Intersections: Gender and Sexuality in Asia and the Pacific
Monograph 1: The Philippines at the Turn of the Sixteenth Century
Malcolm W. Mintz
TOWNS, TRADE AND TRAVEL
This chapter opens with the view from Quipayó, the main Franciscan mission in Bikol and Marcos de Lisboa's residence during his time as the Vicario Provincial of the region. Lisboa noted differences in language preferences of the people living downstream in the towns around Quipayó compared to those in villages further upstream. He also named locations, some of which have disappeared over time, but others which can still be identified with some degree of accuracy, places where people went fishing, or bought boats, or were simply on the way to somewhere else.
This is followed by a section on towns, their estimated population, where they were located, and questions asked of strangers to determine where they had come from. What happens when people had to leave their towns and establish residency elsewhere, through marriage or work, or the seeking of refuge, follows, including some of the agreements people reached regarding forms of abstinence where their absence was considered temporary.
Towns, out of necessity, needed each other. They cooperated when labour was in short supply to harvest or plant crops, or to man boats when there were not enough individuals to form complete crews. This need would serve to quell the all too common periods of conflict, but conflict did occur both within and between towns, and a discussion of this ends the section.
Section 3 is about trade. Just as towns needed each other to supplement labour, they also needed each other for trade, with the produce of the coast exchanged regularly with the that of the communities further upriver. Included in this section is a brief discussion of international trade, with goods arriving primarily from China and Macao to ports on the South China Sea, and then moved by local traders to various parts of Luzon. The section focuses primarily on local trade and traders.
In Section 4, the discussion is about travel, overland and by sea, some of the dangers faced, the preference to travel with a companion, and the use of guides to make sure the proper trail was taken. This is followed by a discussion of the reasons for travel whether simply out of a sense of adventure, or more pressing reasons such as the search for food, for employment or for treatment for a serious medical condition. Included in this section is the preparation for departure, the carrying of provisions, the breaking of the journey and routes taken to reach one's destination.
One of the main Franciscan missions in the Philippines was established in the Bikol region at Quipayó in 1578. The mission included the large area which stretched from Siruma in the north to Libmanan, Calabanga and Bombon in the south, basically circling the area to the east and south of San Miguel Bay. Beginning in 1586 with the formation of Libmanan as an independent municipality, followed by Siruma in 1687 and Calabanga (including Bombon) in 1749, Quipayó was dramatically reduced in size. Its importance, too, declined with the subsequent establishment of other missions. Eventually it was incorporated into the township of Calabanga and is now a small area in one of its barangays. The historical centre of Quipayó is its church, renamed the Church of the Immaculate Conception in 1659, the present structure built in 1616, replacing the original church of wood and palm leaves.
Nueva Cáceres (originally La Ciudad de Cáceres) was the Spanish settlement established in 1575 across the Bikol River from the existing town of Naga. It was named in honour of Francisco de Sande, Governor-General of the Philippines from 1575 to 1580, who originated from the town of Cáceres in the Extramadura region of Spain. Eventually the two areas on opposite sides of he river grew and merged and were given the single name of Nueva Cáceres, a name which remained until the American occupation of the country in 1898 when the name, Naga, was restored.
Although Nueva Cáceres was made the see of Cáceres in 1595 and came directly under the archdiocese of Manila, it seems evident from the references in his dictionary that Marcos de Lisboa, serving as the Vicario Provincial from 1609 to 1611, must have been stationed or chose to live in Quipayó. As will be made clear in the discussion which follows, references to terms used in Quipayó, as well as to terms which differed both upstream and upland from the town, show this town as his locus in the compiling of the Vocabulario de la lengua Bicol.
Residents of Quipayó were referred to as tagá amihánan 'the people of the north'. This is a reference most likely made by those living in the central part of Camarines Sur, probably in the populated areas surrounding Naga City. Also unclear is how much of the area of Quipayó was intended by this reference as the initial expanse of the mission encompassed towns along the river systems from above the Himoragat in the north to the Libmanan in the south and the Hinagyanan, Tigman and Inarihan river systems between them.
payó head (part of the body); ma'ínit an payó hotheaded; to have a temper; makulóg an payó to have a headache; gamíton an payó to use one's head (think) [+MDL: MA-, -AN or MAG-, PAG--AN to place the head on a figure, statue; MA-, I- or MAG-, IPAG- to put a head in place on a figure]
payó head, leader; chief, chairman, commander, officer; MANG-, PANG--AN to direct, head, lead; to command, conduct, preside over or supervise s/t; to chair s/t; to rule or reign over s/o; PANG- leadership, supervision
The terms which Lisboa defines as used exclusively in the areas around Quipayó are few but varied in their reference, ranging from words for plants and clothing, to the more abstract terms for speech and feelings. It is interesting to examine some of the differences he became aware of through his residence in different parts of the region.
The temporary shelter erected in the rice fields to offer protection from sun or rain is lungálong in Quipayó. Elsewhere in the region it is agád, this second, more widespread term, also appearing in Cebuano where reference in to a hut made from the branches of trees.
gamgám bird [+MDL: the term most commonly used in the area of the Bikol river; MA-, -ON or MAG-, PAG- -ON to eat s/t (birds); yámon kagamgáman a flock of birds]
ngálo' MAGPAHING- to rest; to take a break, relax, lounge about; MAKA-, MA--AN to be tired out by a particular job or task; PAGPAHING- respite, rest; a break [+MDL: the term means 'tired' in Quipayó; elsewhere 'tired' is yayá; MAPAHING- or MAGPAHING- or MAKAHING- to rest; MAPAHING-, PAHING--AN or MAGPAHING-, PAGPAHING--AN or MAKAHING-, MAHING--AN to give s/o a break, rest MAKA- to be tiring (work); MA--AN to be tired from working on s/t]
Retana in his Diccionario de Filipinismos has an extended definition of bichara identifying it as a term of discussion used in diplomatic negotiations such as that between the Spanish and the Moslem leaders in Jolo and Mindanao, and similarly between the Portuguese in Ternate and the king of Tidore in the Moluccas. The term, however, need not always refer to diplomatic communications. It can also refer simply to an extended social discussion. In all likelihood, particularly as Malay was the donor language, it was the unconjugated form of the verb as used in Quipayó which was borrowed with subsequent conjugation added in the upstream towns to adjust the form to the local language.
túgot a thin chain of rattan, used as a bracelet by women living in the mountains [MDL]
The variation in the first person singular pronouns, sakó' and sakúya' and the first person plural exclusive pronouns samó' and samúya' (but not the variation between the first person plural inclusive pronouns sató' and satúya', possibly an oversight) he attributes to usage in the town of Minalabac, found along the Bikol River south of Naga City and just beyond the town of Milaor.
samó' us; to, from or by us; nonsubject indirect object and locative 1st person plural exclusive pronoun; our, ours; postposed possessive pronoun [+MDL: samóng buláwan our gold; Himinampák samó' We were whipped; samúya' is used in Minalabag (now Minalabac); var- sa'mó']
In various dictionary entries, Lisboa also mentions a number of towns and regional areas most of which are still identifiable. The town of Paniquian (now Panicuason), currently lies within the bounds of Naga City and is an area partially comprising the foothills and slopes of Mt Isarog. The dictionary reference, baság, is to the roofing materials used in the vicinity, most likely a reflection of the availability of bamboo in greater abundance than fronds of the báhi', nípa' and anáhaw palms or the various grasses suitable for thatching (also see Chapter 14, 'Construction and Infrastructure,' Section 8).
Norman Owen in 'Problems in Partido: 1741-1810' makes reference to the founding of a town on the northern slopes of Mt Isarog named Himoragat in 1701 by the Franciscan missionary, Fr. Oropesa. This is undoubtedly the town referred to in the letter by Jose de Eguia, but not the town which Lisboa refers to almost 100 years earlier even though it possesses the same name. Considering the destructive nature of the Moslem raids, it is probable that the original town by this name just disappeared, as did the town founded 100 years later. It was common that after such raids the surviving inhabitants would abandon the area for one or two generations, possibly never returning if the memory of the earlier depredations remained unforgotten.
The names used in Malaysia and Indonesia also vary greatly, but of interest here is murunggai  found in various areas of the Malay peninsula and the Indonesian islands. The introduction of the tree to the Bikol region was clearly within the historical memory of the people living in Quipayó when Lisboa was compiling his dictionary for they referred to such a tree lining their streets as 'from Ternate'.
The Portuguese first reached Ternate in the Moluccas in 1512 and had intermittent contact followed by a weak, extended rule until the later decades of the century. The Spanish arrived in 1521 and until 1545, basing themselves for the most part on the island of Tidore, were in conflict with the Portuguese over control of what was the lucrative trade in spices. In 1545 they surrendered control to the Portuguese. This was a period before they had established themselves in the Philippines.
The Spanish returned to the Moluccas in 1582, sending an expedition from Manila to aid the Portuguese in their fight against the Sultan of Ternate. Things had changed with the Iberian Union in 1580 (lasting until 1640) when both Spain and Portugal were ruled by the Spanish kings. The Spanish were to remain on both Tidore and Ternate until 1663. It is likely that at some point in the late sixteenth century, as it was already established when Lisboa arrived, the kalúnggay tree was brought to the Bikol region. How the particular name for the tree came to be used in Bikol is unclear, although it is closet to the names found in Cebuano to the south.
W.E. Retana in his Diccionario de Filipinismos, equates the Camucón with the Tirón and offers two variants of the latter name: Tidon and Tidong, the last of which is identifiable as the Malay Orang Tedong. Retana, as part of his definition, indicates that these people were Moslems, although this is most likely incorrect. Casamiro Diaz in his 'The Augustinians in the Philippines' mentions that some of them were Moslems, and that others were heathens, but references in texts looking more closely at the situation in Borneo, describe the Orang Tedong as 'barbarian' or 'savage', references which Mallari clearly summarises with the statement: 'The Camucones were not Muslims, but pagans'.  The Spanish also recorded conflict between the people of Jolo and the Camucones, although this might not offer definitive proof of a difference of religion.
Similarly, those who live inland from the sea or far from a major river may all be referred to as tinatáhok or timináhok (see táhok) but people living along a particular river or on a particular section of coast, will most commonly have a specific group in mind when they use this reference.
The people of the mountains were referred to as bukídnon (see búkid), and while this may have been a general reference to those living in mountain towns, it could have also been more specifically directed at the Agtá' (see Section 1(ii)), the Negritos, ancestrally associated with such areas. Similarly, the reference for dumágat (see dágat), refers to people who spend most their time at sea making a living from fishing. It is doubtful that Lisboa's reference is to specific groups of Negritos or Agtá', as may generally be assumed, as the derivation of their name may have no relationship to dágat or 'sea'. This is discussed in some detail in Reid.
táhok inland, the interior; -ON: tináhok people from the interior [+MDL: → -ON or -IMIN- tinatáhok or timináhok people who live in the interior, far from the sea or a major river; MA-, -AN or MAG-, PAG--AN or MAPA-, PA--AN to go into the interior; MA-, -ON or MAG-, PAG--ON or MAPA-, PA--ON to go into the interior for s/t; MA-, I- or MAG-, IPAG- or MAPA-, IPA- to carry s/t into the interior; Táhok an samóng banwá'an Our town is inland (far from the sea)]
búkid hill, mountain; MA- hilly, mountainous; KA--AN mountainous terrain, range of mountains; bukíd-búkid knoll, small hill [+MDL: gabán nin búkid base of a mountain; taruntóng nin búkid summit of a mountain; → -NON: bukídnon people of the mountains; KA--AN: kabukíran or -AN: bukíran hills, mountains; also towns in the mountains or located in the uplands]
dágat ocean, sea; KA--AN high seas, open sea; sa dágat marine; ... [+MDL: ... MA- or MAG- to become choppy (the sea or a river when the wind blows); (PAG-)-ON to become seasick; (PAG-)-AN to be affected by a heavy swell (a boat and its crew); MA- a heavy swell; → -UM-: dumágat people who spend most of their time at sea, living on its islands and making a livelihood from fishing ...]
The population of the Bikol region upon the arrival of the Spanish was not large. The total number of inhabitants was determined by counting the individuals living on the encomiendas. These were the estates established by the Spanish and given as a reward to those who were willing to settle newly acquired territory. The encomiendas comprised both the land and its inhabitants (also see Chapter 3, 'Christianity ,' Section 3). G.P. Dasmariñas, writing in 1591, gives a population estimate for the entire Bikol region, including the island of Catanduanes, but excluding Masbate, of between 86,000 and 87,000 people, although, clearly, there were also those who were not under Spanish control and, therefore, not counted. Miguel de Loarca, writing nine years earlier, in 1582, had a more detailed breakdown of population, determining, for example, that the densely populated area around the administrative centre of Nueva Cáceres, which included seven encomiendas of approximately 700 individuals each and one encomienda of 2,000 individuals, had a total population approximately 51,000.
The counting of these individuals was made easier due to their payment of a tax or tribute, given in return for what was expected to be assistance during times of need and protection from outside interference. This was a tax (buhís) that would have been paid to the traditional rulers of the area, but was now collected by the encomendero or the Spanish owner of the estate (also see Chapter 7, 'Money, Weights and Measures,' Section 1(i)).
Iráya appears in identical form in Waray, and the cognate form, ilaya, in Cebuano and Hiligaynon. The prefix is the directional i-.The root word which is reconstructed in Proto-Austronesian as *daya, is not one I have been able to identify in any of the central Philippine languages, although it clearly carries the reconstructed meaning of 'inland' or 'upstream'.
lawód the open sea; MAGPA- or MAGHING- to go to sea [+MDL: the deepest part of the sea or river; the high seas; sa lawód nin dágat the deepest part of the sea; sa lawód nin sálog the deepest part of a river; MA-, -AN or MAG-, PAG--AN to go to the deepest part of a river, the sea; MA-, -ON or MAG-, PAG--ON to go to the deepest part to get s/t; MAPA-, PA--ON to go to sea for s/t or for a particular reason; MAPA-, IPA- to carry s/t out to sea; Garó na ginimbál an lawód The sea is being beaten like a drum (Said when the waves are very high)]
iráya upstream; inland [+MDL: the direction opposite to iláwod; MA- or MAG- to go upstream; MA-, -ON or MAG-, PAG--ON to go upstream for s/t; MA-, I- or MAG-, IPAG- to carry s/t upstream]
uláng a bar, barricade, barrier, hurdle; ... [+MDL: MA-, -ON or MAG-, PAG- -ON to impede or obstruct s/o; MA-, I or MAG-, IPAG- to place a particular obstacle in s/o's way; MAKA-, MA- to be an impediment to s/o; to obstruct s/o; PAGKA- an obstruction, impediment to s/o; KA--AN obstruction, impediment; → sa uláng far from a town; in an unpopulated area]
sápak a grouping of a large number or great variety of different, species, such as the animals on Noah's ark, gold of different carats or qualities, people from different towns or regions; MA--AN to be gathered in a particular place (a great variety or number of people, animals, things); Sápak an mga táwo sa Manila There are many different types of people in Manila; ... [MDL]
írok MAG-, -AN to dwell; to reside; to settle in or inhabit a particular place; an nagiírok residents, inhabitants; -AN: an iniirókan domicile, habitat, residence, abode [+MDL: irók MA-, -AN: irokán or idkán or MAG-, PAG--AN: pagirokán or pagidkán to live or reside in a particular house or town: Habóng imirók sa Quipayó I don't want to live in Quipayó; -AN: iidkán dwelling, residence; PAG- the habitation of, one's residence in; (fig-) MAG-, PAG--AN to spend a long time at a place where one has been sent; Anó an pagirók mo dumán? Why was it you spent a long time there?]
anó-ánon Where are you from?, asked when one is not familiar with the language, dress or customs of the person being addressed: Anó-ánon kamó? - Katandongánon; Where are you from? - I'm from Catanduanes; ... [MDL]
-non nominal affix indicating 'the people of': Bikolnón people of the Bikol region; dagatnón sea people [+MDL: Paniquiánon from Paniquian; Hibongánon from Hibongan; Oasnón from Oas; Camalignón from Camalig ...]
gíkan: gíkan sa coming from, originating from or in; evolving from; MAG- to originate in, come from, evolve from; -AN: an ginikánan origin, source [+MDL: arrivals, those who have arrived: si gíkan sa Maníla' those who have come from Manila; si gíkan sa umá those who have come from the fields; gíkan pa saná digdí to have just left here; MA-, -AN or MAG-, PAG--AN to come from; to be descended from: Sa'ín ka gíkan? - Gíkan akó sa simbáhan Where are you coming from? - I'm coming from church; -AN: ginikánan parentage, descent; (fig-) Maraháy nin gíkan sa umá iníng kakánon This food is good for those coming in from the fields (Implying: There is only good food for those who arrive tired)]
dumangóg MAKI-, PAKI--ON to inquire about recent news brought by a new arrival in town; to find out what is happening elsewhere; MAKI-, PAKI--AN to inquire from newcomers about news which they bring; MAKI-, IPAKI- to ask about s/t in particular; see dangóg [MDL]
While one's home village was the preferable place to live, there were occasions when living elsewhere was unavoidable. One such occasion was marriage. Marrying into a family from another town (áyon), would inevitably mean that either the man or the woman would be living in a place where they were not born. As long as the two towns remained at peace, such a couple could go about their lives with little difficulty. When conflict prevailed, however, they had little choice but to remain neutral, favouring neither one side nor the other (luyó-luyó).
There were also specific occasions when a man would marry a woman from another town, and then bring her back to his home to live (tában). The reference for tában in the 1754 edition of the Lisboa is literary. It is a term used in fables or other stories. In the 1865 edition the recorded definition was significantly different, referring to the kidnaping of a woman from another town and carrying her back to one's own. This meaning is closest to that found in Hiligaynon where reference is to the abduction of a woman, boy, or slave. The meaning given by Noceda for Tagalog is 'to elope', expressed as lovers running off together to the mountains, close to the literary meaning in Bikol. Modern Cebuano also has this meaning, although it does not appear in the earlier Encarnacion dictionary.
luyó-luyó MAG- to remain neutral in a conflict between two warring villages (a married couple, each from one of the warring villages, both retaining rights to go to or live in either village) [MDL]
tában MA-, -ON to marry a woman from another town, and then return with her to one's own town after marriage; MA-, (PAG-)-AN to marry a woman from a particular town; to marry into a particular family; used only in fables and other stories [MDL] [MDL 1865: MA-, -ON to kidnap or abduct a woman and carry her off to one's own town (a man); MA-, (PAG-)-AN to kidnap a woman from a particular place or a particular family]
daplí' MA-, -AN or MAG-, PAG--AN to live in a town where one is not native; MA-, -ON or MAG-, PAG--ON to live in another town for a particular reason [MDL]
salí'ot ... [+MDL: MA-, I- or MAG-, IPAG- to add s/t, placing it among other things; to carry s/t through a confined space; MA-, -AN or MAG-, PAG--AN to add to other things by having things slipped in or placed among them; ... → (fig-) Salí'ot ka lámang digdí samó'; iká nang uróg-uróg You're just an addition to us; you who are so proud (Said in reproach to s/o from another town who has no relatives living in the area)]
tunínong MA-, -AN or MAG-, PAG--AN to stop or live for a while in a particular town or village [MDL]
lá'ag-lá'ag MA-, -AN or MAG-, PAG--AN to go from town to town without settling or taking up residence; MA-, -ON or MAG-, PAG--ON to travel in this way in search of s/t or for a particular reason [MDL]
Each of the central Philippines languages has this term which is defined with various degrees of specificity. The closest definition to Bikol is in Cebuano where the abstinence continues until the two people who have made the agreement see each other once again. For Hiligaynon, all that is stated is that the agreement is set for a particular period of time. In Waray it is defined simply as an agreement, and in Tagalog as abstinence carried out in remembrance of something. In Cebuano, balatá' is also defined as a type of mourning for the dead. Reference to the dead is the only definition found in Kapampangan where the mourning continues until a death has been avenged. There are clear relationships among these definitions, but whether the term originated with reference to mourning, or simply to abstinence, is not possible to determine.
The form in Bikol is complex, with a root of the form bubóng referring to the covering along the peak or ridge of a roof. That then leaves us with trying to find a meaning for a prefix of the form taN-, something which has not been easy to determine. There are a few other sets in Bikol in which this pattern emerges and the meanings of the affixed and unaffixed forms are arguably related: tambúko / bukó, tangkáway / kawáy, tangkúros / kurós. An examination of the entries in the dictionaries for the other central Philippine languages also indicates that forms such as this are probably the combination of an affix and a root.
bubóng metal strip covering the seam at the peak and edges of a roof; -AN roof [+MDL: grass (typ- used for covering the ridge or peak of a roof); MA-, -ON or MAG-, PAG--ON to cover the peak of a roof with such grass; -AN: binububóngan the ridge or peak of a roof]
Towns, for the most part small with limited populations, had to have ways of using and organising available labour. Informally this would have included situations of mutual reciprocity where the aid offered voluntarily to one group or person would be returned when asked for or required (hunglón). Additionally, there were more formal impositions on one's time or labour which were required for the benefit of the community (tánod).
Of these two terms, hunglón, appears uniquely in Bikol. Tánod, however, while not carrying the sense of required, but unrecompensed, labour, does appear in the other central Philippine languages, conveying the primary meaning of 'guard' or 'sentinel' in Tagalog, Kapampangan and Hiligaynon, and 'servant', in particular one tasked with carrying out some of the heavier duties around the house, in Waray and Cebuano.
tánod those delegated or assigned for a particular period of time (weeks, days) to assist with the tasks in the village; MA- or MAG- to take one's turn carrying out the tasks required in a town or village; MA-, -AN: tanóran or MAG-, PAG--AN: pagtanóran to work in a particular area in this way [MDL]
pólo a 40 day period of personal service to the community required of Filipinos each year during the early Spanish period [PHILIPPINE SPANISH - from TAG- pulong 'meeting', communal gathering']
Of these two terms, only sagóp appears with a similar meaning in Tagalog. In the other central Philippine languages, tapón carries either the meaning of joining or moving from one place to another, but not the specific reference to mutual aid found in Bikol.
sagóp MAG- to work together in mutual aid; MAG-, PAG--ON to reinforce the manpower of one group by sending in others to help (in cultivating fields, joining once the task has begun; in the manning of one boat by the crew of two when there are not enough people to man two separate vessels); to join two towns or villages together when each has a small population; MA-, -AN or MAG-, PAG--AN to reinforce a group in carrying out a particular task [MDL]
ribók noise; clamor ...; MA- noisy, boisterous ...; MA--ON deafening, raucous, rowdy, tumultuous; a furor; MÁGIN MA- to become noisy; MAG-, -AN to disturb s/o with a lot of noise; MAGPA- to make noise; to make a racket or tumult; to make a fuss; KA--AN scuffle, rumble, riot, rampage; unrest [MDL: MA- or MAG- to be in a state of anxiety, excitement or tumult (a town, village); (PAG-)-ON to feel disquiet; to be anxious (people); (PAG-)-AN or MA- -AN to be in a state of tumult (a town); to be the source of disquiet or anxiety]
maló' MAGKA- to break out in rioting; to experience a riot or disturbance (a town); MAGKA-, PAGKA--AN to riot over a particular event or occurrence ]MDL]
Conflict could develop in both small and large ways. It could come about through the aggressive behaviour of groups or individuals resident in different towns (buláw). Such behaviour might arise from the stealing of wives, the mistreatment of those who had come peacefully to trade, or the killing of an individual of one town by the resident of another (budhí').
Budhí' is a borrowing from Sanskrit whose meaning has undergone a complete transformation. The Sanskrit root, budh, carries the meanings of 'learning', 'knowledge' and 'understanding'. This was borrowed into Malay as budi preserving much or the original meaning: 'intelligence', 'sense', 'kindness', 'character'. While it is common for the central Philippine languages to have borrowings from Malay, in this case there may have another source. The Philippine languages preserve the h in budhí' where it is not present in the Malay. The addition of an h in such a position is not something which normally happens in the Philippines. As for the meaning, in Waray and Cebuano budhí' is defined as 'traitor'. In the modern Tagalog dictionary of Fr. English, the meaning conforms to the original Sanskrit, with definitions of 'conscience' and 'intuition'. In the older Noceda dictionary there is no headword entry for budhí' although it does appear in examples associated with other entries. The meanings given in two different contexts are contradictory. One of these approaches the modern definition, carrying the meanings 'moderation' and 'temperance'. The second, 'deceitful', parallels the meanings in Waray and Cebuano. The changed meaning in the Philippines may have something to do with the raids, primarily Moslem, from the south and the way the term may have been used by those participating in such raids.
budhí' MA-, -AN or MAG-, PAG--AN to kill s/o from another town [MDL]
Of the central Philippine languages, all but Kapampangan define gúbat in similar ways to Bikol, and Cebuano and Hiligaynon have similar meanings for áyaw.
dúngas MA-, -ON or MAG-, PAG--ON to attack one's enemies on their own territory or in their own town; MA-, -AN or MAG-, PAG--AN to attack the town or territory of one's enemies; MA-, I- or MAG-, IPAG- to use particular weapons in such an attack [MDL]
gúbat MA-, -ON to conquer or subdue a particular people; MA-, -AN to conquer a particular place; MANG- to embark on a war of conquest; MANG-, PANG--ON to go from town to town, attacking and conquering the inhabitants [MDL]
Towns, no matter how independent they wished to be, needed each other not only to supplement labour and aid in defense, but also to obtain the goods and foodstuffs that were not available locally. The inhabitants of coastal towns that made a living by fishing, needed the agricultural resources of the upstream communities for the rice or millet that they did not grow. For this they bartered their fish.
Inter-village conflict was often kept at bay simply because of the trade relations that existed between communities that had access to different types of products. From the coastal villages came not only fish and salt, but also items such as jars and dishes, making their way from locations outside the Philippines. As for the upstream and upland communities, they supplied, in addition to the rice on which the coastal communities depended, other agricultural commodities as well as the material needed for the weaving of their cloth.
The calmer, inland waters separating the islands were conducive to a type of inter-island trade carried on boats driven by sail and oar and stabilised by beams or spars serving as outriggers. While these ships might not have survived transit on the open sea, they endured the inter-island seas well in the transport of dried fish, salt, wax, cotton, coconuts, and other basic and sought after items. Large and well-populated islands, such as Catanduanes, where most of the inhabitants were engaged in agriculture, also had those who occupied themselves with coastal trade, to nearby Luzon and the adjacent offshore islands.
Trade, particularly in foodstuffs, also served another purpose; it bolstered diminishing supplies and gave surety to communities where surpluses were low or non-existent. Dasmariñas in 1592, writing of a potential threat to coastal communities by the Japanese, encouraged residents in such areas to move inland and start planting crops on available land. He reasoned that if the Japanese were successful in dominating the coastal areas, inter-island trade would cease or be severely disrupted, leading to a shortage of food.
International trade existed long before the Spanish arrived and sought the goods that they would later tranship to Spain via Mexico. Legazpi describes the annual trade which was carried out by the Chinese and Japanese on the islands of Mindoro and Luzon in 1568, before the Spanish had moved north to Manila from their base in Cebu. Among the items traded were cotton cloth, silks, gongs, perfumes, and items of porcelain, tin and iron which were exchanged for gold and wax. These items were then sold on by local traders to other areas in the Philippines.
As the Spanish rule in the Philippines became more widespread and more secure, Chinese trade to the islands began to increase. More ships and more traders began to arrive, and to arrive earlier in the year. The nature of the goods they brought to trade also began to change, with a greater variety of goods of higher value and quality which would previously have been carried to be sold in the markets of Malacca.
When traders from China and Macao arrived late in the season and were unable to travel as far south as Manila, they would find a safe anchorage along the Ilocos coast in the northern part of the country. There they would unload their goods which would be acquired by traders both local and distant. The traders from Manila would then transport their goods on vessels propelled south by the prevailing wind once there was a change in season. The Bikol entry du'óng captures a number of aspects of this trade and transport.
Bayabáy referred to the carriage of goods brought along for sale on one's travels. The only other central Philippines language showing this term is Tagalog where the meaning was 'to wander from town to town' implying a person had no place to call home. As for the sale both within and outside one's town, halyáw was one of the terms which conveyed this meaning. The entry is built on the more general root lúyaw referring to travel for the purpose of getting something, or taking something to another location. The prefix ha- had a wider meaning during Lisboa's time, also referring to direction.
halyáw merchant; goods, merchandise; MA-, -AN or MAG-, PAG--AN to travel to other towns to sell goods; to move about one's own town selling goods; MA-, I- or MAG-, IPAG- to sell things, traveling from place to place [MDL]
lúyaw MA- or MAG- to travel; MA-, -ON or MAG-, PAG--ON to travel to get s/t or for a particular reason; MA-, -AN or MAG-, PAG--AN to travel to a particular town, area; MA-, I- or MAG-, IPAG- to carry s/t to another town or area when traveling [MDL]
In both the 1754 and 1860 editions of the Noceda dictionary, balidya is defined as 'to engage in trade in distant lands'. The index to both of these editions has quite a different reference: tratar sobre falso which can mean 'to deal in fake items' or 'to trade deceptively'. In the 1832 edition of the dictionary this becomes the only definition offered: trato ó mercansía sobre falso 'fake or false items of trade'.
Returning now to Bikol, if we look closely at balidyá' we see that it can be treated as a compound comprising the roots báli and dáya' which have independent meaning. In the case of báli Lisboa lists only the reduplicated form, báli-báli which nominally means 'liar' or 'trickster' and verbally 'to fool' or 'to deceive'. As for dáya', nominally we have 'deceit' or 'fraud', and verbally 'to deceive' or 'to defraud'. It appears as if trade with distant lands did not begin as a positive exercise, but one that resulted in goods that were not what they originally seemed.
báli-báli MA-: mabáli-báling táwo a liar, trickster, con-artist; MAG- to lie or make excuses for not doing s/t; MAG-, PAG--AN to fool or deceive s/o; to play a trick on s/o; to lie to or make excuses to s/o; MAG-, IPAG- to use s/t as a deception or an excuse; to lie about s/t or lie for a particular reason [MDL]
dáya' deceit, guile; MA- dishonest, deceitful, two-faced; MAG-, -ON to cheat s/o; to dupe, fool, gyp or hoodwink s/o; to beguile, deceive or delude s/o; to inveigle s/t; MAKA-, MA- to get cheated, duped; PARA- cheater, imposter [+MDL: MA-, -AN or MAG-, PAG--AN to defraud or cheat s/o; MA-, I- or MAG-, IPAG- to use a particular trick or guise in cheating]
Travel was never easy, whether by boat over longer distances, or on foot following the trails that led to closer destinations. Towns were often in conflict and individuals, stripped of the security of their home surroundings, were open to varying degrees of attack. This could come from known enemies, or from highwaymen who lay in wait on a deserted stretch of road anticipating the arrival of an unwary traveller (líbon). There were also natural predators such as crocodiles, whose attacks could be avoided by carefully negotiating the way safely through areas where they were known to be found (liwás). Fear of the unknown and a concern for one's security could lead a person to abort a journey already in progress or just decide not to go (hurób).
liwás MAKA-, MA--AN to successfully pass through a place known for its dangers (such as crossing a river where crocodiles are usually found); to pass safely through such an area [MDL]
hurób MA-, -AN or MAG-, PAG--AN to not proceed with what one is doing; to not continue on to where one was going (because of fear or due to changing one's mind) [MDL]
lúngon MA-, -ON or MAG-, PAG--ON to live in s/o else's house; to travel with s/o from that house; MA-, -AN or MAG-, PAG--AN to live in the house of another; MAG- or MAGKA- to live together in one house; to travel together with s/o from the same house; MAG-, PAG--ON to ask that two people live together, or ask that two people from the same house travel together; MAG-, PAG--AN to live in a particular house together; to travel together to a particular destination ... [MDL]
lagálag astray, off course; ... [+MDL: MA-, -AN or MAG-, PAG--AN to take the wrong trail; to go the wrong way; MA-, -ON or MAG-, PAG--ON to go astray while on the way to get s/t; MA- to lose one's way; to go astray; MA--AN to end up on the wrong trail]
sági' MA-, -AN or MAG-, PAG--AN to take the wrong road; to go astray; ... MA-, I- or MAG-, IPAG- to mislead s/o (causing them to take the wrong road); ... [MDL]
lagbás MAG-, -AN to pass s/t by; to go too far beyond s/t; to overshoot a particular destination; MAKA-, MA--AN to go too far beyond; ... [+MDL: MA- or MAG- to pass by; MA-, -AN or MAG-, PAG--AN to pass by a particular place; MA-, -ON or MAG-, PAG--ON to pass by to get s/t ...]
These are complex entries, and finding a root for some of them has proven difficult. For dumará the root is clearly dará, basically meaning 'to bring' or 'carry' and figuratively 'to convince' (see above). As for kanuró, there is no clear root form in Bikol. If we look at Tagalog, however, the root form is clear: turó' with an alternate listing in the Noceda dictionary of nuró', meaning 'to point s/t out'. Ka- is a nominal prefix occurring in both Tagalog and Bikol and carrying the meaning of 'companion' in both languages. The term, meaning 'the person who goes with you to point s/t out' may have been borrowed in its entirety by Bikol speakers from Tagalog.
ka- nominal and verbal affix, accompanied action, infinitive-command form: BASE úlay:kaúlay the person one talks to ...[+MDL: kauríg the person you raise pigs with; kapudóng the person wearing the same head covering as you; kamatá the person with the same type of eyes as you; katábang helper; kaibá companion; kaíwal enemy]
dumará MAG-, PAG--ON to guide or lead others (as on a trail, taking one's place in front of those one is guiding); MAG, PAG--AN to guide others to a particular place; ... [MDL]
ngúrang MANG-, PANG--AN or MAGPANG-, PAGPANG--AN to serve as a guide to s/o; MANG-, IPANG- or MAGPANG-, IPAGPANG- to point out a particular trail or way; MAPA- to ask the way; PARAPANG- a guide [MDL]
Although travel was generally undertaken for particular purposes, it could also be accomplished simply out of a desire to explore the unknown (mumu'ágos), heading to a distant location without a particular plan or purpose, (labútaw), or to a destination that had never been visited, or one that had not been visited for a long time (gáboy).
labútaw MA- or MAG- to travel a long distance for no particular reason; MA-, -AN or MAG-, PAG--AN to travel to a far away place having no plan or particular aim; Malabútaw ka dumán sa harayó'? Are you going off to a far away place?; Anó daw ta' liminabútaw akó digdí? How is it that I ended up here, so far away? ... [MDL]
gáboy MA-, -AN or MAG-, PAG--AN to go to a town or a place where one has never been or which one hasn't visited in a long time; to go out of the house for the first time after a long illness; MA-, -ON or MAG- PAG--ON to go to get s/t from such a place; MA-, I- or MAG-, IPAG- to take s/t to such a place; Da'í pa máyo' akó nagáboy kaiyán banwá'an na iyán I have still not gone to that town; ... [MDL]
riríhaw MA-, -AN or MAG-, PAG--AN to go to a particular place; MA-, -ON or MAG-, PAG--ON to go somewhere to get s/t; MA-, I- or MAG-, IPAG- to take s/t somewhere; syn- labáy [MDL]
talíwan MA- or MAG- to leave, having been unable to meet the person you came to see; MA-, -AN or MAG-, PAG--AN to not meet up with s/o as expected; to miss s/o you came to see; MAGKA- to take different routes and not meet; to travel by different routes [MDL]
tapók MA-, I- or MAG-, IPAG- to store, keep or hide s/t out of town (in the fields, forest); to take s/t out of town for hiding; MA-, -AN or MAG-, PAG--AN to store or hide s/t in a particular location out of town [MDL]
riwás-díwas MAPA-, PA--ON or MAGPA-, PAGPA--ON to earn one's living by going from place to place doing odd jobs; MAPA-, PA--AN or MAGPA-, PAGPA--AN to go from place to place looking for work; to do particular odd jobs to sustain o/s; nagpapariwás-díwas nin pagkakán going from place to place looking for food; MAPA-: mapariwás-díwas na táwo a sponger; one without regular employment who moves about getting just enough to sustain himself ... [MDL]
laˈog a silversmith or jeweler who travels from town to town in search of work; MAG‑, PAG‑ ‑AN to travel to or stay in another town far from one's own (a silversmith, jeweler); MAG‑, IPAG‑ to carry one's tools when traveling from town to town [MDL]
liswág MA‑, ‑AN or MAPA‑, PA‑‑AN or MAGPA‑, PAGPA‑‑AN to look for a remedy or cure (in a particular place, from a particular person or by analyzing a particular substance); MA‑, I‑ or MAPA‑, IPA‑ or MAGPA‑, IPAGPA to look for a cure or remedy for a particular ailment ... [MDL]
When travel involved movement over longer distances, travellers had to also have a way of carrying belongings and a supply of food. Their belonging were carried in a bag or sack made from netting (kadáy), and rice in a pouch made from the fronds of burí palm (lupi'ón).
lupi'ón a pouch or bag made from the leaves of the burí palm, used for carrying rice when traveling; also lulupi'ón [MDL]
lulúto' food which is brought on a trip; see lúto' [MDL]
Departure on a trip required preparation, the packing of food. clothing, and whatever had to be delivered if that was the purpose of the travel (gína-gína, humáli'). Before leaving, travellers would be offered a drink (tulíd), most probably alcoholic and made from a distillate of coconut sap, rice or sugarcane juice, depending of the region and availability (see Chapter 2, 'Food ,' Section 1). When such rituals were completed, travellers would be accompanied to the roadside to wish them farewell (patnúgot) or out of politeness to show them the way (tulwá). Once this was completed, they would be off (tubó').
Humáli' is clearly an affixed form of the root háli' 'to leave', the infix -UM-, now frozen in modern Bikol into alternative command structures, had a wider, though still limited, representation in the Lisboa dictionary. Patnúgot is also found in Tagalog and Kapampangan. The root word here is most likely túgot 'to permit' or 'to allow'. The form we need is closely related to matinúgot defined by Lisboa as 'one who easily agrees or gives permission'. If we add the from patinúgot, not shown by Lisboa, but carrying the meaning 'the person who was given permission', we come closest to patnúgot, the unstressed i being lost.
humáli' MA- or MAG- to be ready to leave; to be about to depart; MA-, -AN or MAG-, PAG--AN to be about to leave for a particular destination; MA-, -ON or MAG-, PAG--ON to be ready to leave to get s/t or for a particular reason [MDL]
tulíd MAPA-, PA--ON or MAGPA-, PAGPA--ON to give those who are about to leave town a farewell drink; MAPA-, IPA- or MAGPA-, IPAGPA- to offer food or drink to those about to depart [MDL]
patnúgot MA-, -ON or MAG-, PAG--ON to accompany s/o who is leaving for the purpose of wishing them farewell; to see s/o off on a trip [MDL]
túgot permission; DA'Í forbidden, prohibited ... [+MDL: MA-, -AN or MAG-, PAG--AN to give s/o permission; MA-, I- or MAG-, IPAG- to allow s/o to do s/t; MA- + -IN-: matinúgot one who easily gives permission or consent, or agrees to give what has been requested ]
tulwá MA-, I- or MAG-, IPAG- to accompany s/o to the road out of courtesy or in order to show them the way [MDL]
tubó' MAPA- or MAGPA- to be on one's way; to set off on a trip; MAPA-, PA- -AN or MAGPA-, PAGPA--AN to be on one's way somewhere; to be off on a trip to somewhere; MAPA-, PA--ON or MAGPA-, PAGPA--ON to be on one's way to get s/t; Da'í pa kamí nakahápit ta' patubó' kamí We still can't stop for a visit because we're on our way somewhere [MDL]
Bubulát shares the same root as the reduplicated bulát-bulát, a light-hearted term referring to people who are momentarily unaware of what is going on around them. The reference may be to the way one feels when getting up early in the morning to start out on a trip.
The root of sagúli' is clearly ulí' 'to return home' or 'to return to a particular place'. The prefix sa- is explainable as indicating location. What is not so easy to explain is the addition of g. This appears to have replaced the glottal stop which would have existed between the prefix and the root. Bikol is not alone in having this term, the identical meaning being found in Cebuano, and related meanings in Waray and Hiligaynon.
sagúli' MA- or MAG- to make a day trip; MA-, -AN or MAG-, PAG--AN to travel to a place for the day, returning home to spend the night; MA-, -ON or MAG-, PAG--ON to make such a trip to get s/t or for a particular purpose; also see ulí' [MDL]
ulí' MAG- to return home; MAG-, I- to return s/t; to give s/t back; MAG-, -AN to return to somewhere; to give s/t back to s/o [+MDL: MA-, -AN or MAG-, PAG--AN to return to a particular place; MA-, -ON or MAG-, PAG--ON to return for s/t; MA-, I- or MAG-, IPAG- to return s/t; MA--AN to regain one's health; to recover (one who is ill); MAKA- to bring one back to health]
dagsáy MA- or MAG- to travel a short distance or for a short period of time; MA-, -AN or MAG-, PAG--AN to travel a short distance to a particular place; MA-, -ON or MAG-, PAG--ON to travel a short distance to collect s/t; MA-, I- or MAG-, IPAG- to take s/t to a place just a short distance away; Makapiráng dumagsáy sagkód sa Libngánan? How long does it take to get from here to Libmanan? [MDL]
tig- nominal affix indicating the time of day: tigbabayó five or six in the afternoon (time for pounding rice); tigpanhápon nin manók sunset (time when chickens go back to their roost); tigsalóng-sálong seven in the evening (time to light torches); tigsúgok nine in the morning (time when chickens lay eggs) [MDL]
libód MA-, I- or MAG-, IPAG- ... to take s/t on a return trip by road or river; MA-, -AN or MAG-, PAG--AN to make a return or round trip on a road or river; -AN: libdón a complete circuit; a return or round trip; saró' kalibdón one circuit, return or round trip [MDL]
Journeys which were short, or those to more distant locations which had to be reached quickly, could be completed without stopping (turúhoy). For the most part, however, even for trips lasting no longer than a day, a traveller would have to take a break, either when moving overland or by travelling by boat. These were brief rest stops taken to recover from the tiredness of the journey (dangán-dangán, suránoy), and once the travellers were feeling refreshed, they would move on (see the figurative meaning of ambón).
dangán-dangán MAG- to stop for a time when traveling on foot or in a boat, then continuing on one's way; MAG-, PAG--ON to stop for a particular reason; MAG-, PAG--AN to stop at a particular place; Da'í nagdangán-dangán kon minala'óg Don't hesitate when entering the house (come straight in) ... [MDL]
suránoy MA-, -AN or MAG-, PAG--AN to deviate or depart from a set course; to leave the main road (as by stopping at s/o's house to rest); MA-, -ON or MAG-, PAG--ON to deviate from a set course for s/t; ... Si makuríng yayá ni kuyán, siminuránoy lámang na himigdá' Due to that person's extreme tiredness, he will have to take a break and lie down; MAG-: magsuró-suránoy to wander about the town, accomplishing nothing [MDL]
ambón dew; morning fog, mist, haze; ... [+MDL: morning fog; MA- or MAG- to become foggy; to descend (mist); (PAG-)-AN to be covered in mist; (fig-) Inaambón ka? Are you feeling refreshed? (Asked of s/o before they continue on a journey]
sirunggó' MA- or MAG- to take shelter; to seek refuge; to seek a safe harbor; MA-, -AN or MAG-, PAG--AN to take refuge at a particular place; MA-, I- or MAG-, IPAG- to take s/t to a place of safety or shelter: Digdí na lámang kitá sirunggó' / pasirunggó' ta' madágat Let's pull in here to shelter since the sea is rough; Sirunggó' na lámang kitá dumán ka kuyán ta' da'í kitá pinasasakát sa ibáng hárong Let's take shelter at those people's house since we won't be invited in at another house [MDL]
sampót a waif; a stray (person, animal); MAG- to arrive on s/o's doorstep like a stray [MDL: a person who comes to live in s/o's house on a permanent or temporary basis; MA-, -ON or MAG-, PAG- -ON to come to live with the owners of a particular house; to move into s/o's house; MA-, -AN or MAG-, PAG--AN to move into a particular house; to come to stay or spend a few nights at a particular place; to break journey at a particular place; MAKI- to request permission to come to live or move in with s/o; -AN: sarampótan a rest house; a place to break journey]
hápit MAG- to drop in or drop by; to stop in ... [MDL: MA-, -ON or MAG-, PAG--ON to stop off when traveling to a particular place; MA-, I- or MAG-, IPAG- to carry s/t on a journey to a particular place; -AN: hahapítan or harapítan a place where one stops when on the road]
The route one took when travelling depended as much upon the reason for the travel as on the availability of particular river channels or trails. There were undoubtedly well-worn paths and regularly frequented channels that were used when it was necessary to deliver things or collect things waiting for pick up (sabyág).
patós MA-, -AN or MAG-, PAG--AN to take the shortest route (such as a side channel of a river or a connecting trail); MA-, -ON or MAG-, PAG- -ON to go for s/t via the shortest route; MA-, I- or MAG-, IPAG- to take s/t via the shortest way; -AN: papatsán shortcut; a side channel, connecting road, trail; syn- gútos [MDL]
salángi' a winding road; a roundabout way; MA-, -AN or MAG-, PAG--AN to travel a winding road; to take the long way around; MA-, -ON or MAG-, PAG--ON to go to get s/t via a roundabout route ... [MDL]
waywáy MAKA-, MA--AN to detour; to go via another route [MDL]
liklík MAG-, -AN to avoid, bypass, go around or detour around s/t [+MDL: MA-, -AN or MAG-, PAG- -AN to go the long way around s/t; to avoid the main road, taking others; MA-, -ON or MAG-, PAG--ON to take the long way around to get s/t] syn- líkaw
labót MA-, MA--AN: malabtán to arrive at or reach a particular place; to reach s/o; MA-, IKA- to take s/t to a particular place; Da'í akó nalabót dumán sa hárong na kuyán I didn't get to those people's house ... ]
rápi-rápi always used in the negative: DA'Í MANG-, PANG--AN to not go to a particular place; to not reach or arrive at a particular destination: Kada'í mo man rarápi-rápi sa kaganák You never go to see your parents [MDL]
Towns were not large, although there were greater concentrations of people in clusters of towns where the land was fertile and water was regularly available, such as the areas along the length of the Bikol river. Towns were centred on the coast or along the major waterways, although there were also communities more inland, more distant and more difficult to reach.
Towns had fairly homogeneous populations, and residency was long and generally stable. When strangers arrived, they were questioned as to where they came from, with different questions asked of those where the dress and language were familiar, to those where these were not recognisable. Both conflict and cooperation existed between towns, cooperation for the sharing of labour in short supply and the trade of items which would otherwise be unobtainable, and conflict in the form of raids for the purposes of plunder, ransom and slavery.
Residency in a town where one was not born was often unavoidable, due to marriage or work commitments, and where the towns were at peace, this was not a problem. When towns were in conflict, such residents had little choice but to remain neutral. New residents were expected to adjust in other ways, with comments made about those whose ways were noticeably different.
International trade, primarily from China and Macau, but also from India and Japan, came to the ports on the coast of Luzon and to those on the island of Mindoro. When traders were late in the season and the monsoon winds had changed, they docked in the north of Luzon, in what are now the Ilocos provinces. From there goods were sent south to Manila and redistributed.
For the Bikol region, much of the trade was local, with merchants carrying goods from one town to another along the river systems, or inland on trails of varying quality. An analysis of the some of the terms applying to traders indicates that their trade may not have always been honest and their actions not always honourable.
Travel, both by sea and land, was fraught with dangers, both human and animal; highwaymen waiting along quiet stretches of road to rob or kill, and crocodiles hidden beneath the vegetation on waterways waiting to upset a passing boat. Preference was to travel with a companion, and where the way was new and unknown, the company of a guide.
People travelled for different reasons, from a sense of adventure to experience places they had never seen, to those searching for employment, for food in times of scarcity, or for a cure to a serious illness. Clothing was carried in a sack made of netting, and rice wrapped in a small pouch. Food was brought along where it was practicable, or a pot carried when cooking was required.
Individuals on longer journeys were farewelled with a drink and then accompanied to the trail out of town. Journeys could be broken at various rest houses along the way, mainly private residences where people knew they would be welcome. Routes could be long or short, along side trails or channels where these were available. Detours were made when the main routes were dangerous or unpassable, or for the purpose of picking up or delivering particular items. Successful trips reached their intended destination, while others resulted in an unsatisfactory return.
 Quipayo Church National Historical Institute Marker (accessed 22 November 2019).
 Pedro Chirino, S.J., 1604, 'Relacion de las Islas Filipinas (to be concluded),' in Blair and Robertson, vol. 12, pp 169-322, p. 202, Note 53.
 'Naga, Camarines Sur' Wikipedia, English, n.d. (accessed 2 December 2019).
 Juan Feliz de la Encarnacion, Diccionario español - bisaya, Manila: Imprenta de los amigos del pais, á cargo de M. Sanchez, 1852, see agad.
 'Palauan,' Stuartxchange (accessed 12 December 2019); 'Alocasia macrorrhizos' Wikipedia, English, n.d. (accessed 12 December 2019).
 Diego Bergaño, Vocabulario de la lengua Pampanga, en romance, 1732, Manila: Imprenta de Ramirez y Giraudier, Reimpreso 1860, see lupa.
 'Lipote,' Stuartxchange (accessed 12 December 2019).
 Alonso de Mentrida, Diccionario de la lengua Bisaya, Hiliguena, y Haraya de la Isla de Panay, Manila: La Imprenta de D. Manuel y de Felix Dayot, 1841, see lambong.
 Ignacio Francisco Alcina, History of the Bisayan People in the Philippine Islands, 1668, vols. 1 and 2, translated, edited and annotated by Cantius J. Kobak and Lucio Gutiérrez, Manila: UST Publishing House, 2002; vol. II, Chapter 3, p. 123.
 de la Encarnacion, Bisaya, see lambong.
 R. O. Winstedt, Unabridged Malay-English Dictionary, Singapore: Kelly & Walsh Ltd, n.d, see bichara; Monier-Williams Sanskrit Dictionary, see vicāra.
 W.E. Retana, Dccionario de Filipinismos, Madrid: Real Academia Española, 1921, see bichara.
 Juan José Noceda and Pedro de Sanlucar, Vocabulario de la lengua Tagala, 1754, Manila: Imprenta de Ramirez y Giraudier, reimpreso 1860, see sopot; Antonio Sánchez de la Rosa, Diccionario español - bisaya para las provincias de Sámar y Leyte, 3rd edition, aumentado por Antonio Valeriano, Manila: Santos y Bermal, 1914, see sopot; Alonso de Mentrida, Diccionario de la lengua Bisaya, Hiliguena, y Haraya de la Isla de Panay, Manila: La Imprenta de D. Manuel y de Felix Dayot, 1841, see sopot; Diego Bergaño, Pampanga, see suput.
 Noceda and de Sanlucar, Tagala, see taan, cauil; Sánchez de la Rosa, Sámar y Leyte, see taan, cauil; de la Encarnacion, Bisaya, see taan; de Mentrida, Bisaya, Hiliguena, y Haraya, see taan, cauil; Bergaño, Pampanga, see cauil.
 Albert W. Herre & Agustin F. Umali, English and Common Names of Philippines Fishes, Circular 14, United States Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington D.C.: United States Government Printing Office, 1948, p. 54; 'Kuhlia marginata' GBIF | Global Biodiversity Information Facility.
 Sánchez de la Rosa, Sámar y Leyte, see damag; de la Encarnacion, Bisaya, see damagan.
 Lawrence A. Reid, 'Who Are the Philippine Negritos? Evidence from Language,' Human Biology vol. 85: Iss. 1, Article 15, 2013, pp. 329-358.
 'Vocabulario de la Lengua Bicol' Wikipedia, Bicol, n.d. (accessed 17 December 2019).
 Ponong (accessed 25 January 2020).
 Francisco Mallari, S.J., 'Muslim raids in Bicol: 1580-1792,' in Philippine Studies, vol. 34, 1986, pp. 257-286, p. 275.
 The Municipality of Tinambac (accessed 27 December 2019).
 Francisco Mallari, 'Camarines Towns Under Seige', Philippine Studies, vol. 38, No. 4 (Fourth Quarter 1990), Ateneo de Manila University, pp. 453-476.
 Norman Owen, 'Problems in Partido: 1741-1810', Philippine Studies, vol. 38, No. 4 (Fourth Quarter 1990), Ateneo de Manila University, pp. 421-452, p. 425.
] Malcolm W. Mintz, 'The Fossilized Affixes of Bikol,' Currents in Pacific Linguistics: Papers on Austronesian Languages and Ethnolinguistics in Honor of George W. Grace, ed. Robert Blust, Canberra: Pacific Linguistics C-117, 1991, p. 265-291, pp. 279-281.
 'Moringa oleifera,' Science Direct (accessed 6 January 2020).
 Fr. Leo James English, Tagalog - English Dictionary, Manila: Congregation of the Most Holy Redeemer, 1986, see malunggay; John U. Wolff, A Dictionary of Cebuano Visayan, Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines, 1971, see kalamunggay, kamalunggay.
 'Moringa,' Trees for Life Names of Moringa.
 Kamus Dewan, Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka, 1994, see marunggai.
 The Portuguese in the Moluccas: Ternate and Tidore.
 'Iberian Union,' Wikipedia, English, n.d. (accessed 12 January 2020).
 The Spanish Presence in the Moluccas: Ternate and Tidore.
 Fernando de Silva, 'Letter to Felipe IV,' Manila,' July 30, 1626, in Blair and Robertson, vol. 22, pp. 93-103, p. 95; Casimiro Diaz, O.S.A. 'The Augustinians in the Philippines,' 1670 -1694, Manila, 1718, (from his Conquistas), in Blair and Robertson, vol. 42, pp. 117-312, p. 156.
 Diego de Bobadilla, S.J., and others, 'Glorious victories against the Moros of Mindanao; Mexico, 1638, in Blair and Robertson, vol 29, pp. 86-101, p. 95.
[ James Cowles Pritchard, Researches into the Physical History of Mankind, vol. 5: Researches into the History of the Oceanic and of the American Nations, London: Sherwood, Gilbert and Piper, Paternoster-Row, 1847, p. 84
 Retana, see Camucón, Tirón.
 Casimiro Diaz, O.S.A. 'The Augustinians in the Philippines,' in Blair and Robertson, vol. 42, p. 156.
 Thomas Forrest, A Voyage to New Guinea and the Moluccos, from Balambangan: Including an Account of Magindanao, Sooloo and Other Islands, London: G. Scott, 1779 (digitally printed edition 2018, pp. 396-398); Pritchard, p. 84.
] Mallari, 'Camarines Towns Under Siege', p. 268, Note 42.
 Juan Lopez, S.J., 'Events in Filipinas,' 1636-37, Cavite, July 23, in Blair and Robertson, vol. 27, pp. 306-329, p. 315.
 Sánchez de la Rosa, Sámar y Leyte, see apari.
 G. P. Dasmariñas, 'Account of the encomiendas in the Philipinas Islands,' Manila, May 3, 1591, in Blair & Robertson, vol. 8, pp. 96-41, p. 126.
 Reid, pp. 334-335.
 Miguel de Loarca, 'Relacion de las Yslas Filipinas,' Arevalo, June, 1582, in Blair & Robertson, vol. 5, pp. 34-187, pp. 93, 95, 97.
 Noceda and de Sanlucar, Tagala, see laot; Sánchez de la Rosa, Sámar y Leyte, see lauod; de la Encarnacion, Bisaya, see laood; de Mentrida, Bisaya, Hiliguena, y Haraya, see lauur, Bergaño, Pampanga, see laut.
 Bob Blust and Stephen Trussel, The Austronesian Comparative Dictionary; see *l
 Sánchez de la Rosa, Sámar y Leyte, see iraya; Wolff, see ilaya; de Mentrida, Bisaya, Hiliguena, y Haraya, see ilaya.
 Blust and Trussel, The Austronesian Comparative Dictionary, see *r.
 de Mentrida, Bisaya, Hiliguena, y Haraya, see taban; Noceda and de Sanlucar, Tagala, see taban; Wolff, see taban.
 de la Encarnacion, Bisaya, see balata; de Mentrida, Bisaya, Hiliguena, y Haraya, see balata; Sánchez de la Rosa, Sámar y Leyte, see balata; Noceda and de Sanlucar, Tagala, see balata; Bergaño, Pampanga, see balata.
 Sánchez de la Rosa, Sámar y Leyte, see tambobong; de la Encarnacion, Bisaya, see tambobong.
 Mintz, pp. 287-288.
 de la Encarnacion, Bisaya, see locas; de Mentrida, Bisaya, Hiliguena, y Haraya, see lucas; Noceda and de Sanlucar, Tagala, see locas; Sánchez de la Rosa, Sámar y Leyte, see lucas; Bergaño, Pampanga, see lucas.
 English, see tanod; Bergaño, Pampanga, see tanud; de Mentrida, Bisaya, Hiliguena, y Haraya, see tanor; Sánchez de la Rosa, Sámar y Leyte, see tanod; de la Encarnacion, Bisaya, see tanod.
 Noceda and de Sanlucar, Tagala, see atag.
 Noceda and de Sanlucar, Tagala, see sagóp.
 M. L. de Legazpi, 'Relation of the Philippine Islands,' Cebu, July 7, 1569, in Blair and Robertson, vol. 3, pp. 54-61, p. 55.
 de Loarca, 'Relacion de las Yslas Filipinas,' in Blair and Robertson, vol 5, p. 141.
 Sanskrit Dictionary, see budh.
 Winstedt, see budi.
 Sánchez de la Rosa, Sámar y Leyte, see budhi; de la Encarnacion, Bisaya, see bodhi; English, see budhi; Noceda and de Sanlucar, Tagala, see morigerar, biloc.
 Antonio de Morga, 'Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas (concluded),' Mexico, 1609, in Blair and Robertson, vol. 16, pp. 25-210, p. 117.
 Noceda and de Sanlucar,Tagala, see gúbat; Sánchez de la Rosa, Sámar y Leyte, see gubat; de la Encarnacion, Bisaya, see gobat; ayao; de Mentrida, Bisaya, Hiliguena, y Haraya, see gubat, ayao.
 Diego de Artieda, 'Relation of the Western Islands called Filipinas,' 1753, in Blair and Robertson, vol. 3, pp. 190-208, p. 201-202.
 de Loarca, 'Relacion de las Yslas Filipinas,' in Blair and Robertson, vol. 5, p. 121.
 Diego de Bobadilla, S. J., 'Relation of the Filipinas Islands,' 1640, in Blair and Robertson, vol. 29, pp. 277-312, p. 295.
 de Morga, 'Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas (concluded),' in Blair and Robertson, vol. 16, p. 106.
 G. P. Dasmariñas, 'Luzon Menaced by Japanese,' Manila, 1592, in Blair and Robertson, vol 8, pp. 284-300, p. 289.
 M. L. de Legazpi, 'Letters to Felipe II of Spain,' Cebu, July 12, 15, and 23, 1567, and June 26, 1568, in Blair and Robertson, vol. 2, pp. 232-243, p. 238.
 Guido de Lavezaris, 'Affairs in the Philippines after the death of Legazpi,' Manila, June 29, 1573, in Blair and Robertson, vol. 3, pp. 179-189, p. 181.
 Juan de Medina, O.S.A., 'History of the Augustinian order in the Filipinas Islands (to be concluded),' 1630 (printed at Manila, 1893), in Blair and Robertson, vol. 23, pp. 119-298, p. 279.
 Francisco Colin, S.J., 'Native races and their customs,' Madrid, 1663, from his Labor evangelica, in Blair and Robertson, vol. 40, pp. 37-98, p. 87.
 Noceda and de Sanlucar, Tagala, see bayabay.
 Noceda and de Sanlucar, Tagala, see lacal, calacal; Bergaño, Pampanga, see calacal; de la Encarnacion, Bisaya, see calacal; de Mentrida, Bisaya, Hiliguena, y Haraya, see calacal.
 Noceda and de Sanlucar, Tagala, see balidya, tratar; Sánchez de la Rosa, Sámar y Leyte, see balidia; de la Encarnacion, Bisaya, see baligya; de Mentrida, Bisaya, Hiliguena, y Haraya, see baliguia.
 Noceda and de Sanlucar, Tagala, see laco; Bergaño, Pampanga, see laco; Winstedt, see laku.
 Winstedt, see beniaga; Kamus Dewan, see niaga; Monier-Williams Sanskrit Dictionary, see nigama.
 Noceda and de Sanlucar, Tagala, see banyaga.
 Noceda and de Sanlucar, Tagala, see baliuas; Sánchez de la Rosa, Sámar y Leyte, see beriuas; de Mentrida, Bisaya, Hiliguena, y Haraya, see baliuas; Bergaño, Pampanga, see baliuas.
 Noceda and de Sanlucar, Tagala, see toro, noro.
 Noceda and de Sanlucar, Tagala, see patnogot; Bergaño, Pampanga, see patnugut.
 Noceda and de Sanlucar, Tagala, see baclay; de Mentrida, Bisaya, Hiliguena, y Haraya, see baclay;de la Encarnacion, Bisaya, see baclay.
 Sánchez de la Rosa, Sámar y Leyte, see saguli; de la Encarnacion, Bisaya, see sag-uli; de Mentrida, Bisaya, Hiliguena, y Haraya, see sag-uli.