkan sa coming from, originating from or in; evolving from; MAG- to originate in, come from, evolve from; -AN: an ginikánan origin, source [+MDL: arrivals, those who have arrived: si gíkan sa Maníla' those who have come from Manila; si gíkan sa umá those who have come from the fields; gíkan pa saná digdí to have just left here; MA-, -AN or MAG-, PAG--AN to come from; to be descended from: Sa'ín ka gíkan? - Gíkan akó sa simbáhan Where are you coming from? - I'm coming from church; -AN: ginikánan parentage, descent; (fig-) Maraháy nin gíkan sa umá iníng kakánon This food is good for those coming in from the fields (Implying: There is only good food for those who arrive tired)]
Travellers passing through would have been one of the few sources of outside information. They might have been asked about well-known people whose reputation had reached the inquiring town (bantóg), or they may have simply been questioned about what was happening in the town they had come from (dumangóg). The root word for dumangóg is dangóg with a primary meaning of 'to hear', and a secondary meaning of 'reputation'.
    bantóg -AN distinguished, famous, eminent, ... [+MDL: famous, known in distant parts; MA- to become famous; to have one's fame spread to distant parts; MA- -AN to hear of s/o's fame; to hear about one who has become famous]

    dumangóg MAKI-, PAKI--ON to inquire about recent news brought by a new arrival in town; to find out what is happening elsewhere; MAKI-, PAKI--AN to inquire from newcomers about news which they bring; MAKI-, IPAKI- to ask about s/t in particular; see dangóg [MDL]

(ii) Residency
While one's home village was the preferable place to live, there were occasions when living elsewhere was unavoidable. One such occasion was marriage. Marrying into a family from another town (áyon), would inevitably mean that either the man or the woman would be living in a place where they were not born. As long as the two towns remained at peace, such a couple could go about their lives with little difficulty. When conflict prevailed, however, they had little choice but to remain neutral, favouring neither one side nor the other (luyó-luyó).

There were also specific occasions when a man would marry a woman from another town, and then bring her back to his home to live (tában). The reference for tában in the 1754 edition of the Lisboa is literary. It is a term used in fables or other stories. In the 1865 edition the recorded definition was significantly different, referring to the kidnaping of a woman from another town and carrying her back to one's own. This meaning is closest to that found in Hiligaynon where reference is to the abduction of a woman, boy, or slave. The meaning given by Noceda for Tagalog is 'to elope', expressed as lovers running off together to the mountains, close to the literary meaning in Bikol. Modern Cebuano also has this meaning, although it does not appear in the earlier Encarnacion dictionary.[48]
    áyon MA-, MA--AN to be married in another village or into a family from another town [MDL]

    luyó-luyó MAG- to remain neutral in a conflict between two warring villages (a married couple, each from one of the warring villages, both retaining rights to go to or live in either village) [MDL]

    tában MA-, -ON to marry a woman from another town, and then return with her to one's own town after marriage; MA-, (PAG-)-AN to marry a woman from a particular town; to marry into a particular family; used only in fables and other stories [MDL] [MDL 1865: MA-, -ON to kidnap or abduct a woman and carry her off to one's own town (a man); MA-, (PAG-)-AN to kidnap a woman from a particular place or a particular family]
Lisboa also lists entries which simply state the fact of living in another town, giving no reason why this might have happened (lampóng, daplí'). It was clear that these new residents were recognised as outsiders, and failure to adjust to the norms of their new surroundings may have drawn a comment, particularly if they considered themselves superior, such as that shown in the figurative meaning for salí'ot.
    lampóng MA-, -AN or MAG-, PAG--AN to live in a town where one was not born [MDL]

    daplí' MA-, -AN or MAG-, PAG--AN to live in a town where one is not native; MA-, -ON or MAG-, PAG--ON to live in another town for a particular reason [MDL]

    salí'ot ... [+MDL: MA-, I- or MAG-, IPAG- to add s/t, placing it among other things; to carry s/t through a confined space; MA-, -AN or MAG-, PAG--AN to add to other things by having things slipped in or placed among them; ... → (fig-) Salí'ot ka lámang digdí samó'; iká nang uróg-uróg You're just an addition to us; you who are so proud (Said in reproach to s/o from another town who has no relatives living in the area)]
At other times, one may have moved to another town where they were less known simply to escape the pressures found at home (lá'oy). This might be for a short break, or a sojourn of longer duration (tunínong). There were also individuals who had few attachments to any one town and moved from village to village without taking up residence (lá'ag-lá'ag).
    lá'oy MA-, -AN or MAG-, PAG--AN to go off to another town where one is less known (to escape the pressures of one's own town); to take a break in another town; MA-, -ON or MAG-, PAG--ON to go to another town for a particular reason [MDL]

    tunínong MA-, -AN or MAG-, PAG--AN to stop or live for a while in a particular town or village [MDL]

    lá'ag-lá'ag MA-, -AN or MAG-, PAG--AN to go from town to town without settling or taking up residence; MA-, -ON or MAG-, PAG--ON to travel in this way in search of s/t or for a particular reason [MDL]
In Bikol, balatá' refers to a specific agreement between two people, one who leaves a village for a particular period of time, and another who stays behind. The agreement involves abstinence. The person who leaves the village agrees to refrain from eating particular foods until they return, and the one who is left behind, agrees to eat only particular foods for the same period of time.

Each of the central Philippines languages has this term which is defined with various degrees of specificity. The closest definition to Bikol is in Cebuano where the abstinence continues until the two people who have made the agreement see each other once again. For Hiligaynon, all that is stated is that the agreement is set for a particular period of time. In Waray it is defined simply as an agreement, and in Tagalog as abstinence carried out in remembrance of something. In Cebuano, balatá' is also defined as a type of mourning for the dead. Reference to the dead is the only definition found in Kapampangan where the mourning continues until a death has been avenged. There are clear relationships among these definitions, but whether the term originated with reference to mourning, or simply to abstinence, is not possible to determine.[49]
    balatá' MA-, -AN or MAG-, PAG--AN to make an agreement with s/o who leaves the village that they will not eat a particular food or drink a particular beverage while they are away; MA-, I- or MAG-, IPAG- to make this agreement concerning a particular food or beverage; MAG- to come to such an agreement (two people, the one who leaves agreeing to abstain from eating particular foods, and the one who stays agreeing to eat only particular foods); KA- the person with whom one has such an agreement or promise [MDL]
The return to one's own town could also be delayed, forcing the traveller to find board and lodging until a return could be arranged (tambúbong). This term appears in Waray and Cebuano with reference to a structure erected on small boats and providing temporary shelter.[50]

The form in Bikol is complex, with a root of the form bubóng referring to the covering along the peak or ridge of a roof. That then leaves us with trying to find a meaning for a prefix of the form taN-, something which has not been easy to determine.[51] There are a few other sets in Bikol in which this pattern emerges and the meanings of the affixed and unaffixed forms are arguably related: tambúko / bukó, tangkáway / kawáy, tangkúros / kurós. An examination of the entries in the dictionaries for the other central Philippine languages also indicates that forms such as this are probably the combination of an affix and a root.
    tambúbong referring to those who live in another town, eating and sleeping there while waiting to return to their own town; MA- or MAG- to live on one's own in another town; MA-, -AN or MAG-, PAG--AN to live with the people of another town while waiting to return home [MDL]

    bubóng metal strip covering the seam at the peak and edges of a roof; -AN roof [+MDL: grass (typ- used for covering the ridge or peak of a roof); MA-, -ON or MAG-, PAG--ON to cover the peak of a roof with such grass; -AN: binububóngan the ridge or peak of a roof]
Those who have lived elsewhere or who have travelled for long distances or over a long period of time, eventually return home (lukás). In Cebuano and Hiligaynon, this term has a nautical meaning, relating directly to the lowering of sails and the return of a boat to its home port. In Tagalog reference is to the taking down of the boat's awning which would have served as protection from the sun and rain, something also carried out when returning to port. In Waray and Kapampangan the meanings are more distant, referring to the gathering or loosening of one's clothing, or the untying of a knot.[52]
    lukás MAG-, PAG--AN to return to one's town or village (one who has traveled far or lived away); MAG-, PAG--ON to return to one's village for s/t; MAG-, IPAG- to bring s/t back to one's village after being away [MDL]
Those contemplating a move to another town would have been warned to carefully consider the relationship between their home town and the town where they hoped to reside. A warning such as the following may have been given before a final decision was made: Minsáni mamanwá' ka, kon bakóng sa kalában Whatever town you go to, let it not be one of our enemy's. Such a warning may have gone unheeded, with the result that, for whatever reason, one did end up residing in a town in conflict with one's own (salasá).
    salasá MA-, -AN or MAG-, PAG--AN to go to live in the town of one's enemies or adversaries; MA-, -ON or MAG-, PAG--ON to live in the town of one's enemies for a particular reason [MDL]

(iii) Cooperation and Conflict
Towns, for the most part small with limited populations, had to have ways of using and organising available labour. Informally this would have included situations of mutual reciprocity where the aid offered voluntarily to one group or person would be returned when asked for or required (hunglón). Additionally, there were more formal impositions on one's time or labour which were required for the benefit of the community (tánod).

Of these two terms, hunglón, appears uniquely in Bikol. Tánod, however, while not carrying the sense of required, but unrecompensed, labour, does appear in the other central Philippine languages, conveying the primary meaning of 'guard' or 'sentinel' in Tagalog, Kapampangan and Hiligaynon, and 'servant', in particular one tasked with carrying out some of the heavier duties around the house, in Waray and Cebuano.[53]
    hunglón MAG- to work together; to help one another; to engage in mutual help; MAG-, -ON to work together to help s/o; -AN gathering, meeting, assembly [+MDL: MA-, -ON- to work with s/o; MAG- to work together; to help each other; MAG-, PAG--ON: maghurunglón, paghurunglonón to help s/o (many people helping one); also used to refer to other situations where some reciprocity is exhibited; for example: the payment for s/t in a seller's own currency, ...]

    tánod those delegated or assigned for a particular period of time (weeks, days) to assist with the tasks in the village; MA- or MAG- to take one's turn carrying out the tasks required in a town or village; MA-, -AN: tanóran or MAG-, PAG--AN: pagtanóran to work in a particular area in this way [MDL]
One further term relating to what would have been community service, átag, appears to have been the basis of what the Spanish came to call pólo, a 40 day period of personal service to the community. Only Tagalog has a form cognate to the Bikol and carrying a more specific meaning of 'community service'.[54]
    átag term used to refer to s/o who performs a specific service or duty; MA-, -ON or MAG-, PAG--ON to distribute duties among the Índios; MA-, I- or MAG-, IPAG- to ask that particular services be performed [MDL]

    pólo a 40 day period of personal service to the community required of Filipinos each year during the early Spanish period [PHILIPPINE SPANISH - from TAG- pulong 'meeting', communal gathering']
Cooperation also existed between towns as well as within them, and the entries tápon and sagóp encompass both of these possibilities. Towns of small populations would join together to accomplish tasks where the labour of one town alone was insufficient. These could include cultivating fields, or the manning of boats, very possibly for the purposes of raiding or defense.

Of these two terms, only sagóp appears with a similar meaning in Tagalog. In the other central Philippine languages, tapón carries either the meaning of joining or moving from one place to another, but not the specific reference to mutual aid found in Bikol.[55]
    tapón MAG-, PAG--ON to join together (the crews of two boats, the crew of neither sufficient to man two separate boats; two towns of small populations); MA-, I- to join the smaller of crews or towns with the larger; MA-, -AN to join the larger crew or town with the smaller; to reinforce the manpower of one boat with the crew of another [MDL]

    sagóp MAG- to work together in mutual aid; MAG-, PAG--ON to reinforce the manpower of one group by sending in others to help (in cultivating fields, joining once the task has begun; in the manning of one boat by the crew of two when there are not enough people to man two separate vessels); to join two towns or villages together when each has a small population; MA-, -AN or MAG-, PAG--AN to reinforce a group in carrying out a particular task [MDL]
Conflict, while hopefully avoidable, may also have been an inevitable consequence of people living in close proximity where not all aims were mutual and not all cooperation non-competitive. The interpretation of particular actions as unjust or unwarranted, may have caused enough disquiet among residents to eventually throw a town into chaos or turmoil (risák, ribók). Lisboa gives no specific examples which might have led to such consequences, although differences in status between the wealthy and poor, those advantaged and disadvantaged by the decisions of judges or those showing umbrage at the non-adherence to religious conventions are areas where things could have easily gone wrong. Enough disquiet among enough people could have eventually led to rioting (maló', also see banwá', Section 2(i)).
    risák MA- or MAG- to cause disquiet, turmoil; to bring about chaos or pandemonium in a town (evil doings, misdeeds, injustices); (PAG-)-ON to be thrown into turmoil, chaos, or pandemonium (a town due to misdeeds, injustices); also MAKA-, MA- [MDL]

    ribók noise; clamor ...; MA- noisy, boisterous ...; MA--ON deafening, raucous, rowdy, tumultuous; a furor; MÁGIN MA- to become noisy; MAG-, -AN to disturb s/o with a lot of noise; MAGPA- to make noise; to make a racket or tumult; to make a fuss; KA--AN scuffle, rumble, riot, rampage; unrest [MDL: MA- or MAG- to be in a state of anxiety, excitement or tumult (a town, village); (PAG-)-ON to feel disquiet; to be anxious (people); (PAG-)-AN or MA- -AN to be in a state of tumult (a town); to be the source of disquiet or anxiety]

    maló' MAGKA- to break out in rioting; to experience a riot or disturbance (a town); MAGKA-, PAGKA--AN to riot over a particular event or occurrence ]MDL]
More worrying was the state of either continual or intermittent conflict between towns. These were not peaceful times, and raiding parties would be sent out from one town to attack another, not only for the purposes of plunder, but also for the capture of people who would be brought back to provide needed labour or held for expected ransom (also see Chapter 1, 'War and Conflict,' Section 5).[56]

Conflict could develop in both small and large ways. It could come about through the aggressive behaviour of groups or individuals resident in different towns (buláw). Such behaviour might arise from the stealing of wives, the mistreatment of those who had come peacefully to trade, or the killing of an individual of one town by the resident of another (budhí').[57]

Budhí' is a borrowing from Sanskrit whose meaning has undergone a complete transformation. The Sanskrit root, budh, carries the meanings of 'learning', 'knowledge' and 'understanding'.[58] This was borrowed into Malay as budi preserving much or the original meaning: 'intelligence', 'sense', 'kindness', 'character'.[59] While it is common for the central Philippine languages to have borrowings from Malay, in this case there may have another source. The Philippine languages preserve the h in budhí' where it is not present in the Malay. The addition of an h in such a position is not something which normally happens in the Philippines. As for the meaning, in Waray and Cebuano budhí' is defined as 'traitor'. In the modern Tagalog dictionary of Fr. English, the meaning conforms to the original Sanskrit, with definitions of 'conscience' and 'intuition'. In the older Noceda dictionary there is no headword entry for budhí' although it does appear in examples associated with other entries. The meanings given in two different contexts are contradictory. One of these approaches the modern definition, carrying the meanings 'moderation' and 'temperance'. The second, 'deceitful', parallels the meanings in Waray and Cebuano.[60] The changed meaning in the Philippines may have something to do with the raids, primarily Moslem, from the south and the way the term may have been used by those participating in such raids.
    buláw MA-, -ON or MAG-, PAG--ON to pick a fight with the men of another town; to pick a fight with the children of another barrio; to test the mettle of those in another town; MA-, -AN or MAG-, PAG--AN to pick a quarrel with some men from among a group; to pick a fight with those from a particular town or area; MA- describing one who bears a grudge or is quarrelsome and ready to pick a fight [MDL]

    budhí' MA-, -AN or MAG-, PAG--AN to kill s/o from another town [MDL]
The terms of a larger scale conflict would have been applicable to raids which originated from outside the region as well as to those which occurred between regional towns. These would have included the raids which targeted the coastal towns and resulted in various levels of devastation and loss (áyaw). Other terms were more neutral as to where they occurred, but the likelihood is that they, too, would have referred to attacks on towns along the coast or inland on a major river as this is where they were located.[61] Offensive attacks (dúngas) would have been carried out on the territory of an adversarial town, and, depending of the intent, could result in the defeat and submission of the entire town (gúbat)

Of the central Philippine languages, all but Kapampangan define gúbat in similar ways to Bikol, and Cebuano and Hiligaynon have similar meanings for áyaw.[62]
    áyaw MANG-, PANG--ON or MAGPANG-, PAGPANG--ON to engage in piracy; to rob, pillage or plunder towns along the coast; MANG-, PANG--AN or MAGPANG-, PAGPANG--AN to attack or raid coastal towns; MANG-, IPANG- or MAGPANG-, IPAGPANG- to carry particular arms in raiding coastal towns [MDL]

    dúngas MA-, -ON or MAG-, PAG--ON to attack one's enemies on their own territory or in their own town; MA-, -AN or MAG-, PAG--AN to attack the town or territory of one's enemies; MA-, I- or MAG-, IPAG- to use particular weapons in such an attack [MDL]

    gúbat MA-, -ON to conquer or subdue a particular people; MA-, -AN to conquer a particular place; MANG- to embark on a war of conquest; MANG-, PANG--ON to go from town to town, attacking and conquering the inhabitants [MDL]

Towns, no matter how independent they wished to be, needed each other not only to supplement labour and aid in defense, but also to obtain the goods and foodstuffs that were not available locally. The inhabitants of coastal towns that made a living by fishing, needed the agricultural resources of the upstream communities for the rice or millet that they did not grow. For this they bartered their fish.[63]

Inter-village conflict was often kept at bay simply because of the trade relations that existed between communities that had access to different types of products. From the coastal villages came not only fish and salt, but also items such as jars and dishes, making their way from locations outside the Philippines. As for the upstream and upland communities, they supplied, in addition to the rice on which the coastal communities depended, other agricultural commodities as well as the material needed for the weaving of their cloth.[64]

The calmer, inland waters separating the islands were conducive to a type of inter-island trade carried on boats driven by sail and oar and stabilised by beams or spars serving as outriggers. While these ships might not have survived transit on the open sea, they endured the inter-island seas well in the transport of dried fish, salt, wax, cotton, coconuts, and other basic and sought after items.[65] Large and well-populated islands, such as Catanduanes, where most of the inhabitants were engaged in agriculture, also had those who occupied themselves with coastal trade, to nearby Luzon and the adjacent offshore islands.[66]

Trade, particularly in foodstuffs, also served another purpose; it bolstered diminishing supplies and gave surety to communities where surpluses were low or non-existent. Dasmariñas in 1592, writing of a potential threat to coastal communities by the Japanese, encouraged residents in such areas to move inland and start planting crops on available land. He reasoned that if the Japanese were successful in dominating the coastal areas, inter-island trade would cease or be severely disrupted, leading to a shortage of food.[67]

International trade existed long before the Spanish arrived and sought the goods that they would later tranship to Spain via Mexico. Legazpi describes the annual trade which was carried out by the Chinese and Japanese on the islands of Mindoro and Luzon in 1568, before the Spanish had moved north to Manila from their base in Cebu. Among the items traded were cotton cloth, silks, gongs, perfumes, and items of porcelain, tin and iron which were exchanged for gold and wax. These items were then sold on by local traders to other areas in the Philippines.[68]

As the Spanish rule in the Philippines became more widespread and more secure, Chinese trade to the islands began to increase. More ships and more traders began to arrive, and to arrive earlier in the year. The nature of the goods they brought to trade also began to change, with a greater variety of goods of higher value and quality which would previously have been carried to be sold in the markets of Malacca.[69]

When traders from China and Macao arrived late in the season and were unable to travel as far south as Manila, they would find a safe anchorage along the Ilocos coast in the northern part of the country. There they would unload their goods which would be acquired by traders both local and distant. The traders from Manila would then transport their goods on vessels propelled south by the prevailing wind once there was a change in season.[70] The Bikol entry du'óng captures a number of aspects of this trade and transport.
    du'óng MAG- to dock, drop anchor; MAG-, -AN to dock at a particular port; MAG-, I- to bring a ship, boat into port; MAGPA-, PA--ON to dock or anchor a boat; -AN harbor, port [+MDL: dú'ong MA- or MAG- to make port; to dock; MA-, -AN or MAG-, PAG--AN to make a particular port; MA-, I- or MAG-, IPAG- to bring a boat into port; to bring merchandise into a port; -UM- dumurú'óng outside merchants, traders; -AN: duru'ngán or dudu'ngán port, harbor]
Once goods had reached a local area, it was up to the various local merchants to move them on, both within a town, and from town to town. These traders were clearly both men and women as the entry for mámat shows. Here a woman who is pregnant, or accompanied by a small child, continues to sell merchandise from town to town, indicating hers was a significant contribution to the family's income. Francisco Colin specifically mentions that women were often more astute at trading than men and would frequently accompany their husbands on business trips.[71]
    mámat MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to breed animals; to raise animals for breeding; MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to feed s/t to animals raised for breeding; (fig‑) Kamamamátan ka man saná kainíng halyáw mo You're bred to your merchandise (Said when a woman who is pregnant or accompanied by a small child continues peddling goods from town to town) [+MDL]
Lisboa has a variety of entries which applied to such merchants, and while the origin of such terms was clearly different, their intent was much the same.

Bayabáy referred to the carriage of goods brought along for sale on one's travels. The only other central Philippines language showing this term is Tagalog where the meaning was 'to wander from town to town' implying a person had no place to call home.[72] As for the sale both within and outside one's town, halyáw was one of the terms which conveyed this meaning. The entry is built on the more general root lúyaw referring to travel for the purpose of getting something, or taking something to another location. The prefix ha- had a wider meaning during Lisboa's time, also referring to direction.
    bayabáy MA-, I- or MAG-, IPAG- to carry goods or merchandise from town to town, selling it as one travels; MA-, -AN or MAG-, PAG--AN to sell such merchandise to s/o; to sell goods in a particular town or along a particular stretch of road [MDL]

    halyáw merchant; goods, merchandise; MA-, -AN or MAG-, PAG--AN to travel to other towns to sell goods; to move about one's own town selling goods; MA-, I- or MAG-, IPAG- to sell things, traveling from place to place [MDL]

    lúyaw MA- or MAG- to travel; MA-, -ON or MAG-, PAG--ON to travel to get s/t or for a particular reason; MA-, -AN or MAG-, PAG--AN to travel to a particular town, area; MA-, I- or MAG-, IPAG- to carry s/t to another town or area when traveling [MDL]
Karákal, or its cognates, is the common term throughout the central Philippine languages for 'trade' or 'commerce'. In Tagalog and Kapampangan we probably come closer to the original meaning of the term, the 'small sticks used for counting'. Tagalog, also, clearly has the root form, lakal, which Noceda defines as 'a bunch of counting sticks'.[73]
    karákal MAG-to travel from place to place for purposes of trade; MAG-, PAG--AN to trade in a particular place; MAG-, IPAG- to trade or deal in particular items; to seek particular business deals or contractual arrangements [MDL]
Balidyá' or its synonym, baligyá', appears in all of the central Philippine languages, except for Kapampangan, with the nominal meaning of merchant, and the verbal meaning 'to hawk' or 'to peddle goods'. The meaning is narrowest in Hiligaynon where reference is to the transport by water of food items such as rice, pigs and chickens to be on-sold elsewhere. Examining the term more closely, first as it appears in various editions of the Noceda Tagalog dictionary, and then returning to Bikol, it is possible to discern a less than positive origin for the term.

In both the 1754 and 1860 editions of the Noceda dictionary, balidya is defined as 'to engage in trade in distant lands'. The index to both of these editions has quite a different reference: tratar sobre falso which can mean 'to deal in fake items' or 'to trade deceptively'. In the 1832 edition of the dictionary this becomes the only definition offered: trato ó mercansía sobre falso 'fake or false items of trade'.[74]

Returning now to Bikol, if we look closely at balidyá' we see that it can be treated as a compound comprising the roots báli and dáya' which have independent meaning. In the case of báli Lisboa lists only the reduplicated form, báli-báli which nominally means 'liar' or 'trickster' and verbally 'to fool' or 'to deceive'. As for dáya', nominally we have 'deceit' or 'fraud', and verbally 'to deceive' or 'to defraud'. It appears as if trade with distant lands did not begin as a positive exercise, but one that resulted in goods that were not what they originally seemed.
    balidyá' hawker, street merchant; MAG- to travel from village to village selling wares; MAG-, I- to peddle or hawk a particular item; MAG-, -AN to travel to particular places for this purpose; to sell goods to particular people; PARA- peddler, hawker, vendor [+MDL: MA-, I- or MAG-, IPAG- to peddle goods from town to town; MA-, -AN or MAG-, PAG--AN to travel from town to town selling goods; to sell goods to people as one travels] var- baligyá'

    báli-báli MA-: mabáli-báling táwo a liar, trickster, con-artist; MAG- to lie or make excuses for not doing s/t; MAG-, PAG--AN to fool or deceive s/o; to play a trick on s/o; to lie to or make excuses to s/o; MAG-, IPAG- to use s/t as a deception or an excuse; to lie about s/t or lie for a particular reason [MDL]

    dáya' deceit, guile; MA- dishonest, deceitful, two-faced; MAG-, -ON to cheat s/o; to dupe, fool, gyp or hoodwink s/o; to beguile, deceive or delude s/o; to inveigle s/t; MAKA-, MA- to get cheated, duped; PARA- cheater, imposter [+MDL: MA-, -AN or MAG-, PAG--AN to defraud or cheat s/o; MA-, I- or MAG-, IPAG- to use a particular trick or guise in cheating]
Láko' is another trading term in Bikol, this one found only in the central Philippine languages to the north, that is Tagalog and Kapampangan, and possibly borrowed from the former. Ultimately it may have come from Malay where it has a wide range of meanings. Relevant to trade are the meanings referring to the validity of money, both paper and coin, and the saleability or profitability of items of trade. While the meaning in Kapampangan was eventually broadened to refer to all items of trade, it did not start out that way. It originally referred only to items which were meant to deceive, those whose underlying value had little relationship to their visual appearance. And so, again, we have a negative reference to trade, and, if the term is indeed a borrowing, then it would be trade with the world outside the Philippines.[75]
    láko' goods or merchandise which are peddled or sold on the road: Anón (Anó an) láko' nindó? What goods are you peddling?; MA-, -ON or MAG-, PAG--ON to peddle goods; to sell goods or merchandise on the road; to travel with goods for sale; MA-, -AN or MAG-, PAG--AN to bring goods to a particular place for sale; MA-, I- or MAG-, IPAG- to sell particular goods on the road; PARA- traveling salesman, merchant, peddler [MDL]
Another borrowing from Malay with an origin in Sanskrit is banayága, a meaning narrowed in Bikol to refer only to the trade in items of food. The fully affixed form in Malay is berniaga carrying the general meaning 'to trade' and the ultimate source is the Sanskrit nigama 'trade'.[76] Of the central Philippine languages, only Tagalog has the similar form, banyaga, which has two different, though related meanings: to travel from town to town, residing in none, or to travel with a small bench on which one sets out small items for sale.[77]
    banayága food merchant; MA-, I- or MAG-, IPAG- to transport food to different towns and villages for sale; MA-, -AN or MAG-, PAG--AN to travel to different towns and villages to sell food [MDL] [MALAY berniaga 'to be in business', 'to trade', from SANSKRIT nigama 'trade']
When someone had items to sell, but was not free to travel to other areas to accomplish such a sale, they might enter into an agreement with a person who was able to travel (bungtó'). In this type of business arrangement, which Lisboa describes as already dated at the time he was in the region, the person willing to transport the goods is initially paid for such a service. Additionally he or she is also promised a percentage of the profit once the goods are sold.
    bungtó' (arc-) a trading or business agreement in which an initial payment is made to a person employed to transport goods, this person also receiving a portion of the profit after the goods are sold; MAG- to enter into such an agreement (two people); MAG-, PAG--AN to enter into such an agreement for the transport of particular goods; MA-, -AN to enter into such an agreement with a particular person; MA-, I- to give a particular sum to secure such an agreement [MDL]
A trader arriving in a town with goods to sell, may not have to spend a great deal of time looking for customers. If the goods are well chosen, they may be approached and made an offer by a local resident for one or more of the items they have for sale (tampíl). This may be in form of a barter arrangement, or a monetary exchange.
    tampíl MA-, -AN to ask a merchant, or one who has come from another town, if they would be willing to sell you s/t; MA-, -ON to ask about the sale of s/t; MA-, I- to offer a particular price or s/t in exchange for an item you want to buy; MAG-, PAG--AN to ask if s/o wants to buy s/t; MAG-, IPAG- to offer s/t for sale (a merchant or one who has come from another town) [MDL]
The final term in this set is baríwas, carrying, in modern Bikol, the general meaning of establishing a trade in particular items. The term appears in all of the central Philippine languages, with the exception of Cebuano, with the more specific meaning of buying and selling, in other words, the purchase and resale of goods. Lisboa's definition for old Bikol is somewhat different, referring to the sale of one's own possessions or property with the intention of achieving the highest possible price.[78]
    baríwas MAG-, I- to hawk or peddle goods; to establish a trade in particular items; MAG-, -AN to trade with s/o; to sell to s/o [MDL: MA-, -ON or MAG-, PAG--ON to negotiate a trade of one's possessions or property, hoping to enhance one's own economic position; Bakó' nang babariwáson na buláwan Fine quality gold (Indicating that one does not have to enter into negotiations to sell it); MA-, -AN or MAG-, PAG--AN to enter into trading deals or negotiations with s/o; MA-: mabaríwas na táwo a tough businessman; a hard bargainer; Abóng baríwas ni kuyán That person is some businessman]

(i) Dangers, Companions and Guides
Travel was never easy, whether by boat over longer distances, or on foot following the trails that led to closer destinations. Towns were often in conflict and individuals, stripped of the security of their home surroundings, were open to varying degrees of attack. This could come from known enemies, or from highwaymen who lay in wait on a deserted stretch of road anticipating the arrival of an unwary traveller (líbon). There were also natural predators such as crocodiles, whose attacks could be avoided by carefully negotiating the way safely through areas where they were known to be found (liwás). Fear of the unknown and a concern for one's security could lead a person to abort a journey already in progress or just decide not to go (hurób).
    líbon MA-, -ON or MAG-, PAG--ON to attack and kill s/o along a deserted stretch of road; to steal chickens, pigs; MA-, -AN or MAG-, PAG--AN to carry out an attack along a particular stretch of road; to steal s/o's pigs, chickens; PARA- highwayman; robber of pigs, chickens [MDL]

    liwás MAKA-, MA--AN to successfully pass through a place known for its dangers (such as crossing a river where crocodiles are usually found); to pass safely through such an area [MDL]

    hurób MA-, -AN or MAG-, PAG--AN to not proceed with what one is doing; to not continue on to where one was going (because of fear or due to changing one's mind) [MDL]
Considering the dangers, it was not unusual for a traveller to seek company, trying their best to convince someone to accompany them to a particular destination (dára). For an entry such as lúngon, the central meaning appears to be the pairing of individuals, whether they shared a house, or they shared a journey.
    dará MAKA- cogent, compelling, convincing; to sway (as s/o's opinion); ... [+MDL: dára MA-, -ON or MAG-, PAG--ON to convince s/o to accompany you; MA-, -AN or MAG-, PAG--AN to prevail on s/o to go with you to a particular place; ... also see dumará]

    lúngon MA-, -ON or MAG-, PAG--ON to live in s/o else's house; to travel with s/o from that house; MA-, -AN or MAG-, PAG--AN to live in the house of another; MAG- or MAGKA- to live together in one house; to travel together with s/o from the same house; MAG-, PAG--ON to ask that two people live together, or ask that two people from the same house travel together; MAG-, PAG--AN to live in a particular house together; to travel together to a particular destination ... [MDL]
Movement through areas of tall grass or dense forest (tára'), or across any distance of unfamiliar territory, could also cause travellers to lose their way, heading in the wrong direction, setting off on the wrong trail (lagálag, sági'), or simply moving too far beyond their intended destination (lagbás).
    tára' MA-, -AN or MAG-, PAG--AN to make one's way through an area of tall grass, thick growth or dense forest; ... MAKA-, MA--AN to find s/t in an opening in a thicket or area of dense growth [MDL]

    lagálag astray, off course; ... [+MDL: MA-, -AN or MAG-, PAG--AN to take the wrong trail; to go the wrong way; MA-, -ON or MAG-, PAG--ON to go astray while on the way to get s/t; MA- to lose one's way; to go astray; MA--AN to end up on the wrong trail]

    sági' MA-, -AN or MAG-, PAG--AN to take the wrong road; to go astray; ... MA-, I- or MAG-, IPAG- to mislead s/o (causing them to take the wrong road); ... [MDL]

    lagbás MAG-, -AN to pass s/t by; to go too far beyond s/t; to overshoot a particular destination; MAKA-, MA--AN to go too far beyond; ... [+MDL: MA- or MAG- to pass by; MA-, -AN or MAG-, PAG--AN to pass by a particular place; MA-, -ON or MAG-, PAG--ON to pass by to get s/t ...]
To counter these problems, travellers would find a guide familiar with the route. These guides could accompany a traveller for the entire journey (kanuró', dumará), or possibly just set them on the right route when they had gone wrong (ngúrang).

These are complex entries, and finding a root for some of them has proven difficult. For dumará the root is clearly dará, basically meaning 'to bring' or 'carry' and figuratively 'to convince' (see above). As for kanuró, there is no clear root form in Bikol. If we look at Tagalog, however, the root form is clear: turó' with an alternate listing in the Noceda dictionary of nuró', meaning 'to point s/t out'. Ka- is a nominal prefix occurring in both Tagalog and Bikol and carrying the meaning of 'companion' in both languages. The term, meaning 'the person who goes with you to point s/t out' may have been borrowed in its entirety by Bikol speakers from Tagalog.[79]
    kanuró' trail guide; MA-, -AN or MAG-, PAG--AN or MANG-, PANG--AN to guide s/o to or along the correct trail; MA-, I- or MAG-, IPAG- or MANG-, IPANG- to go in search of s/t with a guide [MDL]

    ka- nominal and verbal affix, accompanied action, infinitive-command form: BASE úlay:kaúlay the person one talks to ...[+MDL: kauríg the person you raise pigs with; kapudóng the person wearing the same head covering as you; kamatá the person with the same type of eyes as you; katábang helper; kaibá companion; kaíwal enemy]

    dumará MAG-, PAG--ON to guide or lead others (as on a trail, taking one's place in front of those one is guiding); MAG, PAG--AN to guide others to a particular place; ... [MDL]

    ngúrang MANG-, PANG--AN or MAGPANG-, PAGPANG--AN to serve as a guide to s/o; MANG-, IPANG- or MAGPANG-, IPAGPANG- to point out a particular trail or way; MAPA- to ask the way; PARAPANG- a guide [MDL]

(ii) Motivation
Although travel was generally undertaken for particular purposes, it could also be accomplished simply out of a desire to explore the unknown (mumu'ágos), heading to a distant location without a particular plan or purpose, (labútaw), or to a destination that had never been visited, or one that had not been visited for a long time (gáboy).
    mumu'ágos MA-, -ON or MAG-, PAG--ON to like to travel; MA-, -AN or MAG-, PAG--AN to want to travel to a particular destination; to want to go to another town [MDL]

    labútaw MA- or MAG- to travel a long distance for no particular reason; MA-, -AN or MAG-, PAG--AN to travel to a far away place having no plan or particular aim; Malabútaw ka dumán sa harayó'? Are you going off to a far away place?; Anó daw ta' liminabútaw akó digdí? How is it that I ended up here, so far away? ... [MDL]

    gáboy MA-, -AN or MAG-, PAG--AN to go to a town or a place where one has never been or which one hasn't visited in a long time; to go out of the house for the first time after a long illness; MA-, -ON or MAG- PAG--ON to go to get s/t from such a place; MA-, I- or MAG-, IPAG- to take s/t to such a place; Da'í pa máyo' akó nagáboy kaiyán banwá'an na iyán I have still not gone to that town; ... [MDL]
Travel could also be undertaken to join others for various social occasions, for celebrations, for family gatherings, or for particular activities such as hunting or fishing (tulóy), or simply to pick something up or drop something off (riríhaw).
    tulóy MA-, -AN or MAG-, PAG--AN to go somewhere to join others who are already there in order to do s/t together; MA-, -ON or MAG-, PAG--ON to join others to carry out a particular task ...: Tutuloyón ko si kuyán dumán sa Quipayó'; manginginá'on (nginá'on) I'll be joining that person in Quipayó'; we'll be going fishing ... [MDL]

    riríhaw MA-, -AN or MAG-, PAG--AN to go to a particular place; MA-, -ON or MAG-, PAG--ON to go somewhere to get s/t; MA-, I- or MAG-, IPAG- to take s/t somewhere; syn- labáy [MDL]
An agreement to meet along a particular route at a particular time and continue on a journey together could easily go wrong when the times were not properly coordinated and the trails taken different (taplís). Missing someone along a trail, or not finding them upon arrival, would make the whole journey futile, resulting in an unsatisfactory return (talíwan).
    taplís MAGKA--AN to miss one another; to pass one another without meeting; MAG-, -AN or MA+KA- to pass s/o without meeting ... [+MDL: MAGKA- to pass one another without meeting (as when taking different routes); MA-, -ON to pass s/o without meeting; MAG-, PAG--ON to pass one another by without meeting]

    talíwan MA- or MAG- to leave, having been unable to meet the person you came to see; MA-, -AN or MAG-, PAG--AN to not meet up with s/o as expected; to miss s/o you came to see; MAGKA- to take different routes and not meet; to travel by different routes [MDL]
Of the specific reasons to travel, a lack of food in one's town or wider area of residence could send someone on a search that might take them significant distances away (rapárap). The destruction caused the wind and water of regional typhoons was usually widespread. Above-ground crops were flattened and once the fruits and vegetables became available due to this untimely harvest, they had to be consumed. When these were gone, they needed to be replaced, sending someone on a distant search for food.
    rapárap MA-, IKA- or MAGKA-, IPAGKA- to wander far and wide in search of food, other items; to travel a long way to get food; MA-, MA--AN or MAGKA-, PAGKA--AN to wander far and wide over a particular area [MDL]
There were also other, less specific occasions when a search was warranted, leading into the forest or up into mountains (tagháp), looking for items not available at home, or for items which had previously been hidden there (tapók).
    tagháp MA-, -ON or MAG-, PAG--ON to go on a search for s/t that takes one out of town or into the forest or mountains; MA-, -AN or MAG-, PAG--AN to search a particular area in this way; MAKA-, MA--AN to come across s/t on such a search; ... [MDL]

    tapók MA-, I- or MAG-, IPAG- to store, keep or hide s/t out of town (in the fields, forest); to take s/t out of town for hiding; MA-, -AN or MAG-, PAG--AN to store or hide s/t in a particular location out of town [MDL]
A lack of employment opportunities at home, could send someone on an extended journey from town to town picking up work wherever it could be found (báro-báro, riwás-díwas). Harvesting times could vary depending on the type of rice planted and the location of the planting. Assistance could also be required in the gathering of abaca plants and the extraction of fibres or the construction of houses and fences. A skilled tradesman might also travel from town to town offering his skills to communities where they may be needed (laˈog).
    báro-báro MA-, -AN or MAG-, PAG--AN to make one's living by going from place to place picking up odd jobs; MA-, -ON or MAG-, PAG--ON to obtain one's needs by picking up odd jobs here and there ... [MDL]

    riwás-díwas MAPA-, PA--ON or MAGPA-, PAGPA--ON to earn one's living by going from place to place doing odd jobs; MAPA-, PA--AN or MAGPA-, PAGPA--AN to go from place to place looking for work; to do particular odd jobs to sustain o/s; nagpapariwás-díwas nin pagkakán going from place to place looking for food; MAPA-: mapariwás-díwas na táwo a sponger; one without regular employment who moves about getting just enough to sustain himself ... [MDL]

    laˈog a silversmith or jeweler who travels from town to town in search of work; MAG‑, PAG‑ ‑AN to travel to or stay in another town far from one's own (a silversmith, jeweler); MAG‑, IPAG‑ to carry one's tools when traveling from town to town [MDL]
There were also medical reasons to be on the move from place to place, with the desperate search for a cure to a serious and possibly terminal illness (hiwás). Each town had its own balyán, or religious leader. Each of these would no doubt have had varying approaches to ritual cures and varying mixtures of herbal medicines (liswág, also see Chapter 2, 'Food ,' Section 4). Reputations would also probably differ, with some renown for providing life-saving remedies. The hope that such cures may have offered the sick or dying would have provided the motivation for travel.
    hiwás MAG- to be worried, distressed, tormented desperate (one who is dying); MAG-, PAG--AN to travel from place to place in search of a cure for one's terminal illness; MAG-, PAG--ON to search for a cure by traveling from place to place [MDL]

    liswág MA‑, ‑AN or MAPA‑, PA‑‑AN or MAGPA‑, PAGPA‑‑AN to look for a remedy or cure (in a particular place, from a particular person or by analyzing a particular substance); MA‑, I‑ or MAPA‑, IPA‑ or MAGPA‑, IPAGPA to look for a cure or remedy for a particular ailment ... [MDL]

(iii) Provisions
When travel involved movement over longer distances, travellers had to also have a way of carrying belongings and a supply of food. Their belonging were carried in a bag or sack made from netting (kadáy), and rice in a pouch made from the fronds of burí palm (lupi'ón).
    kadáy a bag or sack made of netting, used to carry one's belongings when traveling [MDL]

    lupi'ón a pouch or bag made from the leaves of the burí palm, used for carrying rice when traveling; also lulupi'ón [MDL]
Clearly, when travel was by boat a greater amount of food and supplies could be carried than when travel was overland on foot. A term that has changed little over the centuries is bálon, the food which is carried from home and eaten outside the house, whether in the fields when attending to the crops, or when on a journey. Lulúto', based on the route lúto' 'to cook', also has the same reference, but it is far more limited and has not carried its meaning into modern Bikol.
    bálon MAG-, -ON to take food from home which is later eaten outside of the house (as on a picnic, on a trip, when working in the fields) ... [+MDL stores of food or money taken on a trip; MA-, -ON or MAG-, PAG--ON to carry such stores or provisions; MA-, -AN or MAG-, PAG--AN to carry such provisions along a particular route or to a particular destination; MAPA-, PA--AN to provision s/o with food or money for a trip; MAPA-, IPA- to send provisions with s/o on a trip; -AN: an binalónan one's store of money or food; MAHING- to be depleted (stores, provisions); MAHING--AN to be left without provisions (as the crew of a ship); MAKAHING- to cause the depletion of stores, provisions]

    lulúto' food which is brought on a trip; see lúto' [MDL]
Not all the food that was needed could be carried, particularly when on foot on an extended journey. In such a case, a traveller would also carry a pot, which could be hung from a tripod of three stakes driven into the ground. The stakes, presumably, could be acquired anywhere along the trail.
    balítang tripod consisting of three stakes driven into the ground and serving as a holder for a pot when cooking [+MDL: used for cooking when in the fields or on the trail; MA-, -ON or MAG-, PAG--ON to arrange poles, stakes for this purpose]

(iv) Departures
Departure on a trip required preparation, the packing of food. clothing, and whatever had to be delivered if that was the purpose of the travel (gína-gína, humáli'). Before leaving, travellers would be offered a drink (tulíd), most probably alcoholic and made from a distillate of coconut sap, rice or sugarcane juice, depending of the region and availability (see Chapter 2, 'Food ,' Section 1). When such rituals were completed, travellers would be accompanied to the roadside to wish them farewell (patnúgot) or out of politeness to show them the way (tulwá). Once this was completed, they would be off (tubó').

Humáli' is clearly an affixed form of the root háli' 'to leave', the infix -UM-, now frozen in modern Bikol into alternative command structures, had a wider, though still limited, representation in the Lisboa dictionary. Patnúgot is also found in Tagalog and Kapampangan.[80] The root word here is most likely túgot 'to permit' or 'to allow'. The form we need is closely related to matinúgot defined by Lisboa as 'one who easily agrees or gives permission'. If we add the from patinúgot, not shown by Lisboa, but carrying the meaning 'the person who was given permission', we come closest to patnúgot, the unstressed i being lost.
    gína-gína MA- or MAG- to prepare to leave; to be about to leave on a trip; MA-, -ON or MAG-, PAG--ON to prepare things for departure; to pack for a trip; MA-, -AN or MAG-, PAG--AN to prepare to leave for a particular place [MDL]

    humáli' MA- or MAG- to be ready to leave; to be about to depart; MA-, -AN or MAG-, PAG--AN to be about to leave for a particular destination; MA-, -ON or MAG-, PAG--ON to be ready to leave to get s/t or for a particular reason [MDL]

    tulíd MAPA-, PA--ON or MAGPA-, PAGPA--ON to give those who are about to leave town a farewell drink; MAPA-, IPA- or MAGPA-, IPAGPA- to offer food or drink to those about to depart [MDL]

    patnúgot MA-, -ON or MAG-, PAG--ON to accompany s/o who is leaving for the purpose of wishing them farewell; to see s/o off on a trip [MDL]

    túgot permission; DA'Í forbidden, prohibited ... [+MDL: MA-, -AN or MAG-, PAG--AN to give s/o permission; MA-, I- or MAG-, IPAG- to allow s/o to do s/t; MA- + -IN-: matinúgot one who easily gives permission or consent, or agrees to give what has been requested ]

    tulwá MA-, I- or MAG-, IPAG- to accompany s/o to the road out of courtesy or in order to show them the way [MDL]

    tubó' MAPA- or MAGPA- to be on one's way; to set off on a trip; MAPA-, PA- -AN or MAGPA-, PAGPA--AN to be on one's way somewhere; to be off on a trip to somewhere; MAPA-, PA--ON or MAGPA-, PAGPA--ON to be on one's way to get s/t; Da'í pa kamí nakahápit ta' patubó' kamí We still can't stop for a visit because we're on our way somewhere [MDL]
Travel over longer distances would be undertaken by boat, if this was at all possible. River systems were extensive, and where the land was relatively flat, navigation would be comparatively easy. Where towns lay on higher land, enfolded in the mountains, or along the upper reaches of rivers which flowed in narrow ravines with recurrent cataracts, travel would be by foot. The Bikol entry, bakláy, is fairly neutral in its description of overland travel, but the entries in Tagalog and Hiligaynon make it clear that this type of journey was difficult, involving the climbing and descent of mountains. The other central Philippine language where this entry appears is Cebuano where the meaning is different. Here it refers to walking, following the shoreline.[81]
    bakláy MAG- to walk a long distance; ... [MDL: MA- or MAG- to go via land; MA-, -ON or MAG-, PAG--ON to travel overland to get s/t or for a particular reason; MA-, -AN or MAG-, PAG--AN to travel over a particular route; MA-, I- or MAG-, IPAG- to carry s/t overland]
Departures could be at any time, the underlying reason possibly being how long the journey would be and how far the destination. A departure at dawn (bubulát) may indicate that the journey would be just for the day (sagúli') and the total distance rather short (dagsáy).

Bubulát shares the same root as the reduplicated bulát-bulát, a light-hearted term referring to people who are momentarily unaware of what is going on around them. The reference may be to the way one feels when getting up early in the morning to start out on a trip.

The root of sagúli' is clearly ulí' 'to return home' or 'to return to a particular place'. The prefix sa- is explainable as indicating location. What is not so easy to explain is the addition of g. This appears to have replaced the glottal stop which would have existed between the prefix and the root. Bikol is not alone in having this term, the identical meaning being found in Cebuano, and related meanings in Waray and Hiligaynon.[81]
    bubulát MA- or MAG- to travel early in the morning, by land or sea; MA-, -AN or MAG-, PAG- -AN to travel somewhere at this time of day; MA-, -ON or MAG-, PAG- -ON to travel for a particular purpose or to acquire s/t in particular; MA-, I- or MAG-, IPAG- to carry s/t with you on such a journey [MDL]

    sagúli' MA- or MAG- to make a day trip; MA-, -AN or MAG-, PAG--AN to travel to a place for the day, returning home to spend the night; MA-, -ON or MAG-, PAG--ON to make such a trip to get s/t or for a particular purpose; also see ulí' [MDL]

    ulí' MAG- to return home; MAG-, I- to return s/t; to give s/t back; MAG-, -AN to return to somewhere; to give s/t back to s/o [+MDL: MA-, -AN or MAG-, PAG--AN to return to a particular place; MA-, -ON or MAG-, PAG--ON to return for s/t; MA-, I- or MAG-, IPAG- to return s/t; MA--AN to regain one's health; to recover (one who is ill); MAKA- to bring one back to health]

    dagsáy MA- or MAG- to travel a short distance or for a short period of time; MA-, -AN or MAG-, PAG--AN to travel a short distance to a particular place; MA-, -ON or MAG-, PAG--ON to travel a short distance to collect s/t; MA-, I- or MAG-, IPAG- to take s/t to a place just a short distance away; Makapiráng dumagsáy sagkód sa Libngánan? How long does it take to get from here to Libmanan? [MDL]
For a traveller departing in the afternoon, this would probably mean that they would be spending the night somewhere else and not returning until at least the next day (tighápon). Unless it was the intent to leave a town and reside somewhere else, then the journey outward would see a return when the reason for the trip was finished (libód). The two units of tighápon are the root hápon 'afternoon' and tig-, a nominal prefix indicating the time of day.
    tighápon MA-, -AN or MAG-, PAG--AN or MANG-, PANG--AN to go somewhere in the afternoon intending to spend the night; MA-, -ON or MAG-, PAG--ON or MANG-, PANG--ON to go somewhere in the afternoon to do s/t [MDL]

    tig- nominal affix indicating the time of day: tigbabayó five or six in the afternoon (time for pounding rice); tigpanhápon nin manók sunset (time when chickens go back to their roost); tigsalóng-sálong seven in the evening (time to light torches); tigsúgok nine in the morning (time when chickens lay eggs) [MDL]

    libód MA-, I- or MAG-, IPAG- ... to take s/t on a return trip by road or river; MA-, -AN or MAG-, PAG--AN to make a return or round trip on a road or river; -AN: libdón a complete circuit; a return or round trip; saró' kalibdón one circuit, return or round trip [MDL]

(v) Breaking the Journey
Journeys which were short, or those to more distant locations which had to be reached quickly, could be completed without stopping (turúhoy). For the most part, however, even for trips lasting no longer than a day, a traveller would have to take a break, either when moving overland or by travelling by boat. These were brief rest stops taken to recover from the tiredness of the journey (dangán-dangán, suránoy), and once the travellers were feeling refreshed, they would move on (see the figurative meaning of ambón).
    turúhoy MA- or MAG- to walk without stopping; MA-, -AN or MAG-, PAG--AN to go straight to a destination without stopping; MA-, -ON or MAG-, PAG--ON to go directly somewhere for s/t; MA-, I- or MAG-, IPAG- to carry s/t straight to a destination [MDL]

    dangán-dangán MAG- to stop for a time when traveling on foot or in a boat, then continuing on one's way; MAG-, PAG--ON to stop for a particular reason; MAG-, PAG--AN to stop at a particular place; Da'í nagdangán-dangán kon minala'óg Don't hesitate when entering the house (come straight in) ... [MDL]

    suránoy MA-, -AN or MAG-, PAG--AN to deviate or depart from a set course; to leave the main road (as by stopping at s/o's house to rest); MA-, -ON or MAG-, PAG--ON to deviate from a set course for s/t; ... Si makuríng yayá ni kuyán, siminuránoy lámang na himigdá' Due to that person's extreme tiredness, he will have to take a break and lie down; MAG-: magsuró-suránoy to wander about the town, accomplishing nothing [MDL]

    ambón dew; morning fog, mist, haze; ... [+MDL: morning fog; MA- or MAG- to become foggy; to descend (mist); (PAG-)-AN to be covered in mist; (fig-) Inaambón ka? Are you feeling refreshed? (Asked of s/o before they continue on a journey]
For longer trips a traveller would have to break journey (turiná). If travelling by boat, this could be driven by the need to seek shelter due to the turbulence of the sea or a deterioration in the weather (sirunggó).
    turiná' MA- or MAG- to stop (on a journey, trip); MA-, -ON or MAG-, PAG--ON to stop for s/t; MA-, -AN or MAG-, PAG--AN to stop at a particular town or location ... [MDL]

    sirunggó' MA- or MAG- to take shelter; to seek refuge; to seek a safe harbor; MA-, -AN or MAG-, PAG--AN to take refuge at a particular place; MA-, I- or MAG-, IPAG- to take s/t to a place of safety or shelter: Digdí na lámang kitá sirunggó' / pasirunggó' ta' madágat Let's pull in here to shelter since the sea is rough; Sirunggó' na lámang kitá dumán ka kuyán ta' da'í kitá pinasasakát sa ibáng hárong Let's take shelter at those people's house since we won't be invited in at another house [MDL]
Spending the night in another town would usually mean staying in a private residence, and there seem to have been particular residences where travellers knew they would be welcome. The nominal forms of the clearly related entries sápot and sampót, have definitions related to places where people could stay; a 'community hall' in the example of sarapótan na haróng and 'resthouse' for sarampótan. Hápit is the more general term for 'dropping in' or 'stopping by', but the nominal forms, hahapítan and harapítan could easily translate as 'resthouse'.
    sápot MA-, -AN or MAG-, PAG--AN to call in at a house (those traveling from other towns); MA-, -ON or MAG-, PAG--ON to stay with a host family (those traveling); Sa'ín kamó sasápot na hárong? Which house will you be staying at?; -AN: sarapótan na hárong community hall; sarapótan na táwo s/o who receives all guests, travelers at their house; [MDL]

    sampót a waif; a stray (person, animal); MAG- to arrive on s/o's doorstep like a stray [MDL: a person who comes to live in s/o's house on a permanent or temporary basis; MA-, -ON or MAG-, PAG- -ON to come to live with the owners of a particular house; to move into s/o's house; MA-, -AN or MAG-, PAG--AN to move into a particular house; to come to stay or spend a few nights at a particular place; to break journey at a particular place; MAKI- to request permission to come to live or move in with s/o; -AN: sarampótan a rest house; a place to break journey]

    hápit MAG- to drop in or drop by; to stop in ... [MDL: MA-, -ON or MAG-, PAG--ON to stop off when traveling to a particular place; MA-, I- or MAG-, IPAG- to carry s/t on a journey to a particular place; -AN: hahapítan or harapítan a place where one stops when on the road]

(vi) Routes
The route one took when travelling depended as much upon the reason for the travel as on the availability of particular river channels or trails. There were undoubtedly well-worn paths and regularly frequented channels that were used when it was necessary to deliver things or collect things waiting for pick up (sabyág).
    sabyág MA-, -AN or MAG-, PAG--AN to pass a particular place; to go by way of; to go or travel via; MA-, -ON or MAG-, PAG--ON to pick s/t up when passing by; MA-, I- or MAG-, IPAG- to drop s/t off when passing by; -AN: sarabyágan a place one usually passes or goes to [MDL]
Where travel needed to be fast and direct, then the shortest route would be chosen, using side channels or connecting trails and avoiding the main road or main channel of a river (súki', patós).
    súki' MAG- to turn or go around a bend; to veer, swerve [MDL: MA- or MAG- to take the shortest route; to take a shortcut, avoiding the main route; MA-, -AN or MAG-, PAG--AN to take a shortcut to somewhere; MA-, -ON or MAG-, PAG--ON to take the shortest route to get s/t; sukí'-súki' MAG- to go from place to place via the shortest route; var- salúki']

    patós MA-, -AN or MAG-, PAG--AN to take the shortest route (such as a side channel of a river or a connecting trail); MA-, -ON or MAG-, PAG- -ON to go for s/t via the shortest route; MA-, I- or MAG-, IPAG- to take s/t via the shortest way; -AN: papatsán shortcut; a side channel, connecting road, trail; syn- gútos [MDL]
There had to be times when using the shortest route was not possible and one was forced onto winding trails and channels (lítok, salángi'). The coming of the monsoons may have made some of the connecting trails unpassable, and, conversely, their end may have led to a change in the depth and breadth of the river systems, causing some of the connecting channels to dry out.
    lítok MA- or MAG- to go the long way; to take the long way around; MA-, -AN or MAG-, PAG--AN to take the long way around to a particular destination; MA-, -ON or MAG-, PAG--ON to take the long way around to get s/t [MDL]

    salángi' a winding road; a roundabout way; MA-, -AN or MAG-, PAG--AN to travel a winding road; to take the long way around; MA-, -ON or MAG-, PAG--ON to go to get s/t via a roundabout route ... [MDL]
Main routes might also have been best avoided. Criminal activity may have made some main trails and channels unsafe, forcing a traveller to find other ways of reaching a destination (lawígaw, waywáy, liklík). Whether by a long route or a shorter one, the journey would eventually come to any end, either arriving successfully at a destination (labót), or being unable to do so (rápi-rápi).
    lawígaw MAG-, -AN to avoid or go around s/t; to detour, bypass or skirt s/t; to deviate from a set path [+MDL: MA-, -AN or MAG-, PAG--AN to take a roundabout route (and not go straight to one's destination); MA-, -ON or MAG-, PAG--ON to take a roundabout route for a particular reason ...]

    waywáy MAKA-, MA--AN to detour; to go via another route [MDL]

    liklík MAG-, -AN to avoid, bypass, go around or detour around s/t [+MDL: MA-, -AN or MAG-, PAG- -AN to go the long way around s/t; to avoid the main road, taking others; MA-, -ON or MAG-, PAG--ON to take the long way around to get s/t] syn- líkaw

    labót MA-, MA--AN: malabtán to arrive at or reach a particular place; to reach s/o; MA-, IKA- to take s/t to a particular place; Da'í akó nalabót dumán sa hárong na kuyán I didn't get to those people's house ... ]

    rápi-rápi always used in the negative: DA'Í MANG-, PANG--AN to not go to a particular place; to not reach or arrive at a particular destination: Kada'í mo man rarápi-rápi sa kaganák You never go to see your parents [MDL]

Although Nueva Cáceres was the main administrative centre of Bikol and the location of the see of Cáceres which came directly under the archdiocese of Manila, it was not the centre of religious life in the region. This distinction fell to the Franciscan mission which was centred at Quipayó, to the north of Nueva Cáceres. It was here that Marcos de Lisboa must have chosen to live, for examples in his Vocabulario clearly identify terms and locations which where uniquely found in this area compared with other areas of the region. Many of the locations he identified in the entries of his dictionary can still be found, although some have clearly disappeared due to the passage of time or the depredations of Moslem raids from the south.

Towns were not large, although there were greater concentrations of people in clusters of towns where the land was fertile and water was regularly available, such as the areas along the length of the Bikol river. Towns were centred on the coast or along the major waterways, although there were also communities more inland, more distant and more difficult to reach.

Towns had fairly homogeneous populations, and residency was long and generally stable. When strangers arrived, they were questioned as to where they came from, with different questions asked of those where the dress and language were familiar, to those where these were not recognisable. Both conflict and cooperation existed between towns, cooperation for the sharing of labour in short supply and the trade of items which would otherwise be unobtainable, and conflict in the form of raids for the purposes of plunder, ransom and slavery.

Residency in a town where one was not born was often unavoidable, due to marriage or work commitments, and where the towns were at peace, this was not a problem. When towns were in conflict, such residents had little choice but to remain neutral. New residents were expected to adjust in other ways, with comments made about those whose ways were noticeably different.

International trade, primarily from China and Macau, but also from India and Japan, came to the ports on the coast of Luzon and to those on the island of Mindoro. When traders were late in the season and the monsoon winds had changed, they docked in the north of Luzon, in what are now the Ilocos provinces. From there goods were sent south to Manila and redistributed.

For the Bikol region, much of the trade was local, with merchants carrying goods from one town to another along the river systems, or inland on trails of varying quality. An analysis of the some of the terms applying to traders indicates that their trade may not have always been honest and their actions not always honourable.

Travel, both by sea and land, was fraught with dangers, both human and animal; highwaymen waiting along quiet stretches of road to rob or kill, and crocodiles hidden beneath the vegetation on waterways waiting to upset a passing boat. Preference was to travel with a companion, and where the way was new and unknown, the company of a guide.

People travelled for different reasons, from a sense of adventure to experience places they had never seen, to those searching for employment, for food in times of scarcity, or for a cure to a serious illness. Clothing was carried in a sack made of netting, and rice wrapped in a small pouch. Food was brought along where it was practicable, or a pot carried when cooking was required.

Individuals on longer journeys were farewelled with a drink and then accompanied to the trail out of town. Journeys could be broken at various rest houses along the way, mainly private residences where people knew they would be welcome. Routes could be long or short, along side trails or channels where these were available. Detours were made when the main routes were dangerous or unpassable, or for the purpose of picking up or delivering particular items. Successful trips reached their intended destination, while others resulted in an unsatisfactory return.


[1] Quipayo Church National Historical Institute Marker (accessed 22 November 2019).

[2] Pedro Chirino, S.J., 1604, 'Relacion de las Islas Filipinas (to be concluded),' in Blair and Robertson, vol. 12, pp 169-322, p. 202, Note 53.

[3] 'Naga, Camarines Sur' Wikipedia, English, n.d. (accessed 2 December 2019).

[4] Juan Feliz de la Encarnacion, Diccionario español - bisaya, Manila: Imprenta de los amigos del pais, á cargo de M. Sanchez, 1852, see agad.

[5] 'Palauan,' Stuartxchange (accessed 12 December 2019); 'Alocasia macrorrhizos' Wikipedia, English, n.d. (accessed 12 December 2019).

[6] Diego Bergaño, Vocabulario de la lengua Pampanga, en romance, 1732, Manila: Imprenta de Ramirez y Giraudier, Reimpreso 1860, see lupa.

[7] 'Lipote,' Stuartxchange (accessed 12 December 2019).

[8] Alonso de Mentrida, Diccionario de la lengua Bisaya, Hiliguena, y Haraya de la Isla de Panay, Manila: La Imprenta de D. Manuel y de Felix Dayot, 1841, see lambong.

[9] Ignacio Francisco Alcina, History of the Bisayan People in the Philippine Islands, 1668, vols. 1 and 2, translated, edited and annotated by Cantius J. Kobak and Lucio Gutiérrez, Manila: UST Publishing House, 2002; vol. II, Chapter 3, p. 123.

[10] de la Encarnacion, Bisaya, see lambong.

[11] R. O. Winstedt, Unabridged Malay-English Dictionary, Singapore: Kelly & Walsh Ltd, n.d, see bichara; Monier-Williams Sanskrit Dictionary, see vicāra.

[12] W.E. Retana, Dccionario de Filipinismos, Madrid: Real Academia Española, 1921, see bichara.

[13] Juan José Noceda and Pedro de Sanlucar, Vocabulario de la lengua Tagala, 1754, Manila: Imprenta de Ramirez y Giraudier, reimpreso 1860, see sopot; Antonio Sánchez de la Rosa, Diccionario español - bisaya para las provincias de Sámar y Leyte, 3rd edition, aumentado por Antonio Valeriano, Manila: Santos y Bermal, 1914, see sopot; Alonso de Mentrida, Diccionario de la lengua Bisaya, Hiliguena, y Haraya de la Isla de Panay, Manila: La Imprenta de D. Manuel y de Felix Dayot, 1841, see sopot; Diego Bergaño, Pampanga, see suput.

[14] Noceda and de Sanlucar, Tagala, see taan, cauil; Sánchez de la Rosa, Sámar y Leyte, see taan, cauil; de la Encarnacion, Bisaya, see taan; de Mentrida, Bisaya, Hiliguena, y Haraya, see taan, cauil; Bergaño, Pampanga, see cauil.

[15] Albert W. Herre & Agustin F. Umali, English and Common Names of Philippines Fishes, Circular 14, United States Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington D.C.: United States Government Printing Office, 1948, p. 54; 'Kuhlia marginata' GBIF | Global Biodiversity Information Facility.

[16] Sánchez de la Rosa, Sámar y Leyte, see damag; de la Encarnacion, Bisaya, see damagan.

[17] Lawrence A. Reid, 'Who Are the Philippine Negritos? Evidence from Language,' Human Biology vol. 85: Iss. 1, Article 15, 2013, pp. 329-358.

[18] 'Vocabulario de la Lengua Bicol' Wikipedia, Bicol, n.d. (accessed 17 December 2019).

[19] Ponong (accessed 25 January 2020).

[20] Francisco Mallari, S.J., 'Muslim raids in Bicol: 1580-1792,' in Philippine Studies, vol. 34, 1986, pp. 257-286, p. 275.

[21] The Municipality of Tinambac (accessed 27 December 2019).

[22] Francisco Mallari, 'Camarines Towns Under Seige', Philippine Studies, vol. 38, No. 4 (Fourth Quarter 1990), Ateneo de Manila University, pp. 453-476.

[23] Norman Owen, 'Problems in Partido: 1741-1810', Philippine Studies, vol. 38, No. 4 (Fourth Quarter 1990), Ateneo de Manila University, pp. 421-452, p. 425.

[24]] Malcolm W. Mintz, 'The Fossilized Affixes of Bikol,' Currents in Pacific Linguistics: Papers on Austronesian Languages and Ethnolinguistics in Honor of George W. Grace, ed. Robert Blust, Canberra: Pacific Linguistics C-117, 1991, p. 265-291, pp. 279-281.

[25] 'Moringa oleifera,' Science Direct (accessed 6 January 2020).

[26] Fr. Leo James English, Tagalog - English Dictionary, Manila: Congregation of the Most Holy Redeemer, 1986, see malunggay; John U. Wolff, A Dictionary of Cebuano Visayan, Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines, 1971, see kalamunggay, kamalunggay.

[27] 'Moringa,' Trees for Life Names of Moringa.

[28] Kamus Dewan, Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka, 1994, see marunggai.

[29] The Portuguese in the Moluccas: Ternate and Tidore.

[30] 'Iberian Union,' Wikipedia, English, n.d. (accessed 12 January 2020).

[31] The Spanish Presence in the Moluccas: Ternate and Tidore.

[32] Fernando de Silva, 'Letter to Felipe IV,' Manila,' July 30, 1626, in Blair and Robertson, vol. 22, pp. 93-103, p. 95; Casimiro Diaz, O.S.A. 'The Augustinians in the Philippines,' 1670 -1694, Manila, 1718, (from his Conquistas), in Blair and Robertson, vol. 42, pp. 117-312, p. 156.

[33] Diego de Bobadilla, S.J., and others, 'Glorious victories against the Moros of Mindanao; Mexico, 1638, in Blair and Robertson, vol 29, pp. 86-101, p. 95.

[[34] James Cowles Pritchard, Researches into the Physical History of Mankind, vol. 5: Researches into the History of the Oceanic and of the American Nations, London: Sherwood, Gilbert and Piper, Paternoster-Row, 1847, p. 84

[35] Retana, see Camucón, Tirón.

[36] Casimiro Diaz, O.S.A. 'The Augustinians in the Philippines,' in Blair and Robertson, vol. 42, p. 156.

[37] Thomas Forrest, A Voyage to New Guinea and the Moluccos, from Balambangan: Including an Account of Magindanao, Sooloo and Other Islands, London: G. Scott, 1779 (digitally printed edition 2018, pp. 396-398); Pritchard, p. 84.

[38]] Mallari, 'Camarines Towns Under Siege', p. 268, Note 42.

[39] Juan Lopez, S.J., 'Events in Filipinas,' 1636-37, Cavite, July 23, in Blair and Robertson, vol. 27, pp. 306-329, p. 315.

[40] Sánchez de la Rosa, Sámar y Leyte, see apari.

[41] G. P. Dasmariñas, 'Account of the encomiendas in the Philipinas Islands,' Manila, May 3, 1591, in Blair & Robertson, vol. 8, pp. 96-41, p. 126.

[42] Reid, pp. 334-335.

[43] Miguel de Loarca, 'Relacion de las Yslas Filipinas,' Arevalo, June, 1582, in Blair & Robertson, vol. 5, pp. 34-187, pp. 93, 95, 97.

[44] Noceda and de Sanlucar, Tagala, see laot; Sánchez de la Rosa, Sámar y Leyte, see lauod; de la Encarnacion, Bisaya, see laood; de Mentrida, Bisaya, Hiliguena, y Haraya, see lauur, Bergaño, Pampanga, see laut.

[45] Bob Blust and Stephen Trussel, The Austronesian Comparative Dictionary; see *l

[46] Sánchez de la Rosa, Sámar y Leyte, see iraya; Wolff, see ilaya; de Mentrida, Bisaya, Hiliguena, y Haraya, see ilaya.

[47] Blust and Trussel, The Austronesian Comparative Dictionary, see *r.

[48] de Mentrida, Bisaya, Hiliguena, y Haraya, see taban; Noceda and de Sanlucar, Tagala, see taban; Wolff, see taban.

[49] de la Encarnacion, Bisaya, see balata; de Mentrida, Bisaya, Hiliguena, y Haraya, see balata; Sánchez de la Rosa, Sámar y Leyte, see balata; Noceda and de Sanlucar, Tagala, see balata; Bergaño, Pampanga, see balata.

[50] Sánchez de la Rosa, Sámar y Leyte, see tambobong; de la Encarnacion, Bisaya, see tambobong.

[51] Mintz, pp. 287-288.

[52] de la Encarnacion, Bisaya, see locas; de Mentrida, Bisaya, Hiliguena, y Haraya, see lucas; Noceda and de Sanlucar, Tagala, see locas; Sánchez de la Rosa, Sámar y Leyte, see lucas; Bergaño, Pampanga, see lucas.

[53] English, see tanod; Bergaño, Pampanga, see tanud; de Mentrida, Bisaya, Hiliguena, y Haraya, see tanor; Sánchez de la Rosa, Sámar y Leyte, see tanod; de la Encarnacion, Bisaya, see tanod.

[54] Noceda and de Sanlucar, Tagala, see atag.

[55] Noceda and de Sanlucar, Tagala, see sagóp.

[56] M. L. de Legazpi, 'Relation of the Philippine Islands,' Cebu, July 7, 1569, in Blair and Robertson, vol. 3, pp. 54-61, p. 55.

[57] de Loarca, 'Relacion de las Yslas Filipinas,' in Blair and Robertson, vol 5, p. 141.

[58] Sanskrit Dictionary, see budh.

[59] Winstedt, see budi.

[60] Sánchez de la Rosa, Sámar y Leyte, see budhi; de la Encarnacion, Bisaya, see bodhi; English, see budhi; Noceda and de Sanlucar, Tagala, see morigerar, biloc.

[61] Antonio de Morga, 'Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas (concluded),' Mexico, 1609, in Blair and Robertson, vol. 16, pp. 25-210, p. 117.

[62] Noceda and de Sanlucar,Tagala, see gúbat; Sánchez de la Rosa, Sámar y Leyte, see gubat; de la Encarnacion, Bisaya, see gobat; ayao; de Mentrida, Bisaya, Hiliguena, y Haraya, see gubat, ayao.

[63] Diego de Artieda, 'Relation of the Western Islands called Filipinas,' 1753, in Blair and Robertson, vol. 3, pp. 190-208, p. 201-202.

[64] de Loarca, 'Relacion de las Yslas Filipinas,' in Blair and Robertson, vol. 5, p. 121.

[65] Diego de Bobadilla, S. J., 'Relation of the Filipinas Islands,' 1640, in Blair and Robertson, vol. 29, pp. 277-312, p. 295.

[66] de Morga, 'Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas (concluded),' in Blair and Robertson, vol. 16, p. 106.

[67] G. P. Dasmariñas, 'Luzon Menaced by Japanese,' Manila, 1592, in Blair and Robertson, vol 8, pp. 284-300, p. 289.

[68] M. L. de Legazpi, 'Letters to Felipe II of Spain,' Cebu, July 12, 15, and 23, 1567, and June 26, 1568, in Blair and Robertson, vol. 2, pp. 232-243, p. 238.

[69] Guido de Lavezaris, 'Affairs in the Philippines after the death of Legazpi,' Manila, June 29, 1573, in Blair and Robertson, vol. 3, pp. 179-189, p. 181.

[70] Juan de Medina, O.S.A., 'History of the Augustinian order in the Filipinas Islands (to be concluded),' 1630 (printed at Manila, 1893), in Blair and Robertson, vol. 23, pp. 119-298, p. 279.

[71] Francisco Colin, S.J., 'Native races and their customs,' Madrid, 1663, from his Labor evangelica, in Blair and Robertson, vol. 40, pp. 37-98, p. 87.

[72] Noceda and de Sanlucar, Tagala, see bayabay.

[73] Noceda and de Sanlucar, Tagala, see lacal, calacal; Bergaño, Pampanga, see calacal; de la Encarnacion, Bisaya, see calacal; de Mentrida, Bisaya, Hiliguena, y Haraya, see calacal.

[74] Noceda and de Sanlucar, Tagala, see balidya, tratar; Sánchez de la Rosa, Sámar y Leyte, see balidia; de la Encarnacion, Bisaya, see baligya; de Mentrida, Bisaya, Hiliguena, y Haraya, see baliguia.

[75] Noceda and de Sanlucar, Tagala, see laco; Bergaño, Pampanga, see laco; Winstedt, see laku.

[76] Winstedt, see beniaga; Kamus Dewan, see niaga; Monier-Williams Sanskrit Dictionary, see nigama.

[77] Noceda and de Sanlucar, Tagala, see banyaga.

[78] Noceda and de Sanlucar, Tagala, see baliuas; Sánchez de la Rosa, Sámar y Leyte, see beriuas; de Mentrida, Bisaya, Hiliguena, y Haraya, see baliuas; Bergaño, Pampanga, see baliuas.

[79] Noceda and de Sanlucar, Tagala, see toro, noro.

[80] Noceda and de Sanlucar, Tagala, see patnogot; Bergaño, Pampanga, see patnugut.

[81] Noceda and de Sanlucar, Tagala, see baclay; de Mentrida, Bisaya, Hiliguena, y Haraya, see baclay;de la Encarnacion, Bisaya, see baclay.

[82] Sánchez de la Rosa, Sámar y Leyte, see saguli; de la Encarnacion, Bisaya, see sag-uli; de Mentrida, Bisaya, Hiliguena, y Haraya, see sag-uli.



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