Intersections: Gender and Sexuality in Asia and the Pacific
Monograph 1: The Philippines at the Turn of the Sixteenth Century
Malcolm W. Mintz
FIBRE, CLOTH AND CLOTHING
This chapter begins with a discussion of the dominant fibre of the Bikol region, abaca. Included is a description of the plant, where it was grown, when it was ready to be cut and how the fibres were removed from the concentric circles of the stem. Also covered is the cleaning, drying and bleaching of the fibres, their sorting, selection and use, and how they were prepared for cordage or weaving. Section 2 introduces two of the other main fibres used in the region, cotton and silk, and how they were dyed and spun.
In Section 3 is an extended discussion of the loom and weaving. Presented is a description of the backstrap loom and its various parts, including combs, reeds, rods and shuttles. The process of weaving follows, including determining the finished size of the cloth, the choice of thread by texture and colour, the fixing of the warp threads and the eventual weaving of the weft. Included in this section as well is the finishing and treatment of the cloth once it is cut from the loom. Section 4 looks again at cotton and silk, but his time as finished cloth, and touches briefly on the use of bark as an early source of clothing. Section 5 is a short section which examines the various sources of dye and their resultant colouring of a fabric.
Sewing in its various forms is the subject of Section 6. The implements used are presented, as well as sewing techniques from basic basting and hemming, to the more decorative edging styles with bows, braiding and scallops. Various styles of embroidery are also mentioned here. The section ends with the tailoring of cloth to turn it into clothing.
Section 7 is the presentation of clothing, the types worn by men and women and the blankets which served as both upper and lower garments. Also discussed is the way clothes were worn, how suitable they were for the wearer, what condition they were in and how they were washed and stored. Section 8 ends the chapter with a discussion of headwear, including the types and construction of hats, and the softer head coverings made from cloth.
The Bikol region was particularly suited to the growth of the abaca plant, Musa textilis, commonly referred to as Manila hemp, even though it is not hemp and not from Manila. To the Spanish it resembled the hemp fibres available in Mexico, Cannabis sativa, and the majority of the produce was exported through the port of Manila even though it originated to the east and south.
To produce good fibres for cordage and clothing, the abaca plant must receive a relatively consistent amount of rainfall throughout the year. Upland areas of the Bikol region which are exposed to both the southwest and northeast monsoons, with a relatively short dry season, fit this criteria. Other primary regions where abaca would naturally grow were the coastal areas of Samar and Leyte, and the coast of southeastern Mindano at Davao.
Abaca grows in clumps, something called a mat, with cultivated plants producing 12-20 stems at various stages of growth with four to eight stems reaching maturity and flowering each year. Individual stems can grow from 4-8 metres and new stems grow out from the centre of the mat, replacing those which have been cut down.
The stem is, in reality, a concentric series of leaf stalks, the outer ones being wider and more enveloping and the inner ones narrower and more tightly coiled. The first of these forms close to the base of the plant, with successive stalks growing from the centre. The leaves, which top each of the stalks, grow from progressively higher positions on the stalk.
In Bikol, the abaca plant which produces useful fibre for cordage and clothing is upás. While this would have had its origins in the wild, we can assume, from the amount of cloth woven from its fibres and the predominance of this cloth for clothing, that it was also cultivated. The fibres which were produced were referred to as ábaka.
ábaka abaca, Manila hemp (typ‑ plant, Musa textilis) [+MDL: abaká a hemp-like fiber taken from the plant called úpas; MANG‑, PANG‑‑ON to dress and prepare abaca for weaving; ‑AN basket for storing abaca; (fig-) Garó na ing abaká an payó ni kuyán That person's head is like abaca (Said when one's hair is all gray)]
As for the derivation of the noun amúkid there is some evidence that a prefix of the form aN-, fossilised even during Lisboa's time, could be affixed to roots to produce nouns which in some way incorporated the central meaning of that root. In this case, it was an abaca plant which grew in the mountains (búkid): aN- + búkid → ambúkid → amúkid. The linguistic processes at work here are assimilation and deletion.
amúkid abaca (typ‑ wild, not suitable for making clothing or rope) [MDL]
búkid hill, mountain; MA‑ hilly, mountainous; KA‑‑AN mountainous terrain, range of mountains; bukíd-búkid knoll, small hill [+MDL: gabán nin búkid base of a mountain; taruntóng nin búkid summit of a mountain; ‑NON: bukídnon people of the mountains; KA‑‑AN: kabukíran or ‑AN: bukíran hills, mountains; also towns in the mountains or located in the uplands]
Information on when the individual stems of the abaca plant are cut vary. These may be cut just before the plant comes into flower, or during the interval between flowering and the ripening of the fruit. Alcina, describing the abaca growing in Samar, indicates that the plant is cut prior to the development of the fruit, indicating that it is probably the second of these possibilities which also applied in the Bikol region at the time. Plants which are cut too early produce fibres which are shorter and finer, and those that are cut too late are said to produce fibres which are weaker due to the onset of deterioration of the stem.
Reference as to the exact age plants come into flower and are ready to be cut vary from 18 months to 24-30 months of maturity. This difference may be due to the variety, or to soil and environmental factors.
When the abaca stems are mature, they are cut just above the base or rootstock (sárad). The implement used for this would most likely have been the útak, a common working bolo or machete. The more delicate cutting and preparation of the fibres would have been done by women using smaller knives dedicated to that purpose (see Section 1(iv)), but this initial felling would have been carried out by men.
uták bolo (typ‑ the main working implement, also used as a weapon); MAGTAGÁ‑ to carry such a bolo in the hand [MDL]
bakbák MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to remove the husk or bark; to pare or peel off the skin or outer covering; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑ ‑AN to remove the husk or outer covering from a plant, or bark from a particular tree [MDL]
pisóˈ the edges of the concentric layers forming the trunk of the abaca plant from which fibers used for tying can be drawn [MDL]
luˈlóˈ MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to soften the bark of the ábaka plant or the malubágo tree by bending it back and forth to make it easier to extract the fibers for weaving or the making of rope; (fig‑) Pakaluˈloˈón mo an buˈót kainíng ákiˈ Calm this child down (by reasoning with him or her); Daˈí máyoˈ naluluˈlóˈ an buˈót ni kuyán There is no mollifying this person [MDL]
lupnís narrow strips or fibers of the banana or abaca stalk pulled from the wider strips called balakbák and used for tying; MAG‑, ‑ON to remove these strips [MDL: the fiber obtained from the malubágo tree for the purpose of tying; MA‑ or MAG‑ to remove the fibers from the bark of this tree]
malubágo tree (typ‑ Hibiscus tiliaceus, sea rosemallow, possessing a bark from which fibers used in the making of rope, twine or cord may be obtained); var- bágo [MDL]
lubnág MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to strip the bark from the branches of the malubágo tree in order to prepare handles or holders for transporting cargo; to strip the bark from other trees; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to strip a branch or tree of its bark; (fig‑) Garó na linubnagán na malubágo (You're) stripped like a malubágo branch (Said to one who is naked) [MDL]
balnót the inner part of the bark of the malubágo (or bágo) and pútat trees, the fiber of which may be twisted into cord or rope [+MDL: MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to remove the inner portion of such bark; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to remove the inner portion from the outer portion of the bark]
William Dampier, describing the extraction of abaca fibres from plants in Mindanao, most likely in the area of what is now Cotabato City, describes a somewhat different process. Here the stalks are cut into quarters and left to dry in the sun for two to three days. Once the pulp has dried out, thin fibres become visible at the ends of the cut sections. Women then pull each of these fibres, removing them across the full length of the trunk. While this may have been the process employed in western Mindanao in the seventeenth century, it does not appear to have been the common way of removing the pulp to free-up the fibres in the Bikol region or Samar. In these areas, the abaca strips or splits were scraped clean of their fibre. To accomplish this, the splits would be drawn by hand across a block of soft wood.
While Lisboa mentions no preparation preceding the cleaning, Alcina does, indicating that if the splits were stiff, they would first be soaked in water for a day to soften them up. There was clearly a limit as to how long the splits could be soaked, or how long they could be left exposed in the sun before processing. Rot or decay would set in if too long a period of time elapsed (tupók). The following entry is Bikol.
Following this later tradition, a block of wood is attached to a log. Suspended above this is a length of heavy bamboo or a heavy bolo or machete. The strips or splits of abaca containing both pulp and fibre are laid across the wood. The bamboo or knife is then pulled down against the block with some pressure by use of a foot treadle. The abaca strips are pulled by hand across the block with the upper section of bamboo or bolo scraping off the excess pulp. The coarser, darker fibres from the outer sheaths would normally be cleaned in this way just once, but for the lighter, more delicate fibres from the inner sheaths, the cleaning process would be repeated two or three times.
What happens to the fibre after is has been removed is described in detail by Alcina. Lisboa has no entries which deal with the processes between cleaning and the subsequent selection of fibres.
The cleaned fibres are hung in the sun to dry, a process which not only bleaches them but also adds body. Once dry, they are then softened by pounding in the same wooden mortar used for the pounding of rice, a procedure which also adds elasticity and separates fibres which may still be stuck together. After pounding, the fibres are stretched and again hung out to dry.
It is possible that a subsequent bleaching process also took place, although it is unclear if this occurred in the early seventeenth century or was a later development. Diego de Bobadila in his Relation mentions two wild tubers which served as a food source. One of these, corot, is further explained in the notes in Blair and Robertson as possessing a yellow sap that was used to bleach or whiten abaca.
Corot (Dioscorea triphylla) is the term found in Visayan and Ilocano. In Tagalog it is náme (namíˈ). In Bikol the equivalent is namóˈ, a non-domesticated variety of yam that requires a period of curing before it can be consumed. Lisboa does not refer to its bleaching properties, nor is this mentioned for Tagalog  or Hiligaynon.
The abaca fibres which are obtained vary considerably in length, generally from 1 to 3.5 metres, and in width from .05 to .3 millimetres depending upon from which of the concentric sheaths they are drawn. The outer, older sheaths are shorter than those closer to the centre of the plant. The fibres also vary in colour and strength with the strongest coming from the outer sheaths. White, the most delicate of the fibres, come from the inner sheaths, but colours which are naturally yellow, red, brown and even purple or black may also be obtained depending upon the plant variety or the sheath from which they are drawn.
Lisboa has entries for abaca fibres tinged with red (binagó) and yellow (binangkál). These are clearly derived entries showing the infix -in- which has been placed into the roots bagó and bangkál. In the formation of nominals, this infix derives nouns which possess some of the qualities of the root. In the case of binangkál this relationship is clear, although not from within Bikol. In the case of binagó, the relationship is far more problematic.
binangkál abaca fiber tinged with yellow; (fig‑) Garó na binangkál iníng hinilíngan ko It's as if my vision has a yellowish tinge (Said when someone has a high temperature or a bad headache); Garó na binangkál an ipinagsúka ni kuyán What that person has vomited up is like binangkál (Said when one vomits up bile) [MDL]
Bágo (or malubágo) is the tree Hibiscus tiliaceus (sea rosemallow, see Section 1(ii)), growing from four to 12 metres and found the length of the Philippines. Of the central Philippine languages, references to this tree and its fibre-producing bark, can be found in Tagalog, Cebuano, and Hiligaynon. While this is most probably the root form for binagó, there are two problems. Firstly, nothing about the tree is described as red. Secondly, though more minor, the change in stress to final position in the derivation, cannot be explained.
In the selection of fibres described by Alcina, the best ones are chosen for cordage and the weaving of heavy blankets. Into a second group go the more delicate fibres used in the weaving of ordinary blankets, and finally the fibres described as hair-like in their fineness are chosen to produce the most delicate of blankets and other items of clothing.
The selection of fibres recorded by Lisboa is by length (hunhón), with fibres placed into one of three groups ranging from the longest to the shortest, with the shortest strands being discarded. Those fibres which were brittle were also removed (hintóˈ). The remaining bundles of tangled fibres (gúmon) would still have to be combed in preparation for weaving, and during this process (haˈgót), further unwanted fibres would be found and removed.
hintóˈ MA‑ describing abaca which contains many brittle fibers; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to clean abaca, removing the broken fibers with the nail or the tip of a knife; MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to remove broken abaca fibers; ‑ON: hinintóˈ the broken abaca fibers which are removed [MDL]
gúmon a small bundle of tangled or uncombed abaca fiber which must be combed in preparation for weaving; MA‑ to be entangled (fiber, such as abaca, cotton, silk); (fig‑) Garó na kamó kagúmon-gumónan It's like you have got yourself all tied up (Said when one argues so much they forget who they are arguing with; or when one strikes blindly out with a knife, forgetting exactly who they are fighting) [MDL]
haˈgót MAG‑, ‑ON to strip or comb abaca fiber [MDL: MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to comb out abaca, removing the unwanted fibers; MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to comb the unwanted fibers from abaca flax; (fig‑) Nahaˈgót na iníng uták This knife is dull]
In 1600 the Spanish instituted the bandala system in the Philippines whereby those Filipinos under Spanish control were required to supply a certain amount of produce to the government in return for promissory notes. This was a form of tribute for which, in return, they received a certain degree of protection provided by the Spanish government. A comparable system of taxation was recorded for the Malay peninsula by the mid seventeenth century with reference to payments made at Kuala Kedah in the northern state of Kedah for items measured by the bandela. It is likely that this system originated far earlier in Malacca under the Portuguese and was then adopted elsewhere in the peninsula after the loss of Malacca to the Dutch. The term bandela in the Malay peninsula and bandala in the Philippines referred to a system where produce was supplied in measured quantities. In the Philippines, it appears that the term eventually took on a commercial meaning in the supply of abaca.
sikarám long hank or skein of cotton or other fibers [MDL]
bandálaˈ skein of abaca fiber [MALAY bandela from PORTUGUESE bandiera 'flag']
piˈó MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to twist cotton or abaca fiber into twine, cord [MDL]
The preparation of abaca fibre for weaving was a more involved process. Abaca was not spun, so to prepare threads suitable for weaving, the fibres were knotted together (sugót), a long and tedious task carried out by women. The fibres could also be gummed together, although there is no entry in Lisboa to indicate that this was also a process used in the region.
típay MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to store abaca thread in small baskets ready for weaving (not tied in hanks); ‑ON: tinípay abaca thread stored in small baskets [MDL]
bitibót ball of abaca thread or yarn, hollow in the center; MA‑ or MAG‑to roll abaca thread into such a ball [MDL]
sugpák PA‑ the ends of a ball of thread or yarn left sticking up from the top, ready for weaving; MAPA‑, PA‑‑ON or MAGPA‑, PAGPA‑‑ON to prepare threads in a ball in this way, ready for use; MAPA‑, PA‑‑AN or MAGPA‑, PAGPA‑‑AN to prepare a ball of thread or yarn for use [MDL]
utód knife (typ‑ used by women for cutting abaca) [MDL]
Abaca was not the only fibre available in the region at the turn of the sixteenth century. The growing and spinning of cotton was widespread throughout Luzon and the Visayas and came in for mention by the Spanish present in the Philippines during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. As well as cotton, silk was also available, produced from locally cultivated silkworms, and imported from China in a variety of qualities and colours (also see Section 4).
Lisboa has no entries dealing with the cultivation of cotton nor the production of silk indicating that it was likely these were not activities carried out in the Bikol region. Cotton was, however, clearly grown in other regions of the Philippines, and silk was also produced.
Early dictionary entries indicate the availability in skeins or hanks of both cotton and silk in Bikol (lúbag). The availability of cotton gets far greater mention than that of silk; cotton ready for spinning, gápas (a term which has changed over time and now is the general term for cotton), and varieties of cotton thread based on colour, such as that tinged or dyed with red (bangkúdo, igagaláng) or dyed blue with indigo (tágom).
gápas cotton [MDL cotton ready for spinning]
bangkúdo thread (typ‑ cotton, tinged with red) [MDL]
igagaláng cotton thread, dyed red or with another color [MDL]
tágom indigo (typ‑ plant with leaves from which a blue dye is extracted); also: spun cotton or thread which is dyed blue with indigo; MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to tint or dye s/t with indigo leaves; MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to use indigo leaves for dying; (fig‑) Garó na ing tágom an lábod The welts are black and blue [MDL]
búrong MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to spin cotton or yarn; ‑ON: an binúrong spun cotton or yarn [MDL]
bibiríkan a large spindle used for the spinning of cotton, enabling two or more threads to be twisted into one [MDL]
pinyó cotton spun from two or more threads; MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to spin cotton in this way [MDL]
labság thread (typ‑ thick, in a cloth or fabric); MAPA‑ PA‑‑ON to thicken the thread in a fabric [MDL]
tibák cross-fibers; unevenness found in poorly spun thread or poorly twisted rope; MA‑ uneven (such thread or rope) [MDL]
There is one term in Bikol which encompasses all aspects of weaving, including the cloth which is produced and the loom on which it is woven. This is haból. Of the central Philippine languages, identical forms are found in Waray, Cebuano and Hiligaynon, and the cognate form abal in Kapampangan..
There was undoubtedly more than one type of loom in use in the Bikol region, although this can only be surmised from the available dictionary entries and references. Clearly the backstrap loom was in common use (see below), but a fixed frame loom would have also existed. Patkón referred to such a loom's bamboo frame, although it is unclear what form this loom may have taken. In Waray, Antonio Sánchez de la Rosa makes reference to a loom resembling a cot lacking the bamboo crosspieces (garingan), indicating as well that it was a type of loom common in the Visayas, and in Cebuano, Encarnacion refers to the loom's wooden framework. Historically patkón would have been a derivation of the root tukón with the addition of the causative prefix PA- indicating a use that the root could be put to. Tukón referred to the length of bamboo used for poling a boat in water. Additionally, the clacking sound made by the moving parts of a bamboo-framed loom when weaving (latakán) would most likely not have been made by a backstrap loom.
latakán clacking sound made by the movement of the bamboo parts of a loom when weaving [MDL]
In Bikol the harness was referred to as lawsíg and this was worn and then removed (huklás) when the weaving session was finished. The cloth was attached to a small piece of wood approximately 15 cm wide which women placed on their hips (páwod). This may be similar to the 'cloth bar support' of the standard loom.
At the upper part of the backstrap loom is the crosspiece to which the warp threads are attached (papán), generally referred to as the 'warp bar'. There is usually a similar bar at the lower end of the loom where the weaver sits referred to as the 'cloth bar'. Both the warp bar and the cloth bar may also be referred to as 'loom bars'. Lisboa has no reference to this lower bar but it is, in all likelihood, an oversight for these two bars are standard on a backstrap loom. Strings are attached to each end of the warp bar and then further anchored to a post allowing the loom to be tensed as required between the harness of the weaver and the stationary post. Resin or starch from boiled taro was used to attach the warp threads to the warp bar.
hukás MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to take off or remove a jacket, shirt, tunic, a gold chain, a backstrap loom; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to remove a jacket, gold chain, backstrap loom from the body [MDL]
páwod small piece of wood, about 15cm wide which women place on their hips and to which the cloth is attached for weaving [MDL]
papán crosspiece at the top of a loom to which the threads are attached [MDL]
luslós the resin or the starch from boiled taro used for attaching threads to a loom; MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to rub a pole with such a resin or starch so that threads may be attached to it; MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to use resin or the starch from taro for this purpose; ‑AN the pole holding the thread for weaving [MDL]
haˈnáy warp, the set of yarns placed lengthwise in a loom; MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to place the yarn in such a way in preparation for weaving; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to place the yarn on a loom; ‑AN a piece of bamboo shaped like a blade, used for drawing the warp thread; (fig‑) Garó akó naghaˈnáy nin daˈí áyaw It's like I am drawing the warp with no satisfaction (Said when one moves back and forth in search of things they need) [MDL]
pugáwa weft of cloth; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to join cloth by the weft; MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to align the weft when joining cloth [MDL]
takás MAKA‑, MA‑ to finish stringing the warp threads of a weaving [MDL]
lindóg thread which is wound directly into the fabric; ‑ON: lilindógon warp of a fabric [MDL]
Lisboa also has an entry for a bamboo segment around which thread was coiled and which appeared to serve as a bobbin (burubdán) Burubdán is a derivation from the root budbód with the central meaning 'to wind s/t around'. With some weaving techniques, the bobbin is placed inside the shuttle and the thread unwinds as the shuttle moves through the shed. This is unlikely to be the case for Bikol since Lisboa describes thread as being wound around the shuttle itself. The bobbin, then was most likely used independently of the shuttle and for different weaving projects.
burubdán small bamboo segment around which thread is wound so that it won't become snarled or entangled when weaving [MDL]
sikmát a stick cut from a tree or palm to the width of cloth being woven, used to keep the rows of thread even [MDL]
liboˈán thin piece of bamboo placed between the threads on a loom [MDL]
Once the weft thread has been woven into place it is then firmed down against the previous rows of thread. This is done with a 'sword' or 'batten' (baríra) which runs the width of the loom. To maintain a consistent distance between the warp threads after the weft threads have been added, a comb-like implement is placed between individual warp threads. Lisboa mentions two of these, bitín and sadó, each of which traditionally would be referred to as a 'reed'. The thickness of the wires or other material serving as the teeth of the comb determine the density of the finished cloth.
bitín various wires serving as a comb for a loom; ‑AN: bitínan the small stick to which these wires are attached [MDL]
sadó MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to compress threads with a fabric comb so that the cloth becomes more dense [MDL]
haraghág descriptive of clothes which are much too large for the person wearing them; loose [MDL: ‑ON loosely woven (cloth; items made from reeds, straw); MA‑ or MAG‑ to stretch, loosen (the weave); MAPA‑, PA‑‑ON to weave s/t loosely]
atág MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to not compress the weave of a fabric being woven due to a lack of materials (thread, abaca); to weave s/t loosely due to a lack of thread [MDL]
Before weaving can begin (pugíˈ), the threads have to be arranged (taltág). This refers, most probably, to the choosing and ordering of the coloured threads needed to produce the desired pattern or design. Where necessary, threads can also be waxed with an available resin (hágod), something which is done to keep them from knotting or twisting.
taltág MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to arrange threads in the order they are to be used in preparation for weaving; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to arrange threads for weaving (as on a loom) [MDL]
hágod MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to wax s/t; to place wax or resin on s/t (a thread, a stick); MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to use a particular resin or wax [MDL]
tagíhi a stick one finger wide (1-2 cm), and two palms in length (about 18 cm), with a perforated container at one end used to moisten cloth, and on the other end, a point used to clean the threads in a fabric [MDL]
tasíˈ starch; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to starch s/t (generally cotton fibers for weaving); MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to use starch for such a purpose [MDL]
The dominant fibre in the Bikol region was abaca, and it was this fibre which was most likely used to produce a large part of the coth in the region, cloth such as samáng. It was possible to weave abaca cloth to a variety of thicknesses, single, double or triple (see sinaróˈ). Cloth could also be woven from a mixture of abaca and cotton fibre (samáy). Weaving could be accomplished with straight threads (tayód), leaving open the option of also using twisted threads to produce a cloth with a ribbed or corded appearance. The cloth produced would be woven to suit the needs of the weaver, from finer weaves to those which were coarser (mábaw).
sinaróˈ single thickness of abaca cloth woven from single or double threads; dinuwá such abaca cloth of double thickness; tinuló such cloth of triple thickness [MDL]
samáy MAG‑, ‑ON to weave cloth from a mixture of abaca and cotton fiber; ‑ON: sinamáy the cloth produced, once used for the lining and stiffening of women's skirts [MDL: a blanket woven from abaca and cotton fiber; MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to weave a mixture of cotton and abaca fiber into cloth]
tayód cloth made from straight threads, not those which are twisted and presenting a ribbed or corded appearance; tayód na tápis a skirt made from this type of cloth; (fig‑) to be direct, straightforward in speech: Tinayodán taká na pakaráy kan pagtarám ko saímo I'll tell you directly what I have to say [MDL]
mábaw weaving (typ‑ of coarse cloth, like sackcloth) [MDL]
rágiˈ cloth with stripes of red, black and white as well as other colors; MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to weave cloth with this design; (fig‑) Daˈí ka súkat na makarágiˈ dumán taˈ makiiiwálon ka You shouldn't get involved there because you are an argumentative person; Daˈí akó súkat na makarágiˈ saindó taˈ mga mabuˈót kamó It's not right for me to involve myself with you because you are honorable people [MDL]
dalón embroidered cloth; cloth with raised designs; MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to weave cloth with embroidered or raised designs [MDL]
badyóˈ cloth (typ‑ woven with colors and figures, used only for covering the bodies of the dead) [MDL] [MALAY baju, from PERSIAN bazu]
When weaving on a backstrap loom, the width of the cloth is limited to the distance the weaver can reach with her hands, generally one metre (átip). This is the outmost limit of control of the shuttle or bobbin. Within this limit normally one piece of cloth is woven, although the entry yáwaˈ opens the possibility of two pieces being woven at the same time. These would have to be two narrower pieces of cloth set up as individual projects at the time the warp is strung.
yáwaˈ a method of weaving two pieces of cloth in a loom at the same time [MDL]
sapáw MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to pass the point where it is held fast on the rod or pole (cloth woven on a loom) [MDL]
ughóy referring to the juncture where a length of cloth one is weaving on a loom is joined to the starting threads of another which is yet to be woven so that the transition from one length to another is smooth [MDL]
When weaving, not everything always goes to plan. Threads may break when they fall to the ground and are stepped on (ragás) necessitating the tying of the broken ends together to effect a repair (hayúma). When a number of threads are being woven, these may become displaced resulting is some separating and other bunching up (hinhín) producing a fabric with lines of thread missing (dalúdag). Poor selection of the fibres chosen for weaving will inevitably result in a poorly woven cloth with brittle and uneven fibres (gapás).
hayúma MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to repair broken thread on a loom or ripped cord on a net by tying new thread or cord to the broken ends; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to repair cloth or a net in this way; MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to tie thread or cord to the broken ends to effect a repair [MDL]
hinhín MA‑ or MAG‑ to become displaced (the threads of abaca cloth when many threads are being woven, causing some to separate and others to bunch up) [MDL]
dalúdag fabric, cloth (typ‑ in which lines of thread are missing); MAKA‑, MA‑‑AN to weave a fabric, leaving out lines of thread (a weaver) [MDL]
gapás a boat with sides which are too low; poor quality abaca cloth, uneven with brittle and uneven fibers [MDL]
While abaca fibre is strong, it produces a relatively stiff cloth. To remedy this, once the cloth is cut from the loom it can undergo a number of processes to soften it, such as treating it with lime (abóˈ). It can also be pounded (buntól) until the desired degree of softness is achieved (lumhók). All of these processes are incorporated into the general term tugás.
buntól a mallet or a pounding stick used for compacting earth, driving in stakes or beating cloth during the curing process; MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to beat or pound s/t with such a mallet or stick [MDL]
lumhók MA‑ soft (as cloth, fruit or food); MAG‑ to grow increasingly soft; MAGPA‑, PA‑‑ON to soften s/t [+MDL: MA‑ or MAG‑ to grow softer; Lumhók na gúbing iní These clothes are soft]
tugás MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to block cloth; to cure cloth that has been recently woven and removed from the loom by moistening and beating; MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to trim off parts when curing or blocking cloth; MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to use particular acidic fruits in the curing process [MDL]
ragurhóˈ sound made when hair is pulled out or loose threads are pulled from finished cloth; MA‑ or MAG‑ to make this sound [MDL]
Abaca was not the only fibre used in the Bikol region at the turn of the sixteenth century. Cotton, while probably not grown in the region, was also in common use (also see Section 2). Linen was also available, although most likely in finished pieces such as that used for veils (hiniwág). There is no mention of an industry turning flax into linen thread existing in Bikol.
Silk and other types of cloth imported from China, were sold so widely that this trade threatened the local weaving industries. Filipinos from various regions began to abandon their traditional clothing manufacture in favour of the purchase of Chinese-made cloth. Additionally, prices paid for the cloth gradually escalated as there were always buyers willing to pay an inflated price. This eventually resulted in an ordinance being passed forbidding Filipinos from wearing cloth made from imported fabric. The continuing trade in cloth, especially in silk, and the insistence by the Chinese that goods be paid for in cash and not by barter, began to have an effect on the Spanish treasury. This led, eventually, to laws being passed which curtailed the Chinese silk trade in the Spanish colonies. [
Lisboa defines sukláˈ as 'coloured silk'. As this is the only Bikol term available for 'silk', it may very well have also carried a more general meaning. Cognate forms can be found in most of the central Philippine languages. In Tagalog and Kapampangan sutlá refers to 'loose silk' a term which is usually opposed to 'twisted silk' (most likely 'spun silk') and probably refers to what we may call 'raw silk'. In Cebuano, sukla referred not only to raw silk, but to all types, be it raw, spun or woven. Raw silk in Hiligaynon had three terms, sukla, sutla, and igagama, this final term the only entry found in Waray. One further Bikol term is talúki which Lisboa defines as a silk cloth similar to taffeta, that is, a stiffer and glossier type of silk. The same term is found in Tagalog where it is defined as clothing made from pure silk.
talúki silk cloth, such as taffeta [MDL] [MALAY teluki]
Lisboa's entry for bulídaw is defined as a cloth similar to damask. Damask is not so much a type of cloth, but a style of weaving producing a reversible fabric with a design created from a particular arrangement of warp and weft threads. The cloth can vary, from silk or cotton to linen. The origin of the term may be the Malay beledu 'velvet' which in turn was borrowed from Portuguese.
The dyes which were used for colouring fabric and other materials were derived from natural sources. These were plants such as the turmeric (kaláwag) whose roots were used to impart a yellow colour, and indigo (tagóm, see Section 2) whose leaves were used for the colour blue.
kanárom tree (typ‑ possessing leaves from which a black dye may be extracted); MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to dye s/t with these leaves; ‑ON: an kinanárom s/t dyed with such leaves [MDL]
ubúˈob tree (typ‑ possessing leaves used for dying s/t black); MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to dye s/t black with such leaves; MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to use such leaves for dying; ‑ON: inubuˈob s/t dyed black with such leaves [MDL]
tínaˈ MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to dye or tint s/t black [MDL]
gabós all; everybody, everyone, everything; gabós-gabós all in all, altogether [+MDL: MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to include everything in the count; gabós an mga táwo all the people; an pároy gabós all the rice; Pirá gabós? - Limá gabós How many in all? - Five in all]
pungsíˈ MAKA‑, MA‑‑AN to possess more brilliant colors than another (a cock, a piece of silk or other cloth) [MDL]
sapáng defective or poor quality dye; coloring that easily fades; MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to color or tint s/t with a poor quality dye; MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to use a poor quality dye or coloring [MDL]
puˈsáw paleness, lightness of color; MA‑ pale, light in color, faint; MAG‑ to become pale; to grow lighter [MDL: pusáw poorly dyed; MA‑ or MAG‑ to lose its color (s/t which has been poorly dyed); MA‑ to grow fainter (color); MAKA‑ to cause a color to fade or grow lighter]
Clothing and cloth items of household use would have to be sewn (tahíˈ), and to do this techniques readily identifiable in the modern world were available. Needles (dágom) were threaded (táliˈ) and the thread, often of uneven thickness and of varying materials, frequently had to have the end shaved to make it thin enough to pass through the eye of the needle (tamgód). When the required length was achieved, the thread was cut (gurób) and once the sewing session was finished, the excess thread was wound around the needle and the end stuck safely away (pitípot).
dágom needle; MAG‑, ‑ON to prick s/o with a needle [+MDL]
táliˈ MAG‑, ‑AN to thread a needle; MAG‑, I‑ to place thread in a needle [+MDL: MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to thread a needle; MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to place thread through the eye of a needle; Ahaˈín idtóng dágom na may táliˈ? Where is the threaded needle?]
tamgód MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to scrape or shave off the end of a thread making it thinner so that it will pass more easily through the eye of a needle; MA‑, ‑AN: tamgorán or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN: pagtamgorán to scrape away the fibers of the thread; ‑ON: tinatamgód fragments of fiber scraped away in thinning the ends of thread [MDL]
gurób MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to cut string or thread with a knife; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑ ‑AN to cut a piece of string or thread from a longer piece; MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to use a knife for this purpose; syn‑ garáb [MDL]
pitípot MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to stick a needle into s/t for safekeeping, winding excess thread around it; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to stick a needle into s/t [MDL]
lilín a hem; MAG‑, ‑ON to hem s/t [+MDL: MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to hem s/t so that the edge does not fray]
gáyad hem; MAG‑, ‑AN to have the hem touch or drag on s/t; gáyad kan lángit horizon [+MDL hem, the edging of an item of clothing]
háˈod style of hemming; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to hem s/t in this style, making bows with thread [MDL]
patpát MAG‑, ‑ON to unravel thread; MAG‑, ‑AN to unravel thread from a piece of cloth; MAKA‑, MA‑ to become unraveled [+MDL: MA‑ or MAG‑ to unravel (cloth which is not properly hemmed); MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to remove lines of thread; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to remove lines of thread from a piece of cloth; (fig‑) mapatpát na dalúgi rice seedling with a number of stems]
tastás MAG‑ to fray, unravel; MAG‑, ‑ON to rip out stitches; to unstitch s/t [+MDL: MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to remove stitches; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to remove stitches from s/t]
luplóp binding, ribbon or tape sewn along the edges of clothing; MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to add binding; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to sew binding along the edge of clothing [MDL ]
giríng-gitíng a scalloped edge or border; MAG‑, ‑AN to scallop s/t [+MDL edging, border; also describing s/t edged in a material such as linen; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to edge s/t; to edge s/t in linen; to put a scalloped edge on s/t; ‑AN: s/t sewn or edged in this way]
kansíng gold flowers or stars, or engraved metal disks, which are usually sewn onto clothing; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to decorate clothing with such flowers or disks; MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to add such ornament to clothing as a decoration; ‑AN: kinansíngan clothing adorned in this way [MDL]
tandás (arc‑) strings of beads placed along the edge of a skirt (tápis); MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to place strings of beads as a trimming; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to trim or edge a skirt with strings of beads [MDL]
In addition to what appears to be a type of knitting (putík), there were also instances of more decorative stitching, such as embroidery (súram) which was realised in a number of different ways once the basic design over which one stitches was determined (pangíring).
súram embroidery, needlework; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to embroider cloth; ‑AN: sinuráman embroidered cloth [MDL]
pangíring the basic design over which one stitches when embroidering cloth [MDL]
bugták embroidery (typ‑ sewn along the edges and in the middle of a piece of cloth), similar to that found on cloth used to cover the chalice during religious services; sometimes used as a head covering (pudóng); MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to embroider such cloth; MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to embroider cloth with a particular thread; ‑AN: bugtakán cloth with such embroidery [MDL]
lipós MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to embroider the shawl called sakbód; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to embroider a particular section of this shawl; ‑AN: linilipósan a a shawl embroidered in this way [MDL]
túpi-túpi embroidery with gold or silver thread; MANG‑, PANG‑‑AN to embroider s/t with such thread [MDL]
In general, the cloth needed for clothing would be woven for that particular purpose, and once it was chosen it was counted as a full piece, or half a piece, and so on. This counting was expressed by what appears to have been one of the few numerical classifiers existing at the time, bulós, a term used throughout the central Philippine languages, referring to a piece of cloth or clothing (except for Hiligaynon where the reference is to a full length of bamboo) (also see Chapter 7, 'Money, Weights and Measures,' Section 4(iii)).
It is also probable that cloth was purchased commercially, something which would certainly have been the case for fabrics which were not locally produced, such as cotton, linen or silk. Bastá referred to bales of cloth and other similar types of merchandise. This was not a term commonly used in the central Philippines, and is shared only by Tagalog.
bastá bale of cloth or other merchandise [MDL]
gíkos MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to tie cloth to a model or figure; MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to use cord to tie cloth [MDL]
takbás MAG‑, ‑ON to cut s/t that comes in thin sheets (such as paper, cloth, leaves); MAG‑, ‑AN to cut s/t from a larger piece [+MDL: MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑ ‑ON to cut s/t wide (such as leaves, cloth); ... MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to cut s/t from a larger piece ...]
tabíng MA‑, ‑ON to join one piece of cloth to another, sewing them together; MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to join two pieces of cloth; to sew two pieces of cloth together; to sew the ripped edges of cloth together; MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to join one piece of cloth to another; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to join one piece of cloth with an existing piece; KA‑ one of the two pieces or sides of cloth which are sewn together [MDL]
tubók wrinkled, creased (as paper, cloth, a mat which has been poorly stretched or laid out) MA‑ or MAG‑ to be wrinkled or creased; MAPA‑, PA‑‑ON to lay or stretch s/t out poorly, leaving wrinkles or creases; Katubók na papél iní This paper is very wrinkled [MDL]
pigót cloth which is uneven due to shrinkage; MA‑ or MAG‑ to shrink (cloth) [MDL]
tanóm gore, a triangular piece of cloth sewn into clothing to make it fuller or wider; MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to add such a piece to clothing; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to enlarge a piece of clothing with such an addition [MDL]
taliskóg a splint or cast (as for a broken arm); MAG‑, ‑AN to tie s/t with a splint [MDL: MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to stiffen s/t by placing s/t inside (as a hoop inside a skirt); MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to place s/t inside something else to make it stiff or rigid]
saníb MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to line s/t; to place a lining on s/t; to dress s/o in two sets of clothes; MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to use s/t as a lining; MAG‑ to be wearing two sets of clothes; to be doubled over; MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to wear one set of clothes over another; to fold s/t over; magsaraníb to be doubled over a number of times; to have many folds; (fig‑) Nasaraníb na iníng dakól na súgoˈ There are many ways to ask people to do things; Nagsaraníb na iníng útang mo You have many debts [MDL]
The rich culture of weaving in the Bikol region and elsewhere in the Philippines, led to the availability of different types of clothing (gúbing). Some of these items were worn strictly by men, and others by women, but many could be worn by either. Discussed in the following sections are items of everyday dress; how clothing was worn, how suitable it was for the wearer and how it was cared for. Ornamental dress for gala occasions is discussed in Chapter 9, 'Jewellery and Body Ornamentation',' Section 4 and dress worn specifically in combat in Chapter 1, 'War and Conflict,' Section 2.
For men the main item of clothing was the loincloth (bahág). Alcina, in a detailed paragraph, discusses the components of this type of dress, in addition to the significance of the material used and the colours worn, reflecting either the status of the wearer in the community, or his accomplishments in combat. The entries in Lisboa focus on the different parts of the loincloth. There is no mention of material types or colours and their related significance.
lakwíg the ends of a G-string or loincloth which hang down; MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to arrange the ends of a loincloth so that they hang down; (PAG‑)‑AN to wear a G-string with the ends hanging down [MDL]
síngal the part of a loin cloth (bahág) which is brought between the legs from the front to the back; MA‑ or MAG‑ to don a loin cloth, tying it in this way [MDL]
pintósan the bulge in the front of a loincloth or G-string (bahág) covering a man's private parts; Nagbalád na iníng pintósan mo; tahób-táhob daw The bulge in the front of your G-string is very noticeable; you should cover it [MDL]
hagkós belt, strap; MAG‑, ‑AN to tie a belt around s/t; MAG‑, ‑ON to girdle or strap s/t [BIK MYT: the vine belt worn by the giant mapangílaw] [+MDL: MAG‑ to wear a belt; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑ ‑AN to put a belt on s/o; MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to encircle s/t with a strap; to band s/t; MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to use s/t as a belt or strap]
habáy sash or waistband used by women to keep a skirt (tápis) in place; MAG‑ to wear a sash or waistband; MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to put on a sash or waistband; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to place a sash or waistband on s/o; MA‑, I‑ or MAG, IPAG‑ to use s/t as a sash or waistband [MDL]
láwas a wrap-around skirt or sarong called tápis when worn to cover the major portion of the torso from the breasts to the knees; MAG‑ to wear a tápis in this way [MDL]
yaˈyáˈ sagging, drooping; hanging open or hanging loose; MAG‑ to droop or sag; to hang open or hang loose [+MDL: yayáˈ hanging open (such as the jaw of the dead or one about to die); to droop or sag (as a damaged roof); MA‑ or MAG‑ to hang open or droop (the jaw); to sag; (fig‑) Nagyayáˈ na iníng pagtápis kainí This skirt is sagging (Said when a skirt is improperly fastened)]
pananabón cloth-like fabric worn around the stomach [MDL]
As for the women's garment, this is described by San Antonio as being shorter than the men's and barely covering the breasts. Garments of both sexes hung loosely open with no fastening at the front and had wide sleeves left loose at the wrists. Clearly we are looking at a garment which could have both short or long sleeves with some variation of style.
túgaw a type of stitching or needlework used on the woman's upper garment called kúbal; MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to sew such stitching [MDL]
The Journal of the Polynesian Society of 1892 has an article drawing on information from the sixteenth and seventeenth century Philippines where the chinina is described as a short-sleeved tunic reaching below the waist and sewn from black or blue cotton cloth. The chinina, clearly an introduced term, appears in some cases to resemble the bádoˈ and in others a variety of different types of clothing, making it hard to place in the vocabulary of native types of dress.
To complete the upper garment, for dressier occasions, both men and women wore a sash (sakláy, salíhoy), placed just over or under the shoulder and fastened under the arm.
salíhoy a sash; MAG‑ to wear a sash across the body, either over or just under the shoulder; MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to put on a sash; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to place a sash across the body or on s/o else; MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to attach such a sash [MDL]
sáˈob-sáˈob sleeveless tunic [MDL]
taking smock, used in place of takóp in narratives and verse [MDL]
yamít rags; old and worn-out (clothes, mats) and similar objects); MA‑‑ON: mayayamíton old, worn out [+MDL: old and worn-out (clothes, mats) and similar objects) MAG‑ to wear old clothes; to become old and worn (clothes, mats); MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to put on old clothes; MA‑ to become worn; to wear out (clothes); MAKA‑ to cause clothes to age or wear; PAGKA‑ the aging, decay or wearing out of clothes, mats; MA‑‑ON: mayayamíton na gúbing clothes which wear out very quickly]
binálo (arc‑) clothing (typ‑ white, simple and unadorned, sewn with white thread); MANG‑ to dress in such clothing [MDL]
bálo widow, widower; MAKA‑, MA‑ to be widowed [+MDL: MANG‑, PANG‑‑ON to marry a widow]
Part of the dress of the early Filipinos was the wearing of blankets. These could be worn as either upper or lower garments, or could be draped across the body for the simple purpose of keeping warm. Not all blankets are defined by Lisboa as being worn. At times it is also unclear if the reference is to a blanket as an item of clothing, or simply as a cover (sangkób).
tamóng a blanket, cover; MAG‑ to cover o/s with a blanket; MAG‑, ‑AN to cover s/o with a blanket [+MDL: MAG‑ to wear a blanket; MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to put on a blanket; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to cover or dress s/o in a blanket]
alintamóng MANG‑ to wear a large shawl or blanket across the shoulders [MDL]
bintók blanket (typ‑ cotton with colored designs) [MDL]
linumpót cotton blanket (typ‑) [MDL]
There are two other sets of terms referring to blankets which are formed in the same way. One set is the cotton blanket used for sleeping, baybáy, and the abaca blanket, binaybáy. Part of the second set is the blanket worn by women, tinapíˈ. In this case the unaffixed form, tapíˈ, is not defined by Lisboa although in modern Bikol it is an apron-type garment worn over a tápis (see Section 7.1), and in modern Cebuano it is a piece of cloth which is wrapped around the body, serving as a skirt. In Tagalog it was originally a blanket resembling a short skirt, wrapped around the waist and used by men, although in the modern language it refers either to an apron or a piece of cloth wrapped around the body and used by women when bathing, washing or working.
binaybáy blanket (typ‑ abaca) [MDL]
tápiˈ an apron worn over a tápis (not a kitchen apron) [MDL: tapíˈ ‑ON: tinapíˈ blanket (typ‑ worn by women)]
káyo kapok (typ‑ tree, bearing pods containing a cotton-like fiber used in making pillows, mattresses and life-preservers, sometimes called the silk-cotton tree; káyo refers to both the tree and the fiber) [+MDL: blanket (typ‑ white, Chinese; said to be made from kapok fiber)]
bíˈas length between nodes of sugarcane, reeds, bamboo; MA‑ long (referring to sugarcane, reed or bamboo where the distance from node to node is long) [+MDL: the length of bone measured from the shoulder to the elbow and the elbow to the hand or fingers]
One of the ways of wearing a blanket as an item of clothing was to wrap it around the waist and letting it hang so that it covers the legs. This is referred to as talápis, a term which is clearly related to the general term for a wrap-around skirt, tápis (see Section 7(i)). What we have here is the root form, tápis and an infix of the form -al-. This is an affix identifiable in Bikol, although fossilised and restricted to a limited number of clearly related pairs of words. One of these pairs, bakbák / balakbák was identified in Section 1(ii)) and further pairs are identified in Mintz, 'The Fossilised Affixes of Bikol'.
This infix, -al-, is also found in Tagalog and Cebuano. It is described as part of a set of related affixes in which the -l- is fixed, but the vowel is always a copy of the initial vowel of the root. In other words, the three possible forms are -al-, -il- and -ul- or -ol-. Early grammars describe the forms as -la-, -li- and -lu- or -lo-. Encarnacion, who only cites -li- and -lo- (not -la-) indicates that the infix is associated with adjectives and verbs and shows frequency of use or action. For Tagalog, the affix generally goes unrecognised as such, and is taken as part of the root. With regard to meaning, there is generally little or no difference between the affixed and unaffixed forms.
This infix is also found in Malay, represented as -əl-, but as with Tagalog it is fossilised and no longer productive. In general it created verbs, but the affixed form is now rarely distinguishable from the unaffixed root.
The root or base for particular items of clothing in Bikol served not only as the noun which named the type of clothing, but also as the verb which indicated the wearing of those clothes. For modern Bikol there is a general term for getting dressed, bulós, but for old Bikol such general terms are harder to find. The original meaning of bulós in Lisboa's Vocabulario was 'to change one's clothes', a reference for which there are numerous other terms (see below). Getting dressed for what might have been a special occasion was sadyáˈ for Lisboa although this now refers to having things, including clothing, custom made. For reference to dressing in one's finery, see Chapter 8, 'Jewellery and Body Ornamentation,', Section 4.
Amúkot referred not so much to dressing as to covering oneself for warmth or protection, a term which also had other, more general references. The root form from which amúkot is derived, assuming a prefix of the form aN- (see Section 1(i)), would have to be púkot. Since púkot in Bikol and the other central Philippine languages refers to a dragnet used for fishing, a link between the root and assumed derivation may be possible, but not easy to draw.
sadyáˈ MAG‑, ‑ON to make s/t on special order; MAGPA‑, IPA‑ to have s/t custom-made; PA‑ custom-made [MDL: MA‑ well-dressed, beautifully attired; MA‑ or MAG‑ to be well-dressed; MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to dress in beautiful clothes; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to dress s/o in beautiful clothes]
amúkot MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to clothe s/o; to protect s/o with clothing; to cover bananas or similar fruit so that they may ripen; MANG‑ to clothe o/s; MANG‑, PANG‑-ON to swathe the body in clothing; to clothe others [MDL]
tangkás MAG‑, ‑ON to remove an article of clothing or jewelry; to take s/t off; ... [MDL: MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to remove the clothing or jewelry from the dead or a captive in a raid or war; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to remove clothing or jewelry from s/o]
ningguráng MANG‑, IPANG‑ to remove a dress (tápis) when bathing by pulling it up over the arms and head; to put on tápis after bathing by pulling it on over the arms and head (a woman); to pull a dress on or off over the head and arms [MDL]
liswág MA‑, ‑AN or MAPA‑, PA‑‑AN or MAGPA‑, PAGPA‑‑AN to change one's clothes [MDL]
líwan MA‑, ‑AN or MAPA‑, PA‑‑AN to change one's clothes [MDL]
tayaˈtáˈ MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to change one's clothes everyday (and by so doing, taking good care of them) [MDL]
sangót MA‑, MA‑‑AN to catch on s/t; to get hooked on s/t (as clothes when walking through an area of dense growth; a fishhook dragging along the bottom of a body of water) [MDL]
mígos MANG‑, PANG‑‑ON or MAGPANG‑, PAGPANG‑‑ON to adjust the clothes in preparation for a particular task (such as rolling up the sleeves in preparation for working, or tucking in the shirt in preparation for running) [MDL]
karuskós MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to roll up the sleeves or trouser legs; to lift the skirt off the ground (as if one is about to do a particular task); MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to uncover s/t in the process of lifting or rolling (such as a part of the leg) [MDL]
lulós MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to tuck in or lift up the skirt (as to keep it from dragging or from getting wet) [MDL]
Care in dressing and choosing one's clothes would have been an individual preference. A particularly careful dresser would have ensured that the upper and lower garments of the clothes worn would have matched (agóm). For modern Bikol, this term is restricted in its reference to the pairing associated with husband and wife, a meaning also dominant in old Bikol.
lapók unsuitably matched due to a difference in size; mismatched due to being unequal in size: Lapók an kopyáng sadáng sa dakúlang táwo A small hat doesn't suit a big man; MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to be too big or too small for s/o or s/t [MDL]
sayóp unsuitable, improper (as the clothes one wears): Sayóp na magkopyá nin sadáng an dakúlang táwo It doesn't look good for a big man to wear a small hat; Sayóp na itinaˈó What was given is unsuitable (as when an adult is given a child's portion of bread to eat); (fig‑) inelegant in speech: Sayóp an pagtarám iyán That's not a nice way of speaking [MDL]
kábag a wide garment not made to the particular measurements of the wearer, resulting in the wearer looking somewhat 'swollen' or 'inflated'; ‑ON to look inflated or puffed out (one's over-large clothes): Kiminábag na iyán paggúbing ni kuyán That person's clothes are all puffed out [MDL]
gakgák clothing (loose and flowing); having the wings extended (fowl when fighting); MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to walk in loose, flowing clothing; to walk with wings held out from the body (fowl, as when fighting) [MDL]
gárak swelled, puffed out; MA‑ or MAG‑ to swell, puff out, expand (like a sponge filled with water); Gárak-gárak na iníng tulák ko How swollen my stomach is (filled with air); Giminárak na iníng paggúbing ni kuyán That person's clothes are puffed out (in the breeze) [MDL]
lagmák MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to drag on the ground (clothes): Naglagmák na iníng paggúbing mo The way you wear your clothes makes them drag on the ground [MDL]
lambó HA‑ long (as clothing which drags on the ground); tall (rice seedlings); MA‑ or MAG‑ or MAGHA‑ to stretch longer; to grow tall (rice seedlings); MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to add s/t to make s/t longer; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to add to s/t so that it becomes longer; MAPAHA‑, PAHA‑‑AN to lengthen clothing (a skirt, dress, trousers); KAHA‑‑AN: kahalambóhan length; PAGKA‑ length [MDL]
sagayák MAG‑ to drag on the ground (a substantial length of clothing): Nagsagayák na si kuyán That person is dragging her clothes on the ground; Nagsagayák na iyán gúbing ni kuyán That person's clothes are really dragging on the ground [MDL]
sagyád MAG‑ to drag (as a long dress on the ground); MAG‑, ‑AN to drag on the ground [+MDL: MA‑ or MAG‑ to drag (as a long dress on the ground); MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to drag on the ground; MAPA‑, PA‑‑ON to make one's clothes drag]
As with any well-used item made from natural materials, clothing eventually wears and degrades. It becomes threadbare and frayed ( lúmaˈ), worn thin (mismís) or simply worn away (sárad), terms with both overlapping and individuated meanings. The meaning of lúmaˈ has broadened over time, with the current reference to anything which is old.
mismís worn thin, worn out; MAG‑ to become worn [+MDL: MA‑ or MAG‑ to become thin and worn (as one's clothes, the roof of a house)]
sárad MA‑ to become worn (clothing); to wear away (a mat from dragging or from constant folding); MA‑‑AN to have s/t you own wear away [MDL]
tiwáˈ-tiwáˈ ripped, rent, torn (clothes): Tiwá-tiwáˈ na iníng gúbing mo Your clothes are ripped [MDL]
randán referring to the widening of a crack or lengthening of a tear; MA‑ or MAG‑ to widen or worsen; to grow larger (a crack, tear); (PAG‑)‑AN to develop a large crack, tear; (fig‑) Harí papagrandaná an gáwiˈ mong maráˈot Don't persist with your bad habits [MDL]
ngíyab-ngíyab a large tear or rip in clothing: Ngíyab-ngíyab na iníng kapasíngan kainíng bádoˈ mo There is a very large rip in your jacket [MDL]
rawóy-dáwoy MA‑ or MAG‑ or MANG‑ to hang by a thread (ripped parts of torn or worn clothing); to hang in place (broken parts or attachments): Nanrawóy-dáwoy na iníng samnó sa lámpara The decorations are hanging from the oil lamp [MDL]
itˈít MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to nibble on s/t (a person to see if s/t is sour, sweet); to gnaw out a piece of s/t (a rat, another animal); MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to gnaw on s/t (a rat, another animal) [MDL]
gáhab MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to cut a blanket, garment or mat lengthwise into strips; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to cut strips from a blanket, garment; (fig‑) Pinaggáhab-gahában pakaraháy nin kinóˈ si gúbing These clothes have been shredded to pieces by rats ... [MDL]
From work in the fields or in the home, or just through normal everyday use, clothes become stained (dupáng) or just dirty, sometimes very much so (dugimáˈ).
dugimáˈ MAG‑ to be very dirty (clothes): Nagdugimáˈ na iníng bádoˈ mo Your clothes are very dirty [MDL]
pipíˈ MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to wash clothes; MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to wash out a stain, dirt; Pipiˈán mo iyán gúbing Wash those clothes; MANG‑ to wash many clothes [MDL]
dagók MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to wash clothes, beating them with the hand or a stick; MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to remove a stain on clothes in this way; MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to use a stick or the hand for beating clothes; (fig‑) Pagdadagokán taká ngatdihán I'm going to beat you to a pulp [MDL]
kuróˈ-kusóˈ MAG‑, ‑ON to scrub clothes; to remove dirt in scrubbing [+MDL: kuró-kusó MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to scrub clothes; MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to scrub out dirt, mud]
didís civet, the fluid excreted from the anal glands of a civet cat, used in the manufacture of perfumes [MDL]
álom a scent placed among clothes to make them fragrant; MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to add s/t fragrant to clothes; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑ ‑AN to place s/t fragrant among clothes [MDL]
báris clothes hamper (typ‑ comprising a small basket with a lid, made of rattan) [MDL]
The number of hats which Lisboa includes in his dictionary is small, especially when compared to the entries which deal with the construction of hats in general. Materials used in hat making were those also readily available for the weaving of mats and baskets, that is bamboo, palm leaves, straw and rattan (iráw), although it is just the hats made from bamboo for which Liboa reserves special mention. Of the central Philippine languages, it is in the Tagalog dictionary of Noceda where the greatest variety of hats is mentioned. A list of these is included in the endnotes for those who would like to pursue this further.
daˈóda dye (typ‑ reddish, used for dying the bamboo hat called kurusóng); MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to dye such a hat; MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to use such a dye [MDL]
tinagá-tahók hat (typ‑ made of bamboo, very flat, used by women) [MDL]
There are two hats which are used in modern Bikol which do not appear in the Lisboa dictionary, sáyap, a hat used in the rice fields, and káloˈ, defined simply as a 'hat'. Káloˈ appears as an entry in the early dictionaries of four of the other central Philippine languages. For Tagalog, Waray and Hiligaynon, it is simply referred to as a 'hat'. For Cebuano, however, it is given an additional meaning, that of 'helmet'.
Sayap is given as an alternate for sadok in Encarnacion's Cebuano dictionary, and sadok is defined as a large hat worn by women, made from a variety of materials, including palm leaves, bamboo or nítoˈ (see below), shaped like an upside-down, handleless, clay frying pan, and used to protect a wearer from rain or sun, Sadok in Waray has a definition similar to that of Cebuano, but it is not cross-referenced to sayap. The entry sayap is also found in Hiligaynon where it is a women's hat made from leaves of the burí (talipot) palm.
káloˈ hat (typ‑)
Barangkáˈ, too, is probably a derived form comprising the now fossilised prefix ba-, and the root rangkáˈ. The most consistent meaning attributable to the prefix is 'likeness' or 'similarity'. As for rangkáˈ, we have to look to Malay for the relevant meaning, 'framework', referring to the framework of just about anything from a house to a kite, to the outline of a story. The framework for hats could also be formed from the wild grass, bambán.
sinágad net-like rattan frame placed inside a hat; MA‑ or MAG‑ to make such a frame [MDL]
bambán wild grass (typ‑ Schizostachyum bamban, used in making baskets and the framework of straw hats); MANG‑, PANG‑‑ON to collect such wild grass from the forest [+MDL]
sangbáw hoop or ring (placed along the edge of winnowing baskets, hats); MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to form this hoop or ring; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to place this hoop or ring on winnowing baskets, hats; MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to make this hoop from particular materials [MDL]
agsám plant (typ‑ with dark stripes, used for edging or binding, as on hats; Lygodium sp.); MANG‑, PANG‑‑ON to go to the forest in search of this plant [MDL]
kayungkóng the cord attached to straw hats and placed under the chin to keep a hat in place; MANG‑ to wear a hat with the band placed under the chin [MDL]
ringkáˈ (arc‑) decoration on women's hats made from a yellow reed similar to the yellow rattan (iráw); MAG‑, ‑AN to decorate hats in this way; MAG‑, I‑ to use this reed for such decoration; ‑AN: riningkáˈan a hat decorated in this way [MDL]
gubtík MA‑ or MAG‑ to jump (a flea); to snap out of place (the reeds of a hat when coming undone); (PAG‑)‑AN to feel the jumping movement of fleas (a person); to have some reeds snap out of place (a hat); (fig‑) Naggugubtík giráray an dílaˈ ni kuyán That person's tongue is always snapping (Said when a person never shuts up) [MDL]
The general head covering worn by men was the pudóng. When red cloth (ulangó) was used to form the pudóng it probably had a ritual significance which is not mentioned by Lisboa. This ritual aspect is covered in some detail in Chapter 8, 'Jewellery and Body Ornamentation,', Section 3. Húngay refers to removing the pudóng from the head, although it also has more general, related meanings.
ulangó (arc‑) cloth (typ‑red, worn as a head covering (pudóng); still worn in certain areas [MDL]
húngay MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to let down the hair; to undo the hair from a bun or knot; to remove the head covering called pudóng [MDL]
sakbód a cloth placed over the head by women and extending down over the shoulders and upper body, worn as a shawl; MAG‑ to wear a shawl in this way; MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON / MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to wear s/t as a shawl; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to place this type of shawl on s/o; (fig‑) Garó na sakbód iníng panot This pig's fat is like a shawl (Said when a pig has large amounts of hanging fat) [MDL]
The cutting and initial extraction of abaca fibres took place in the field, close to where the plants were cut, with subsequent cleaning, drying and bleaching taking place more centrally where access to the necessary tools and implements was readily available. Fibres were selected for their strength, colour and length, tied into bundles and prepared for their intended use. They were twisted for cordage and knotted together to form longer strands for weaving. Abaca, while dominant, was not the only fibre available in the region. Cotton and silk, although unlikely grown or produced in the area, were also available. Weaving was carried out by women using predominantly backstrap looms, although there is enough evidence to indicate that fixed-frame looms also existed. The parts of the loom, the combs, rods, reeds and shuttles are all identifiable as its common and universal components.
Those with the necessary skill wove highly desirable fabrics of abaca, silk or cotton, or fabrics of mixed fibres. Those for whom weaving was less easy could buy finished cloth in exchange for an amount of abaca fibre sufficient to produce two subsequent pieces, thereby paying for the labour.
Cloth, once cut from the loom, was soaked and pounded to increase its softness, then trimmed of excess threads. Dying took place at one of two possible stages. It could be an early process in which the threads were dyed before they were woven, enabling the weaver to create any relevant design of her choosing, or the cloth could be dyed after it was cut from the loom. Yellow and blue dyes were extracted, respectively, from known plants such as turmeric and indigo, and red and black dyes from the bark or leaves of specific trees.
Clothing was sewn, and the implements and techniques used 400 years ago would be easily recognisable today. Simple processes of hemming and binding could be made more decorative with the addition of bows or beads, or by adding a fringe of a different material. The fabric itself could be beautified by various styles of embroidery concentrated along the edges or centre of the cloth. Tailoring of specific items of clothing involved determining the size, often by setting out the cloth against a model or figure, and then cutting it down or sewing on additional pieces.
The main item of clothing worn by men was the loincloth, bahág, and by women the wrap around skirt, tápis. The upper garment for both men and women was a short jacket, commonly reaching the waist for men, and somewhat shorter for women. A later development for men was the the sarwál, a short, loose pair of pants which would have replaced the loincloth as the influence of Spanish dress become more dominant.
Other forms of dress were also available. The ankle-length tunic, lambóng, is an article of clothing mentioned in all of the early dictionaries for central Philippine languages, although who wore it and how it was worn differed. There were also clothes chosen for work in the fields and others for use at home. Blankets were commonly worn, forming an upper or lower garment, or simply draped across the entire body.
Clothing was worn in different ways by different people; those who made sure that items of clothing matched, suited the weather, were either sufficiently long or short, were kept clean and free of rips or tears and the ravages of mice or insects, and were properly folded away and stored and perhaps even scented; and those to whom clothing was a simple necessity and to whom styles and sizes were of little importance.
Hats and other head coverings were also commonly worn; hats made from bamboo, palm fronds and rattan, supported by frames of similar material and repaired when the material degraded or simply slipped out of place. Other head coverings were frequently of cloth, differing for men and women, and possibly having ritual significance.
 'Cannabis sativa,' Wikipedia, English, n.d. (accessed 13 January 2016).
 J. E. Spencer, 'The Abacá Plant and Its Fiber, Manila Hemp,' Economic Botany, vol. 7, no. 3, July - September 1953, pp. 195-213, p. 206 (accessed 7 August 2015).
 Spencer, 'The Abacá Plant and Its Fiber, Manila Hemp,' Economic Botany, p. 197.
 J. E. Spencer, 'Abaca and the Philippines,' Economic Geography, vol. 27, no. 2, April, 1951, pp. 95-106, p. 96 (accessed: 21 August 2015).
 Spencer, 'The Abacá Plant and Its Fiber, Manila Hemp,' Economic Botany, p. 195.
 'Species and Principal Varieties of Musa,' Source: Bulletin of Miscellaneous Information (Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew), vol. 1894, no. 92, August, 1894, pp. 229-314, p. 231; 'Abaca Plant,' Encyclopaedia Britannica (accessed 25 August 2015); also see T. Woodhouse and P. Kilgour, Cordage and Cordage Hemp and Fibres, London: Sir Isaac Pitman and Sons, 1919.
 John Forbes Royle, The Fibrous Plants of India Fitted for Cordage, Clothing, and Paper: With an account of the cultivation and preparation of flax, hemp and their substitutes, London: Smith, Elder and Co., 1855, p.65; Edward Balfour, ed., Cyclopędia of India and of Eastern and Southern Asia, Commercial, Industrial and Scientific, second edition, vol. III, Madras: Scottish, Lawrence and Foster Presses, 1873, p. 135 (accessed 22 November 2015).
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 Alonso de Mentrida, Diccionario de la lengua Bisaya, Hiliguena, y Haraya de la Isla de Panay, Manila: La Imprenta de D. Manuel y Felix Dayot, 1841, see agotay.
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 Spencer, 'The Abacá Plant and Its Fiber, Manila Hemp,' Economic Botany, p. 208.
 Ignacio Francisco Alcina, History of the Bisayan People in the Philippine Islands, 1668, vols 1 and 2, translated, edited and annotated by Cantius J. Kobak and Lucio Gutiérrez, Manila: UST Publishing House, 2002, vol. II, Chapter 10, p. 245.
 Royle, The Fibrous Plants of India Fitted for Cordage, Clothing, and Paper, p. 66.
 Spencer, 'Abaca and the Philippines,' Economic Geography, p. 95.
 Spencer, 'The Abacá Plant and Its Fiber, Manila Hemp,' Economic Botany, p. 208.
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 William Dampier, 'Dampier in the Philippines,' from A New Voyage Round the World, London, 1697, in Blair and Robertson, vol. 39, pp. 241-286, p. 277.
 Alcina, History of the Bisayan People in the Philippine Islands, Chapter 10, p. 247.
 Alcina, History of the Bisayan People in the Philippine Islands, Chapter 10, p. 247.
 Spencer, 'The Abacá Plant and Its Fiber, Manila Hemp,' Economic Botany, p. 208.
 Alcina, History of the Bisayan People in the Philippine Islands, Chapter 10, p. 247.
 also see Spencer, 'The Abacá Plant and Its Fiber, Manila Hemp,' Economic Botany, p. 209.
 Father Diego de Bobadilla, 'Relation of the Filipinas Islands by a religious who lived there for 18 years,' 1640, in Blair and Robertson, vol. 29, pp. 277-311, p. 298.
 Elmer Drew Merrill, Species Blancoanae: a critical revision of the Philippine species of plants described by Blanco and by Llanos, Department of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Bureau of Science, Publication no.12, Manila: Bureau of Printing, 1918, p. 103.
 see Chapter 2, 'Food,' Section 2.
 Juan José Noceda and Pedro de Sanlucar, Vocabulario de la lengua Tagala, 1753, Manila: Imprenta de Ramirez y Giraudier, Reimpreso 1860, see name.
 de Mentrida, Bisaya, Hiliguena, y Haraya, see corot.
 Spencer, 'The Abacá Plant and Its Fiber, Manila Hemp,' Economic Botany, p. 206.
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 de Mentrida, Bisaya, Hiliguena, y Haraya, see bangcal.
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 Noceda and de Sanlucar, Tagala, see bago; de la Encarnacion, Diccionario español - bisaya, see bago; de Mentrida, Bisaya, Hiliguena, y Haraya, see bago.
 Alcina, History of the Bisayan People in the Philippine Islands, Chapter 10, p. 247.
 Bergaño, Pampanga, en romance, see bandala.
 John U. Wolff, A Dictionary of Cebuano Visayan, Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines, 1971, see bandala.
 R.O. Winstedt, Unabridged Malay-English Dictionary, Singapore: Kelly & Walsh Ltd, nd., see bandela.
[ John Crawfurd, A Grammar and Dictionary of the Malay Language, 2 vols, London: Smith, Elder and Company, 1852, see bandela.
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 Balfour, ed., Cyclopędia of India and of Eastern and Southern Asia,Commercial, Industrial and Scientific, p. 136.
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 de Sande, 'Relation and description of the Phelipinas Islands,' 1577, in Blair and Robertson, vol. 4, p. 98.
 de Morga, 'Sucesos de la Islas Filipinas' (concluded), 1609, in Blair and Robertson, vol. 16, pp. 178-179.
 de Lavezaris and others, 'Reply to Fray Rada's "Opinion",' in Blair and Robertson, vol. 3, p. 270; de Loarca, 'Relacion de las Yslas Filipinas,' 1582, in Blair and Robertson, vol. 5, pp. 45, 67.
 de Sande, 'Relation and description of the Phelipinas Islands,' 1577, in Blair and Robertson, vol. 4, p. 98.
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 Sánchez de la Rosa, Sámar y Leyte, see garing, garingan.
 de la Encarnacion, Bisaya, see pamamal-an.
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 de Mentrida, Bisaya, Hiliguena, y Haraya, see bayo.
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 Noceda and de Sanlucar, Tagala, see sutla; Bergaño, Pampanga, see sutla.
 de la Encarnacion, Bisaya, see socla.
 de Mentrida, Bisaya, Hiliguena, y Haraya, see sucla, sutla, igagama.
 Sánchez de la Rosa, Sámar y Leyte, see igagama.
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 de Mentrida, Bisaya, Hiliguena, y Haraya, see tina.
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 Noceda and de Sanlucar, Tagala, see bolos; Sánchez de la Rosa, Sámar y Leyte, see bolos; de la Encarnacion, Bisaya, see bolos; de Mentrida, Bisaya, Hiliguena, y Haraya, see bolos.
 Noceda and de Sanlucar, Tagala, see basta.
 Alcina, History of the Bisayan People in the Philippine Islands, Chapter 3, pp. 115-116.
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 Francisco Colin, S.J., 'Native races and their customs,' from his Labor Evangelica, in Blair and Robertson, vol. 40, pp. 37–98, pp. 62–63.
 de San Antonio, Crónicas, 1738, in Blair and Robertson, vol. 40, pp. 296-373, pp. 328-331.
 de Mentrida, Bisaya, Hiliguena, y Haraya, see sinina.
 de la Encarnacion, Bisaya, see sinina.
 Bergaño, Pampanga, see sud-dia.
 Elsdon Best, 'Pre-historic civilisation in the Philippines: The Tagalo-Bisaya tribes' - I, The Journal of the Polynesian Society, vol. 1, no. 2 (July 1892), pp. 118-125, p. 121.
 Colin, 'Native races and their customs,' from his Labor Evangelica, in Blair and Robertson, vol. 40, pp. 37-98, p. 62-63.
 de Mentrida, Bisaya, Hiliguena, y Haraya, see lambong.
 Alcina, History of the Bisayan People in the Philippine Islands, Chapter 3, p. 123.
 de la Encarnacion, Bisaya, see lambong.
 de la Encarnacion, Bisaya, see saob-saob.
 Sánchez de la Rosa, Sámar y Leyte, see tacop.
 also see Malcolm W. Mintz, 'Anger and Verse: Two Vocabulary Subsets in Bikol,' Vical 2: Western Austronesian and Contact Languages, Papers from the 5th International Conference on Austronesian Linguistics. Auckland: Linguistics Society of New Zealand, 1991, p. 231-244.
 Sánchez de la Rosa, Sámar y Leyte, see purao; de Mentrida, Bisaya, Hiliguena, y Haraya, see purao.
 Chirino, 'Relacion de las Islas Filipinas,' 1604, in Blair and Robertson, vol. 12, pp. 169-322, p. 304.
 de Bobadilla, 'Relation of the Filipinas Islands by a religious who lived there for 18 years,' 1640, in Blair and Robertson, vol. 29, pp. 277-311, p. 294.
 Colin, 'Native races and their customs,' from his Labor Evangelica, in Blair and Robertson, vol. 40, pp 37-98, p. 81.
 de San Antonio, Crónicas, 1738, in Blair and Robertson, vol. 40, pp. 296-373, p. 339.
 Mintz, 'Anger and Verse: Two Vocabulary Subsets in Bikol,' Vical 2: Western Austronesian and Contact Languages, Papers from the 5th International Conference on Austronesian Linguistics.
 Robert Blust, 'Australian Etymologies,' Oceanic Linguistics, 1980, vol. 19, pp. 1-181, p. 24; 'Australian Etymologies II,' Oceanic Linguistics, 1983-84, vols 22-23, pp. 29-149, pp. 34-35; 'Australian Etymologies III,' Oceanic Linguistics, 1985, vol. 25, pp. 1-13, pp. 2-3.
[ Malcolm W. Mintz, 'The Fossilized Affixes of Bikol,' Currents in Pacific Linguistics: Papers on Austronesian Languages and Ethnolinguistics in Honor of George W. Grace, ed. Robert Blust, Canberra: Pacific Linguistics C-117, 1991, pp. 265-291.
 Noceda and de Sanlucar, Tagala, see lompot.
 de la Encarnacion, Bisaya, see lompot; de Mentrida, Bisaya, Hiliguena, y Haraya, see lompot.
 Wolff, A Dictionary of Cebuano Visayan, see tapi.
 Noceda and de Sanlucar, Tagala, see tapi.
 Fr. Leo James English, Tagalog - English Dictionary, Manila: Congregation of the Most Holy Redeemer, 1986, see tapi.
 Noceda and de Sanlucar, Tagala, see ising.
 de Mentrida, Bisaya, Hiliguena, y Haraya, see cayo.
 de Mentrida, Bisaya, Hiliguena, y Haraya, see calasumba.
 Noceda and de Sanlucar, Tagala, see bogsoc large basket / calabogsoc basket, gitná mid-point, half / calagitná middle, bató stone / calambáto small weight for a level or a sounding line; Sánchez de la Rosa, Sámar y Leyte, see bitay hang / calabitay s/t hanging, biting to tie s/t hanging / calabiting rope or bamboo tied at both ends, bucab empty, hollow / calabucab s/t soft, spongy.
 Mintz, 'The Fossilized Affixes of Bikol,' Currents in Pacific Linguistics: Papers on Austronesian Languages and Ethnolinguistics in Honor of George W. Grace, pp. 276-277.
 de la Encarnacion, Bisaya, see locot; de Mentrida, Bisaya, Hiliguena, y Haraya, see li, lo.
 Louis B. Wolfenson, 'The Infixes La, Li, Lo in Tagalog,' Journal of the American Oriental Society, vol. 27 (1906), pp. 142-146 (accessed 21 February 2016).
 Abrak Othman, Tatabahasa Bahasa Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur: Penerbitan Sarjana, 1984; p. 116.
 Alcina, History of the Bisayan People in the Philippine Islands, Chapter 3, pp. 118-119.
 Noceda and de Sanlucar, Tagala, see alobohan.
[ Sánchez de la Rosa, Sámar y Leyte, see baris.
 Noceda and de Sanlucar, Tagala, see locot; Bergaño, Pampanga, see lucut.
 de la Encarnacion, Bisaya, see locot; de Mentrida, Bisaya, Hiliguena, y Haraya, see locot; Sánchez de la Rosa, Sámar y Leyte, see locot.
 Noceda and de Sanlucar, Tagala, see calo, salacot, sauing, sambalilo, tangcoloc, torong (listed only in the Spanish-Tagalog section).
 Noceda and de Sanlucar, Tagala, see calo; Sánchez de la Rosa, Sámar y Leyte, see calo; de Mentrida, Bisaya, Hiliguena, y Haraya, see calo.
 de la Encarnacion, Bisaya, see calo.
 de la Encarnacion, Bisaya, see sadoc.
 Sánchez de la Rosa, Sámar y Leyte, see sadoc.
 de Mentrida, Bisaya, Hiliguena, y Haraya, see sayap.
 Bergaño, Pampanga, see cupia.
 Noceda and de Sanlucar, Tagala, see copya.
 Mintz, 'The Fossilized Affixes of Bikol,' Currents in Pacific Linguistics: Papers on Austronesian Languages and Ethnolinguistics in Honor of George W. Grace, pp. 274-276.
 Winstedt, Unabridged Malay-English Dictionary, see rangka.
 Noceda and de Sanlucar, Tagala, see bilit.
 Sánchez de la Rosa, Sámar y Leyte, see bilit.
 de la Encarnacion, Bisaya, see bilit.
 Noceda and de Sanlucar, Tagala, see cayongcong.
 Sánchez de la Rosa, Sámar y Leyte, see parongpong.
 Sánchez de la Rosa, Sámar y Leyte, see tocas.
 de Mentrida, Bisaya, Hiliguena, y Haraya, see tucas.
 Noceda and de Sanlucar, Tagala, see pandong.
 de Mentrida, Bisaya, Hiliguena, y Haraya, see pandong; Bergaño, Pampanga, see pandong.
 Sánchez de la Rosa, Sámar y Leyte, see pandong.
 de la Encarnacion, Bisaya, see pandong.