Intersections: Gender and Sexuality in Asia and the Pacific
Monograph 1: The Philippines at the Turn of the Sixteenth Century

Malcolm W Mintz


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Chapter 8

JEWELLERY AND BODY ORNAMENTATION


OVERVIEW
 
Inhabitants of the Bikol region, like the Visayans to the south, were referred to by the Spaniards as 'the painted ones' due to the tattoos which covered the bodies of men, and it is this topic which opens the current chapter. Compared are the tattoos worn by men and women, the age at which tattooing began, the types of tattoos worn, the reasons why they were given and the materials used to produce the colour needed.
 
The common practice of filing the teeth, as well as colouring them and inlaying individual teeth with gold, is introduced in Section 2. Included are the techniques employed and the possible origin of the dyes used to produce the striking red and black colours.
 
Section 3 looks at hair and head coverings and discussed here is the way the hair was worn, how it was wrapped or knotted, as well as its cleaning, combing and scenting. Also examined are shaping of the eyebrows and what happened to hair which appeared on other parts of the body.
 
Section 4 is a general overview of what it meant to be well dressed in the Bikol region of 400 years ago, the jewellery which was worn and valued, and how this made individuals appear to others around them.
 
With Section 5 begins the longer discussion of specific types of jewellery starting with the necklaces. Materials which were used included seeds, gemstones and beads of gold, with gemstones being the most restricted. An attempt is also made to further identify the types of seeds which were chosen for this decorative purpose.
 
A detailled discussion of earrings is the basis for Section 6; how the ears were bored, how common it was and at what age this happened. Considered are the types of earrings chosen and the number which could be worn in each ear.
 
Section 7 looks at bracelets, armbands and anklets made from rattan, seashells, tortoise shell, brass, gold and ivory. The value of some of these materials, as well as their origin and trade, is also discussed. Section 8 is a short section on rings, and Section 9 a concluding section on various types of chains. Examined are the stringing of beads, the fabrication of finely fitted gold segments, the links and clasps which held them in place and how and where they were worn.
 
1. TATTOOS
 
The Spanish referred to the Visayans, inhabitants of the central islands of the Philippines, as los Pintados 'the Painted Ones' because of the custom, among men, of tattooing their bodies. The same description was also applied to the inhabitants of the Bikol region, although not to the Tagalogs further north on Luzon. Cultural ties of the Bikolanos were to a large degree to the south[1] and there is linguistic evidence, most clearly among the groups inhabiting the southern part of the peninsula at Sorsogon, that at least some of the inhabitants immigrated to the region from this area.
 
Lisboa has only eight entries which pertain to tattooing, and these include general entries referring to tattooed men as well as more specific entries about the types of tattoos found and the reason men chose to be tattooed. The most detailed information about tattooing comes from descriptions in Ignacio Francisco Alcina's The History of the Bisayan People in the Philippines Islands[2] and Francisco Colin, Labor evangélica,[3] although mention is made in many of the early accounts of the Philippines: Antonio Pigafetta, Primo Viaggio Intorno al Mondo,[4] Diego de Artieda, Relation of the Western Islands Called Filipinas,[5] Pedro Chirino, Relación de las Islas Filipinas,[6] Antonio de Morga, Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas,[7] Miguel de Loarca, Relación de las Islas Filipinas,[8] Diego de Bobadilla, Relation of the Filipinas Islands[9] and striking photos are preserved in the Boxer Codex.[10] William Henry Scott also has a summary section on tattooing among the Visayans in Barangay.[11]
 
While men tattooed their whole bodies, women are said to have restricted tattoos to only their hands. Although the tattooing only of the hands is mentioned briefly by Chrino[12] and Colin,[13] and in far more detail by Alcina,[14] there is an image in the Boxer Codex which does depict a woman not only with arms fully tattooed, but with tattoos as well around the neck with some indication that they extend at least to the upper area of the chest.[15]
 
According to Alcina, Visayan women tattooed only the back of the hand and the backs of the fingers. Some tattooed just one hand, and others both, with Chirino indicating that only part of the second hand was tattooed. Tattooing of the back of hand continued as far as the wrist, and while the fingers were also tattooed only on the back, the fineness and closeness of the detail often made it seem as if the fingers were tattooed fully around. The designs are described as delicate, comprising floral and ribbon-like patterns, with the implication that these designs were far finer than those employed by men.
 
All accounts indicate that children were not tattooed. Tattooing began when young men were of a sufficient age to withstand the attendant pain[16] with Alcina mentioning that it would begin at an age of 20 years and above.[17]
 
Men were generally tattooed after exhibiting some act of bravery.[18] There is also evidence for this in an entry in Lisboa where one of the beliefs held at the time was that a man who tattooed his body without first proving himself in battle, would subsequently become ill or die (sibóng).
    sibóng a belief that one who has tattooed his body without first having defeated anyone in combat will fall ill or die; (PAG‑)‑ON to fall ill for this reason [MDL]
Alcina ties the amount of tattoos worn by a man to the degree of bravery shown, implying a prowess in battle, with only the bravest tattooing the neck, cheeks, eyes and forehead. The effect of a fully tattooed body would also produce a fierce-looking individual, useful when opposing an enemy. There were traditional tattoos which all men were expected to have, and others more ceremonial in nature related to feats of bravery.[19]
 
Tattooing began at the instep or ankle and then continued up the leg to the groin.[20] For Bikol, this starting point was referred to as tiláng-tiláng and the resulting tattoos on the legs and thighs as labíd.
    tiláng-tiláng the starting point at the ankle of a series of tattoos which extend up the leg [MDL]

    labíd tattoo (typ‑ on one's legs and thighs); MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to tattoo a person's legs, thighs; MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to tattoo a particular design on the legs, thighs [MDL]
Alcina describes another set of tattoos which began at the back of the ankle and then continued up the back of the leg to the waist.[21] Túrob, in Bikol, describes one tattooed from the waist down, across the thighs and buttocks, and appears to be a similar reference.
    túrob describing one who is tattooed from the waist down; MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to tattoo s/o in this way; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to tattoo parts of the body from the waist down (as the buttocks, thighs) [MDL]
For those men who had tattoos on the chest, these were referred to in Bikol as binanóg. This type of tattoo is described in Alcina as being in the form of breast plates,[22] although there is no way of knowing if this was the way men in the Bikol region also realised their chest tattoos.
    binanóg the tattoo found on the chest of those who are tattooed; chest tattoo; (fig‑) Garó ka na napabatók nin binanóg It's as if you were tattooed with a binanóg (Said when someone is seated and leaning back or reclining at full length) [MDL]
Men were also tattooed across the back, from the waist up to the neck, with some of them, as mentioned, also tattooing areas of their face.[23] In Bikol, lípong was the general reference to a man completely covered in tattoos, although táwo-táwo also may have had a similar reference.
    lípong referring to men who are completely covered with tattoos, or things completely covered with designs or sketches; MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to completely cover s/o or s/t in this way; MA‑ to be covered in this way; (fig‑) nalilípong nin kalugádan covered with sores [MDL]

    táwo-táwo people, said in jest; tattooed men [MDL]
Lisboa does not include any specific detail as to how the tattooing took place, having only the single entry tadtád for 'tattoo' and the general process of tattooing. This type of detail comes primarily from Alcina.
    tadtád tattoo; MAG‑, ‑AN to tattoo a person or a particular part of the body; MAG‑, I‑ to use needles for poking the small holes in the skin to which the coloring for a tattoo will then be applied [+MDL: MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to tattoo s/o or a part of the body]
Great precession was taken in designing tattoos making sure they were appropriate to the gender of the individual, and proportionate to both their stature and the size of the area which was to be treated.[24] The design was first traced out on the skin with a ruler and compass. On the leg this comprised a straight line running from top to bottom, joined by a wavy line of small dots intersecting at right angles. Small holes were made on the skin using twigs with fine bamboo points[25] or combs made of brass.[26] The Boxer Codex has a mention of these holes being made with iron or brass points heated in a fire.[27]
 
A variety of combs were used, each designed to cover the width of the line which was to be tattooed, varying from one to just over two fingers wide. Pricking of the skin with these combs resulted in all the skin of the area being removed. This area was dusted with a powder derived from a black, resinous pitch Alcina refers to as salóng (a dammar resin) derived from trees of the genuses Shorea and Pentacme referred to as lawáˈan. The Bikol entries for these terms are presented below.
    salóng resin; torch or lamp commonly used for lighting; MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to fasten or seal s/t with resin; MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to use a particular resin; ‑AN: sasalngán resin; lamp, torch; ‑ON to be temporarily blinded until one adjusts to the darkness (Said when one leaves a lighted area, or when a torch or lamp is suddenly put out); MAKA‑ to go out, leaving one in darkness (a torch, lamp); MANG‑, PANG‑‑AN to collect resin from trees of the forest; TIG‑ tigsalóng-sálong a dark night (hardly illuminated by the lighting of torches) [MDL]

    lawáˈan tree (typ‑ red lawáˈan: Shorea negrosensis; white lawáˈan: Pentacme contorta and Pentacme mindanensis)
Alcina gives more detail about the tattooing of the back, generally stripes which showed little differentiation from individual to individual, to the front of the body, including the abdomen, in which designs differed from one individual to another. Tattooing of the arms proceeded much like the legs, but, as with the front of the body, giving leeway for artists to show their unique skills. Here the spaces between the tattooed lines, which were left a blue colour, were filled with detailled designs showcasing the achievements of the individual artist.[28]
 
While mention is made of how the dominant black colour was achieved in tattooing, Alcina does not indicate the origin of the blue colour. Of the ancient, natural dyes used in tattooing, blue pigment could be obtained from copper carbonate, known as azurite.[29] This is a mineral found in the Philippines, available in the Visayas, and the possible source of the blue pigment used in tattooing.[30]
 
Exposing so much of the body to what amounted to open wounds and then covering these with non-sterile resins, was not without its consequences. Men would isolate themselves for nine to 10 days to allow themselves to recover. If infection set in this would result in inflamation and fevers from which not all of them survived.[31]
 
There is one further entry in Lisboa which, while not referring to tattoos, is most likely a form of ritual ornamentation. This is lábong, a set of burn marks on the arm located near the wrist. An entry of the same form, labong, can be found in Sanchez de la Rosa's Waray dictionary[32] where more information about the practice is supplied: 'a circle of flammable fibres is placed around the wrist and then burned, forming a mark taken as a sign of bravery'. The same type of burning may be applied to other parts of the body.
    lábong burn marks located on the arm, close to the wrist; MA‑ or MAG‑ to burn the arm in this way (probably as a form of ritual ornamentation) [MDL]

2. TOOTH DECORATION
 
The dying, filing and inlaying of the teeth with gold was a practice widespread in the Philippines at the time of arrival of the Spanish. Numerous references can be found in early accounts of the region, and the practice existed into the latter decades of the twentieth century in northern parts of Luzon.[33]
 
There is a limited number of entries in Lisboa referring to tooth modification, and most of the early accounts on the practice also lack a degree of detail. Similar types of information can be found in the accounts of Chirino,[34] Alcina,[35] Diego de Bobadilla,[36] Colin,[37] Morga,[38] Pigafetta[39] and Juan Francisco de San Antonio.[40] Scott also summarises the situation in the Visayas in Barangay.[41]
 
Filing of the teeth was a regular practice with most adults showing this type of procedure. Chirino and Morga[42] mention that such filing began in childhood and continued into adulthood, although remains found at the Calatagán excavations in Batangas indicate that tooth filing of individuals there did not occur until the late teens, generally around the age of 17 years.[43] Teeth could be filed to points,[44] or filed so that each tooth would be level with the others.[45] Such an action in Bikol was referred to as ngudngód. For the Visayans, an expert using small, elongated stones was engaged for this purpose.[46]
    ngudngód MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to dull a knife blade by striking it against a stone; to file the teeth down with a stone [MDL]
Evidence from the remains found at Calatagán show that the two most common types of tooth filing there were concave across the surface of the tooth and square along the biting edge. Usually the six upper and lower incisors were filed. If the pre-molars were filed, these were inevitably from the upper jaw resulting in more of the upper teeth being filed than the lower. Not all the remains showed evidence of tooth filing, although upwards of 82% did show this modification.[47]
 
While inlaying and the insertion of gold pegs into the incisors was a customary practice in the Philippines, only one individual at Calatagán showed evidence of this practice.[48] From the few entries found in Lisboa, we may assume that this was a practice, probably common, in the Bikol region. Of the large variety of gold found and identified in Bikol, rítiˈ was the gold used for dental work or adornment. In modern Bikol, pásak is a crown or filling for a tooth, but during Lisboa's time this referred to gold that was inlayed or inserted into the tooth. As to how this was accomplished, we have to look at data outside the Bikol region.
    rítiˈ dental gold; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to fill or cap teeth with such gold; to insert such gold into s/o's teeth as a form of adornment; MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to use such gold for dental work or adornment [MDL]

    pásak cap crown or filling for a tooth (usually gold); MAG‑, ‑AN to cap, crown or fill a tooth; MAG‑, I‑ to crown a tooth with gold [MDL: (arc‑) gold which is inserted or inlayed into a tooth; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to insert gold into a tooth; MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to use gold for this purpose]
Chirino[49] describes gold placed into the centre of one or more of the upper teeth, poured into a hole bored for this purpose. This appears to be an inlay and is different in a number of ways from the process described by Alcina. For the Visayas, and in particular, Samar, a pyramidal or triangular piece of gold was inserted into the lower portion of both upper and lower teeth at the gum line. This was fastened by drilling a hole through the tooth. A post attached to the insert was then passed through the hole and fastened on the inside so that the insert remained in place permanently.[50]
 
Alinca mentioned that the decorating of teeth with gold was a practice only of women. Colin and San Antonio[51] indicate that is was a practice found particularly among women of upper classes. There is no mention in Chirino, nor in Lisboa, as to this being a custom strictly among women, and Diego de Bobadilla[52] indicates that women followed men in this custom. We have, then, a custom exhibiting some regional and cultural variation.
 
The inlay of gold into the teeth was made more striking since it was usual to dye the teeth. Ordinarily the teeth were dyed black[53] but reference in Diego de Bobadilla, Chirino[54] and Lisboa indicate that teeth could be coloured black (gúmaˈ) or red (lakháˈ).
    gúmaˈ MA‑ or MAG‑ to have the teeth dyed black; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to dye the teeth black with the root called amlóng or other dyes; MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to use the amlóng root for this purpose [MDL]

    lakháˈ an aromatic substance imported from China, used for incense and to color the teeth red; MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to color the teeth with this substance; MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to use small pieces of this substance to dye the teeth [HINDI lākh resin] [MDL]
To dye the teeth red, small pieces of lakháˈ were used. Lisboa identifies this substance as imported from China, although the origin of the term is clearly Indian. Lakháˈ is identified as a tree resin in a number of early dictionaries: Alonso de Mentrida for Hiligaynon[55] and Juan José Noceda for Tagalog.[56] Juan Feliz de la Encarnacion for Cebuano[57] describes the substance as originating from small insects which attach themselves to the branches of trees. While he describes these as a species of ant, it is most likely these are the scale insects, the dried bodes of the females producing the red dye called kermes or cochineal. Ants would no doubt also be present as they not only put in place certain species of scale insects, but also feed off the sugary solution later produced by them.
 
To dye the teeth black there are two references in Lisboa, amlóng and muyá which Thomas J Zumbroich identifies as the single plant, Epipremnum pinnatum[58] and mention is made in PC Boyce, 'The genus Epipremnum schott'[59] that this was a plant used for such a purpose. A third entry in Lisboa, talhág, also refers to an ivy-like plant growing up trees whose leaves, when chewed, turn the teeth black, but it is not clear if this is related to amlóng and muyá.
    amlón vine (typ‑ hanging from trees in the forest, used in the making of baskets); MANG‑, PANG‑ ‑ON to go in search of such a vine [+MDL: amlóng a type of root hanging from trees in the forest, used for blackening the teeth; syn‑ bakong]

    bakóng root (typ‑ used for blackening the teeth); used in narratives and verse in place of amlóng [MDL]

    muyá plant (typ‑ leafy, growing attached to the trunks of palms and trees); the small hard core is chewed to blacken the teeth [MDL]

    talhág ivy-like plant growing up trees, its leaves chewed like búyoˈ, causing the teeth to turn black [MDL]
Teeth could also be dyed red over time by the chewing of betel nut mixture, mamáˈ, comprising the betel nut, búnga, the vine leaf, búyoˈ and lime, putíˈ.
    mamáˈ ‑ON: mamaˈón or maˈmón the mixture of betel nut, búyoˈ leaf and lime; MAG‑, ‑ON to chew this mixture [+MDL: maˈmáˈ; MA‑, ‑AN to give s/o this mixture: Maˈmí akó Give me some mamáˈ; MA‑, I‑ to offer s/o this mixture; MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to chew this mixture; PAG‑ the way of chewing this mixture; ‑AN: mamaˈmán little box for holding the betel nut mixture]

    búnga areca palm and nut; betel nut (typ‑ Areca catechu) [+MDL: MA‑ or MAG‑ to add pieces of betel nut to the leaf called búyoˈ, the main ingredients in the mixture with lime called mamáˈ; also: to rub moistened betel nut on the hands and feet to prevent the skin from becoming itchy and irritated when in long contact with the water of rice fields]

    búyoˈ vine (typ‑ possessing a leaf used as part of the mixture of betel nut and lime called mamáˈ); ‑AN a place where this vine grows [+MDL]

    putíˈ lime (mineral) [+MDL: MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to add lime to búyoˈ as part of the betel nut mixture; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to mix búyoˈ with lime; MAHING‑, HING‑‑ON or MAGHING‑, PAGHING‑‑ON to make lime from oyster or clam shell, stone; MAHING‑, IHING‑ or MAGHING‑, IPAGHING‑ to use fire in the processing of lime]
What had an effect on the teeth, would also colour the mouth and lips, and when this happened in Bikol, the term for this was rumpíˈ.
    rumpíˈ color of the mouth and lips caused by chewing búyoˈ (red) or amlóng (black); MA‑ or MAG‑ to turn red or black (the mouth, lips); (PAG‑)‑AN to have one's mouth or lips turn this color [MDL]

3. HAIR AND HEAD COVERINGS
 
Care of the hair (buhók) and the way it was worn was an important part of grooming in the Philippines. The length of hair worn by men varied depending on the region. Tagalogs had their hair at shoulder-length, those in the Cagayan valley below the shoulder, while those of Ilocos wore their hair shorter. The Visayans could have their hair shorter[60] or longer and done up, tied at the crown of the head using a small piece of gauze.[61] There were not only differences from region to region, but also within regions with Alcina mentioning that variable hair length among men was the case in the Visayas.[62] Men who had longer hair could also could plait it into a cue (hakósan).[63]
    buhók hair on the head; MA‑ or ‑ON to have a lot of hair on the head; to have a mop of hair; ... [+MDL: MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to place hair on an image, a statue]

    hakósan plait, braid (typ‑ in rope, hair); MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to plait or braid a rope, hair; MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to produce this type of plait in hair, rope [MDL]
The pudóng was a cloth head-covering generally worn by men. This is the Bikol form. In Cebuano and Waray it is this form or the reduplicated form which is used, respectively pudong or pudong-pudong.[64] The form in Hiligaynon and Tagalog is putong.[65] For Hiligaynon, Mentrida mentions that this headdress was worn by both men and women, but this is not something specifically mentioned by the other lexicographers. For Waray and Tagalog, the wearing of this headdress is associated with feats of valour performed by men.
 
Specific detail is recorded by Colin for Tagalog who describes the putong as a long thin cloth which is tied in various modes across the forehead and temples, at times resembling a turban and at others the crown of a hat. Those men who had performed particular acts of bravery allowed the ends of the putong to hang down their back while others wore it at even greater length, allowing the ends to reach their legs. The colour of the cloth indicated the rank and number of deeds performed by the wearer. Only those who had killed at least one person could wear the colour red, and only after seven deaths could the putong be worn with particular types of embroidery along its edge.[66]
 
De la Rosa includes in his entry for pudong the following saying which indicates that the wearing of the headdress in Samar may have also had an association with completed acts of valour: 'the headdress which covers the temples of a coward is like a haze which obscures his mind; that of a conqueror is like a light which illuminates it'. Alcina, writing about the same area, also indicates that men who showed exceptional bravery or who had killed in battle, wore the red pudong with one end trailing loosely down the back. A pudong woven of finer material would be worn on more formal occasions.[67]
    pudóng a head covering (typ‑ tied under the chin); MAG‑, ‑ON to wear such a head covering [MDL: a cloth head covering; MAG‑ to wear a head covering; MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to put on a head covering; MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to use s/t as a head covering; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to cover the head with such a covering; to place a head covering on s/o; (fig‑) Garó na ipinudóng sa buˈót ko si kuyán It's as if that person is covering my heart (Said when one is concerned about the safety of another)]
For women, hair was worn long.[68] Alcina described women as priding themselves on the length of their hair, this sometimes reaching the ground. Hair, grown thick, was piled up on the head and tied high on the crown. To add to the effect, it was also common the add a false hairpiece to give the hair even greater bulk and height.[69]
 
For Bikol, bangló is the hairpiece worn by women, but also added by men who were waiting for their own hair to grow, and the knot into which the hair was tied was, and still is, called putós. A false hairpiece may have also been used when the hair was thinning (payagpág).
    bangló false hairpiece worn by women; also worn in earlier times by men while growing their hair longer; MAG‑ to wear such a hairpiece; MA‑ to place a hairpiece on s/o; MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to put on a hairpiece [MDL]

    putós a hair bun; topknot; MAG‑, ‑ON to tie up the hair; to put the hair up [+MDL: MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to tie up the hair in a bun; ‑AN: pinutosán or pinuputosán hair which is tied up; a hair bun]

    payagpág ‑ON describing thinning hair or s/o with thinning hair; also refers to thin eyelashes: Kapayagpágon kainíng buhók mo Your hair is very thin [MDL]
Some women wore their hair so that naturally formed ringlets were displayed across the forehead,[70] while others would have just pushed the hair back so that it cleared the forehead, something described as sapóy in Bikol.
    sapóy MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to arrange the hair so that it is pushed back from the forehead and falls on the shoulders (women) [MDL]
Alcina mentions that the weight of the hair piled high on the head, and often made even higher and heavier by the addition of a false hairpiece, would put great pressure on the hair growing at the forehead, resulting in premature baldness even at a young age.[71] The Bikol entry, paˈngás, need not refer exclusively to this type of situation, nor just to women, but it could be describing such a state.
    paˈngás bald, particularly at the crown of the head; MAG‑ to grow bald; MA‑ to become bald [+MDL: bald, extending from the forehead to the crown of the head; MA‑ or MAG‑ to fall out (the hair at the crown of the head); MA‑ to become bald (a person)]
Hair could be trimmed (sapgót), cut (bulóg), cropped (tubtób) or completely removed by shaving with a knife or razor (karís), although for women, who prided themselves on the length and thickness of their hair, only trimming would no doubt have been performed with cutting reserved for only the direst of circumstances. Women would cut their hair as a sign of mourning for one that was deeply cherished, such as a husband or parent.[72] Lisboa describes sanggól, the cutting of the hair for mourning, as an old custom and, by implication, no longer performed.
 
The custom, however, clearly still existed in the Northern provinces of the Philippines with the Spanish king ordering that the wilful cutting of women's hair as a punishment for disobedience by certain Dominican priests in Nueva Segovia in 1624 (at that time centered in the Cagayan Valley), be stopped as it caused far too much resentment,[73] and also in Samar at the time Alcina was writing in 1668. San Antonio, using sources from the 16th and 17th centuries in his Cronicas of 1738, also describes as an affront the cutting of the hair as punishment for any crime or infraction.[74]
    sapgót MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to snip off the ends of s/t (hair, thread); to trim the hair; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to snip the ends from s/t [MDL]

    bulóg MAG‑, ‑ON to cut the hair; MAG‑, ‑AN to cut the hair from s/o; to give s/o a haircut; MAGPA‑ to get a haircut; PARA‑ barber [+MDL: MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to cut the hair; to cut s/o's hair]

    tubtób MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to crop the hair; to cut the hair very short; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to crop s/o's hair very short [MDL]

    karís MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to shave the hair with a razor or knife; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑ ‑AN to shave the head [MDL]

    sanggól (arc‑) MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to cut the hair short as a sign of mourning; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to cut s/o's hair short for this reason [MDL]
For purposes of combing and cleaning, the hair would be undone and allowed to reach its full length (húngay). To remove the knots and tangles, particularly in hair that was long, a wide toothed comb, húgay, would be used. For combing, a wide comb, sukráy, was used by women, and for the action of combing the hair by both men and women the term was suráng.
    húngay MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to let down the hair; to undo the hair from a bun or knot; ... [MDL]

    húgay comb for the hair; MAG‑, ‑ON to comb the hair [+MDL: wide comb used to pull knots or tangles from the hair; a rake for straw; MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to remove knots, tangles from the hair; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to disentangle hair; to free the hair of knots with such a comb]

    sukráy comb (typ‑ large, used by women); MAG‑, ‑ON to comb the hair with such a comb [+MDL]

    suráng MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to comb the hair [MDL]
There was an expectation that hair, especially when long, would be cared for, and if it was allowed to become disheveled (suragpák), tangled (sabukrót, supáyong) or matted (pitpít) this would commented on disapprovingly (lugáy).
    suragpák messed up, disheveled (hair); MAG‑ to become disheveled (hair); ‑AN to have disheveled hair (a person) [+MDL: MA‑ or MAG‑ to become disheveled (hair); (PAG‑)‑AN to have disheveled hair; I(PAG)‑ to cause one's hair to become disheveled; MANG‑ to go around with hair that is messed up: Nanunuragpák giráray iníng ákiˈ This child always goes around with her hair messed up; ‑ON: suragpákon s/o with disheveled hair]

    sabukrót tangled (the hair); MAG‑ to be tangled (the hair); Nagsabukrót na iníng buhók ko My hair is tangled; ‑ON a person with tangled hair [MDL]

    supáyong describing long hair that is tangled and matted; MAG‑ to have such hair: Nagsupáyong ka na Your hair is very long and tangled ... [MDL]

    pitpít matted down (wet fur, feathers, hair); MA‑ to become matted down when wet; IKA‑ to cause such matting (water); (fig‑) MANG‑ Namitpít na akó I'm soaking wet [MDL]

    lugáy a term of disapproval when referring to a woman with disheveled hair, or hair that is not properly combed or tied; MAG‑ to have the hair in such a state; Naglugáy na si kuyán How messy that person's hair is [MDL]
The hair could be cleaned in a number of ways. The use of grated coconut for this purpose was common. The grated coconut could be rubbed into the scalp dry to remove grime and dandruff (pánok), it could be used with water (úbas), or it could also be wrapped in abaca fibre (haˈnós) forming a type of packet which could be scrubbed on the scalp. In present day Bikol haˈnós is a hair dressing whose main ingredient is coconut oil.
    pánok MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to clean the hair and scalp with grated coconut alone, not using any water; MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to remove dandruff or dirt by cleaning the hair and scalp in this manner [MDL]

    úbas remainder of tubáˈ which can no longer be used for normal purposes or drunk; remainder of grated coconut used for washing the hair and not useful for any other purpose [MDL]

    haˈnós mixture used as a hair dressing, the main ingredient of which is coconut oil; MAG‑, I‑ to apply such a mixture; MAG‑, ‑AN to apply such a mixture to the hair [MDL: hanós grated coconut wrapped in abaca fiber, used to wash the scalp to remove dandruff; MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑ ‑ON to remove dandruff with such a mixture; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to wash the scalp with grated coconut wrapped in abaca fiber; MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to use grated coconut for this purpose]
The hair could also be shampooed (gughóˈ). This was a general term and could apply to shampooing with any preparation. A specific shampoo, however, could be obtained from the bark of the forest vine called gúgoˈ. This is a thick vine, with a stem reaching up to 18 cm in diameter, which twists around the trunks of trees in search of light at the top of the forest canopy.[75] It is a plant which is still valued for its medicinal properties with the bark, stems and seeds all being utilised,[76] The bark contains a chemical with a specific foaming characteristic (saponins)[77] which makes it particularly suitable for use as a shampoo. Etymologically, the two terms gughóˈ and gúgoˈ are clearly related.
    gughóˈ MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to wash or shampoo the hair; MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to use water or another preparation for washing the hair [MDL]

    gúgoˈ vine (typ‑ thick and woody, possessing a bark which may be used in preparing a shampoo for treating dandruff; Entada phaseoloides); MAG‑, ‑ON to remove dandruff by shampooing with such a preparation; MAG‑, ‑AN to shampoo the head; MAG‑, I‑ to use this bark as a shampoo [+MDL: MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to remove dandruff with this shampoo]
Once the hair is washed, it is then combed and oiled (ránoˈ) and treated with a variety of natural lotions, one of which was derived from the bákong plant, possibly the spider lily, Crinum asiaticum.[78] Of the oils referred to, most common is the sesame, langá [79] although sesame used for this particular purpose is not mentioned in Lisboa.
    ránoˈ referring to hair that is newly oiled and combed; MA‑ to have recently oiled and combed one's hair; to be newly combed and oiled (hair) [MDL]

    bákong plant (typ‑ with long, wide leaves producing a star-like, fragrant flower; the pith of the stems is used in fishing, and the juice of the fleshy leaves as a hair dressing [MDL]

    langá sesame; ... var‑ lungá [+MDL]
The hair, after washing and oiling, is then scented with civet, ambergris or musk.[80] Again, as with sesame, there is no specific mention in Lisboa of these being used as scents for the hair, although it is likely that such a widespread practice in the Philippines was also found in the Bikol region.
 
Civet (didís) is the fluid excreted from the anal glands of the civet cat (singgálong), producing a strong, though pleasant smell (anghít). It is used in the Bikol region for perfuming clothing (dagpíˈ) and may have also been used for the hair.
    didís civet, the fluid excreted from the anal glands of a civet cat, used in the manufacture of perfumes [MDL]

    singgálong civet cat, wildcat (typ‑ Philippine, white); a catlike mammal of the family Viverridae having anal scent glands that secrete a fluid with a musky odor [+MDL: Abóng hamót singgálong doy idtó That civet cat smells very nice]

    anghít the smell of civet; also used to refer to other strong and overpowering smells; MA‑ to have such a smell [MDL]

    dagpíˈ MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to salt s/t one is seasoning or preserving; to perfume clothing with civet or musk; MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to add salt; to add civet or musk to clothing [MDL]
There were also other scents, generally referred to as pariˈnáˈ, used in the Bikol region. Of specific mention was kalambák, derived from the resin of the agarwood tree which was made into an oil for rubbing on the skin.[81] In the making of perfumes and incense, use was made of the saltwater snail called kalanghúga. The operculum or covering of the foot of this snail was ground and added to various scents where it served as a fixer. This prevented the rapid evaporation of the liquid used in the preparation.[82]
    pariˈnáˈ a scent, perfume, incense; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to perfume s/t; MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to spread a particular perfume or scent; MANG‑, PANG‑‑AN to perfume one or more things; to smoke things with incense; MANG‑, IPANG‑ to use or spread a particular scent, incense; ‑AN: papariˈnán container for incense, perfume; (fig‑) Garó na ipinariˈnáˈ an dangóg ni kuyán It's as if that person's reputation (good or bad) has spread far and wide [MDL]

    kalambák oil (typ‑ medicinal, fragrant, used for rubbing into the skin); derived from the resin of the agarwood tree (Aquilaria malaccensis), which is produced by the wood in response to infection by a type of mold) [MDL]

    kalanghúgaˈ shellfish (typ‑ elongated, spiral-shaped, saltwater; genus Buccinum) [+MDL: kalanhúgaˈ the operculum (the hard, corneous material - the material found in the formation of horns) which covers the opening or foot of the snail serves as a fixer when ground and mixed with scents in the making of perfumes and incense]
It was also common for women to decorate their hair with a band or crown worn on the head. One of these bands was referred to as pinangdán. This is clearly related in form to pangdán 'pandanus' and it is probable that some part of the plant, be it the leaves or flowers, must have originally been used in decorating the hair. Similarly, sinampága, a headband of gold flowers, is formed from sampága which, during Lisboa's time, was a general term for flowers. A cluster of flowers worn in the hair, or a headpiece of gold, was also referred to as tadyók. There is also a reference in the Boxer Codex to Visayan headpieces being made from brass and imported from China.[83]
    pinangdán (arc‑) band worn like a crown on the head or as a belt around the waist; MAG‑ to wear such a band; MA‑ to place such a band on s/o [MDL]

    pandán pandanus (typ‑ small tree possessing prop roots and narrow leaves clustered at the ends of branches, used in the weaving of mats and other articles; also producing a large, fragrant fruit; Pandanus) [+MDL: pangdán pandanus; púsoˈ kan pangdán pandanus flower]

    sinampága type of crown or headband of gold flowers, worn by women [MDL]

    sampága flower, a general term, referring particularly to those flowers from Mexico [MDL]

    tadyók a cluster of flowers worn by women in the hair; a headpiece of gold; MAG‑ to dress, wearing such a headpiece or a cluster of flowers in the hair; MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to wear a particular cluster of flowers or gold; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN decorate one's hair with flowers, gold; MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to place such flowers, gold in the hair [MDL]
While great care was taken with the hair on the head, hair growing on other parts of the body was removed.[84] Men used small clamshells or the cleft of the thin bamboo called bagákay (the entry below is Bikol) for tweezing out the hairs that grew on the chin or elsewhere on the body.[85] There are sufficient entries in the Lisboa Vocabulario to indicate that this was also the case in Bikol although, except for the fingers (in the entry sanít), there is no mention of the instrument used to removed the hair. Hair could be pulled from the head (sapúyong), or generally from the head or beard (raˈbít, rabnót).
    bagákay bamboo (typ‑ thin with a rough exterior, containing sections and nodes, used as a siphon or staff, or in making rope [+MDL]

    sanít MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to pull out a few hairs with the fingers; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to pull these hairs from the head, a person; (fig‑) Makakasaró-sanít pa akó kainíng sakóng pinangangábaka My stripping of abaca fiber is like pulling out just a few hairs (Said when one who is stripping abaca is constantly interrupted by other tasks to attend to) [MDL]

    sapúyong MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to pull out the hair; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to pull out the hair from the head [MDL]

    raˈbít MAG‑, ‑ON to pluck the feathers of a bird or fowl; MAG‑, ‑AN to pluck the feathers from a bird or fowl [+MDL: MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑ ‑ON to pluck the feathers of a bird or fowl; to pull out hair from the head, beard; to pull up a plant with the hand; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑ ‑AN to pull feathers from a fowl, hair from the head]

    rabnót MAG‑, ‑ON to grab s/o by the hair or beard; to grab onto s/t and pull [MDL: MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to pluck feathers; to pull out the hair from the head, a beard; to pull up a plant with the hand; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑ ‑AN to pluck the feathers from a bird, fowl; to pull out hair from the head, a beard; to pull up a plant from the ground]
Women took time to shape their eyebrows (kíray), most commonly by tweezing. The eyebrows were trimmed (sagúso) to thin them out (dáhit) for it was clearly thinner eyebrows that were a sign of beauty. Alcina mentions that for the Visayas there were people whose primary job it was to trim the eyebrows and arrange women's hair.[86] Lisboa, however, makes no mention of such people for the Bikol region.
    kíray eyebrow [+MDL: ‑ON: kikiráyon eyebrows; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to shape s/o's eyebrows; MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to tweeze out eyebrows in the shaping process]

    sagúso MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to trim the eyebrows (women); MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑ ‑AN to trim a woman's eyebrows [MDL]

    dáhit eyebrows (well shaped, not wide); MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to shape the eyebrows; Garó na dináhit an kikiráyon ni kuyán It's as if that person's eyebrows have been shaped [MDL]
Lisboa also includes another entry for eyebrows, pipidkón, which appears to relate more figuratively to the look given to the face. This is a morphologically complex entry, possibly having pikít as its base.[87]
    pipidkón eyebrows; a frown; Kaláˈin kainíng pipidkón ni kuyán What a strange frown that person has; Magabát an sakóng pipidkón My eyebrows are heavy (meaning: I'm falling asleep); Kahalangkáw kan pipidkón ni kuyán How high those person's eyebrows are (Meaning: That person takes in everything with a look) [MDL]

    pikít squinting; having one eye smaller than the other; MAG‑ to squint; MAG‑, ‑ON to close one eye [+MDL: one who is blind or short sighted who has the eyes closed; MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to close the eyes to a narrow slit (squint) as when looking at the sun]

4. FINERY
 
While everyday life would have been taken up by the myriad tasks needed for survival, there would have also been opportunities for dressing up. Occasions could include weddings and funerals, religious celebrations or simply being invited as a guest (dápit). Dressing up included not only wearing ones finest clothes, but also an aray of one's jewellery (andág, sayóng, sunód).
    dápit ... [MDL: MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to call on s/o for the purpose of inviting them to the house for a meal, a drink or discussion; ... Garó na ing dápit She's decked out like an invited guest (Said when one is very dressed up, as when going to a wedding)]

    andág MA‑ to be beautifully dressed or adorned; MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to dress or adorn s/o with beautiful clothing or jewelry; MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to use particular clothing or jewelry for adornment [MDL]

    sayóng MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to dress s/o up in their finest; to adorn a person, image or effigy; MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to adorn s/o with fine clothes or jewelry [MDL]

    sunód MAG‑ to dress o/s; to wear rings, bracelets; MAG‑, IPAG‑ to put on clothes, such as the full length tunic, lambóng, or the shirt-like garment, bádoˈ; to place a ring on the finger or bracelets on the wrist; MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN: pagsunorán to dress in particular clothing; to place a ring on the finger or a bracelet on the wrist; MA‑ to dress o/s; to wear rings, bracelets; MA‑, ‑AN: sunorán to dress s/o; to place a ring on the finger or a bracelet on the wrist; to place the feet in stocks; MA‑, I‑ to put on or dress s/o in particular clothing, rings or bracelets [MDL]
Ones clothes could be further adorned by scarves or necklaces (sáˈlong, balíˈog) or belts. The more general of these entries, balíˈog, based on the root líˈog, 'neck' can potentially indicate most things worn around the neck. In modern Bikol the meaning is 'scarf' or 'muffler,' but during Lisboa's time it was 'necklace' or 'collar'.
 
Pinangdán could be worn as a belt or in the hair as a type of decoration (see Section 3). Raˈos was a belt used regionally by women in upland towns. Decorative items of beads were widespread. These are discussed fully in the sections which follow.
    sáˈlong lasso, noose; ... [MDL: sálong MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to place s/t around the neck (as a necklace, scarf); MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to place s/t around s/o's neck]

    balíˈog scarf, muffler; ... [MDL: necklace, collar; MAG‑ to wear a necklace, collar; MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to put on a necklace or collar; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to place a necklace, collar around s/o's neck; MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to put a necklace or collar in place]

    raˈos belt (typ‑ worn by women in upland towns, made of beads interspersed with gold) [MDL]
Ones valuable possessions, including jewellery but excluding money or gold, were referred to collectively as párok. Jewellery was specifically kawatnón (see kawatán) in general reference and sayháñ in narratives and verse. A general term for such ornamentation was arungáˈing. Some of these items were probably kept in a small jewellery box called sapáro.
    párok referring to material possessions such as furniture, household items or jewelry, but not money or gold; MA‑: mapárok na táwo describing s/o with many possessions of this kind; MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to acquire possessions of this type [MDL]

    kawatán ‑ON: kawatnón jewelry, finery (including necklaces, earrings); MAG‑ or MANG‑ to wear jewelry; MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON or MANG‑, PANG‑‑ON to put on particular items of jewelry; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN or MANG‑, PANG‑‑AN to adorn s/o with jewelry; MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ or MANG‑, IPANG‑ to use particular jewelry or finery for adornment; sangkáp an pangawatán fully adorned, in full regalia [MDL]

    sayhán trinkets, jewelry; used only in narratives and verse [MDL]

    arungáˈing trinket, bauble; ornament; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to adorn s/o or s/t; MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to adorn s/o with particular baubles or trinkets; PANG‑ adornment, ornamentation; Si makuríng pangarungáˈing What unusual ornamentation [MDL]

    sapáro a small box with an unhinged lid, used for storing jewelry [MDL]
Clearly being dressed in ones finest included wearing a lot of jewellery, something found from the north of the Philippines to the south.[88] Such jewellery would not only be showy, but would catch the light and glisten. Each of the following entries refers to a type of light: gurugyáw 'the light of fireflies,' ílaw 'lamplight,' láˈad 'the light of a flame' and ludáb 'firelight,' and each of them has a figurative meaning related to way jewellery glistens when it is worn. Gírim-gírim refers more specifically to the glittering of gold.
    gurugyáw light emitted by fireflies (aninipót); (fig‑) Garó na ing gurugyáw iyán pangawatán ni kuyán That person's gold trinkets glitter like fireflies [MDL]

    ílaw light, lamp; headlight; flare; ... [+MDL: MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to shine a light on s/t; MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to use s/t for illumination (such as a candle); MAKA‑ to shine, glisten: ... Nakaílaw na an pangawatán ni kuyán That person's jewelry (gold) really glistens]

    láˈad flame, flare ... [+MDL: MA‑ or MAG‑ to flame; to burn (a fire) ... (fig‑) Nagláˈad na si kuyán kan pangawatán That person is resplendent with jewelry ...]

    ludáb firelight; MA‑ or MAG‑ to burn brightly (a fire); (PAG‑)‑AN to be illuminated by firelight; (fig‑) Nagludáb na iyán pangawatán ni kuyán That person's gold jewelry really glitters [MDL]

    gírim-gírim MA‑ or MAG‑ to glitter, gleam, shine (as a gold chain): Gírim-gírim na iyán talikaláˈ ni kuyán That person's chain really glitters; MA‑ glittering, gleaming, shining [MDL]
Looking good when the occasion called for it was clearly a valued attribute (gayón). The need to present oneself well may have been more necessary among the young, and more importantly, among young women (darága). Dressing up when one was older was referred to as being somewhat like a young woman. This meaning is conveyed through the partial reduplication of the root: daró-darága.
    gayón MA‑ attractive, beautiful, lovely, pretty; nice; good (as a movie); MA‑‑ON gorgeous, magnificent; MAG‑ to grow more beautiful; MAGPA‑, PA‑‑ON to beautify s/t; to arrange s/t nicely; to fix s/t up; to put on makeup; KA‑‑AN beauty [+MDL: MA‑ or MAG‑ to grow more beautiful; magayón na lumakáw a graceful way of walking; MAKA‑ to bring s/o grace or beauty]

    darága young, unmarried woman; maiden, damsel, lass, virgin; PAGKA‑ femininity; maidenhood, virginity [+MDL: MA‑ to develop into a young woman; MAG‑: magdaró-darága to dress up; to deck o/s out; to make o/s up; MAG‑, PAG‑ ‑AN: pagdaró-daragáhan to dress up for s/o; MAG‑, IPAG‑ ipagdaró-darága to adorn o/s with particular clothes; MA‑: madaró-darága one who likes to dress up]
There were clearly acceptable limits as to how much one could dress up and still be considered attractive. What defined these limits is unclear, but they could relate to ones status and wealth in the community. When these limits were exceeded a person could be seen as showing off or feigning a dignity unbecoming their status (daˈyáw).
    daˈyáw MA‑ or MAG‑ to draw attention to o/s by decking o/s out, making o/s up, dressing in one's finest or walking with feigned dignity; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to show off in this way to s/o; MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to use particular jewelry, clothes or cosmetics for this purpose; MA‑ affected; a person who is a show-off; one who shows feigned dignity [MDL]
While there is mention of cosmetics in some of the preceding entries, Lisboa has only one headword entry with this meaning, basánaw, an entry which was not commonly used, but appeared only in narratives and verse.
    basánaw rouge, makeup, cosmetics; used only in narratives and verse [MDL]

5. NECKLACES
 
Necklaces were of varying types, made from a variety of materials. There were those made from the seeds of plants, from cornelian, a type of reddish-brown quartz, and from beads and pieces of gold. There were also the gold chains which could be worn around the neck as well as other parts of the body (see Section 9).
 
Looking first at the plants, larger necklaces were made from the seeds of the burí or talipot palm. These are rounded, brownish seeds that, once dried, could have been polished and shaped in various ways before being strung together. Necklaces of this type are still available and sold commercially in the Philippines.
    burí talipot palm (typ‑ palm having a spreading crown of fan-like leaves; Corypha umbraculifera) [+MDL: the fruits are used for making necklaces]
The seeds of the plant referred to as bagumbóng, a type of pandanus, was also used in the making of necklaces. The rather large, triangular seeds would have been dried and then strung together into what could have been various, striking designs, depending on where the seed was pierced.
    bagumbóng pandanus (typ‑ tree, possessing a fruit once used in the making of women's necklaces)[+MDL: bagungbóng]
Of the small seeds, the red and black-dotted seeds of the jequirity vine (bangatí) would have also made attractive necklaces, as they still do today. This is the same seed that was widely used in the weighing of gold and silver.[89]
    bangatí jequirity vine (typ‑ slender, annual vine, producing small, colored seeds half black and half red, used for making necklaces; Abrus precatorius) [+MDL: bangatíˈ used as weights for measuring gold and silver ...]
Necklaces were also made from the small fruits of the bukakáw plant. Lisboa provides only scant information about this this, aside from describing its leaves as resembling those of the tobacco plant. Bukákaw is defined as sorghum in the Carl Rubino Ilocano Dictionary[90] and while sorghum produces copious amounts of seeds, its leaves look nothing like tobacco. Roger Blench in a personal communication[91] identified bukakaw as most probably Polygonum barbatum, usually referred to as 'jointweed' or 'knotgrass'. It is a plant common in East and Southeast Asia, having a number of culinary and medicinal uses and possessing leaves roughly resembling those of tobacco.[92]
    bukakáw plant (typ‑ growing in rice fields, possessing leaves like the tobacco plant, producing a small fruit used by women in the making of necklaces) [MDL]
Another plant possessing fruit used in the making of necklaces was tugós. We know the fruit was sweet smelling as can be seen in Lisboa's entry. In Elmer D. Merrill, A Dictionary of the Plant Names of the Philippine Islands, there is an entry for tugús (Tagalog) and tuguís (Visayan) which gives an equivalent genus name of 'Amomum' in the order scitamineae, listing it is an herbaceous plant with creeping rootstocks. This is a group of plants commonly referred to as 'cardamom,' and one of these plants is possibly the plant referred to by Lisboa.[93]
    tugós plant (typ‑ producing a fruit of the same name, used in making necklaces); tugós-túgos describing s/t possessing the pleasant smell of this fruit: Katugós-túgos kainíng árak How nice this wine smells [MDL]
Necklaces were also made from the plant lubígan which has the equivalent English name 'sweet flag'. It is likely that it was the root of this plant from which necklaces were made, it being cut into rounds or disk-shaped beads before being strung together.[94]
    lubígan sweet flag (typ‑ plant (Acorus gramineus), with long blade-like leaves and sweet smelling roots, used in the making of necklaces) [MDL]
Of the precious minerals, gold was regularly used in the making of necklaces. Most of these were in the form of chains (see Section 9). Flat pieces of gold, however, could also be strung together for use in a necklace (pasáwa) or molded into cubes (dalupániˈ).
    pasáwa necklace (typ‑ worn by women, made from small, flat pieces of gold [MDL]

    dalupániˈ ‑ON: dinalupániˈ; cube-shaped cornelian (a type of pale to deep red or reddish-brown quartz) or squares of gold used to make necklaces worn by women [MDL]
Cornelian (or carnelian) appears to be one of the few gems used for jewellery in the Bikol region. It is the mineral calcedony which is a form of quartz, differing from this stone in its crystalline structure. A closely related gem is agate. The colours of cornelian can vary depending on its inclusions, but the form dominant in the Philippines is reddish-brown arising from the presence of iron oxide.[95]
 
Both gold and cornelian could be made into beads and strung to form necklaces (dinumágat), although more commonly, beaded necklaces were made from gold. These necklaces could comprise beads which were comparatively larger, hinapón, or smaller, gamáy, the former fastened with a clasp referred to generally as kaˈít, or more specifically, when comprised of small, wide rings, as tinuntónan.
    dinumágat necklace (typ‑ worn by women, made of gold or cornelian (pale to deep red or reddish-brown quartz) or other beads) [MDL]

    hinapón chain (typ‑ of gold beads, threaded on string); MAG‑ to wear such a chain; MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to put on such a chain; MA‑, ‑AN: hinapnán or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN: paghinapnán to wear such a chain around the neck; to place such a chain around s/o's neck [MDL]

    gamáy chain (typ‑ of gold beads, smaller than hinapón) [MDL]

    kaˈít ... clasps at the end of the gold chain called hinapón [MDL]

    tinuntónan clasp of the gold chain called hinapón consisting of small, wide rings [MDL]
Small beads used for necklaces were referred to generally as sulót with no indication of what material these were made of. Small gold beads (dinugsóˈ) and those that were angled or faceted (matáng búkaw) were also used. These may have been used more generally in various items of jewellery, since no mention is made of them being used specifically for necklaces.
    sulót small beads, used in the making of necklaces [MDL]

    dinugsóˈ gold beads (typ‑ very small) [MDL]

    matáng búkaw (arc‑) beads of gold, angled or faceted, worn as jewelry [MDL]
Necklaces, when finished, could also be decorated with tassels or matching strands of ribbon (agúbay). They could be put in place by slipping them over the head (lísoˈ, see Section 7) and worn in a variety of ways, including tightly around the neck (guˈóng).
    agúbay small tassels or twin strands of ribbon placed on women's necklaces as a decoration; MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to put two tassels or two strands of ribbon in place as a decoration for a necklace; MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to add tassels to a necklace; to join one strand of ribbon to another; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to decorate a necklace with such tassels; to join an initial strand of ribbon with a second strand [MDL]

    guˈóng tight, referring to gold necklaces worn closely around the neck, bracelets worn tightly around the wrist and rings worn in this way on a finger; MA‑ or MAG‑ to grow tighter, more constricting (necklaces, bracelets, rings); MAG‑, PAG‑ ‑ON to tighten such necklaces, bracelets or rings, making them fit more snugly [MDL]

6. EARRINGS
 
Earrings were almost universally worn by both men and women and formed a showy part of bodily adornment. The ears of a newborn child, or one that was just two or three years of age, were pierced (tusók). So common was this process that only those who did not have pierced ears were singled out for particular reference (tubíng).
    tusók MAG‑, ‑ON to pierce s/t (as the ears); ... [+MDL: MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to pierce the ears; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to pierce s/o's ears] var‑ tulsók

    tubíng describing one who does not have pierced ears [MDL]
The process of piercing the ears is not described in Lisboa, but detailed in Alcina who wrote in particular about eastern Samar. While is impossible to know if the same techniques were used in Bikol, or for that matter in the rest of the Visayas, the description is informative.[96]
 
With the use of a thin piece of copper wire serving as a needle, the first piercing was made in the child's earlobe. Into this hole was inserted a thin piece of cord, or a thick thread of cotton, which kept the hole open while it healed (hípot in Bikol), a process which could take from a few months to up to a year.
    hípot descriptive of the healing of a cut or wound; MA‑ or MAG‑ to heal (a sore, wound); to close (the hole formed when piercing the ears) [MDL]
Following this a small piece of bamboo or other wood that is dry and free from resins, is inserted into the hole. This is periodically replaced by pieces increasingly larger in diameter until the hole reaches a size where a small finger can be passed through. At this point the leaf of a type of pandanus, báriw (Pandanus copelandii)[97] approximately 2-3 fingers wide and 1.5 metres long is cut and dried. For Bikol similar processes are described in the entries ríras and binúlan. Lisboa makes no mention of the báriw leaf being used for the purpose of widening the piercing in an ear, but he does indicate that the frond from the burí palm (see Section 5) was placed into the hole pierced in the earlobe (palbád).
    báriw pandanus (typ‑ Pandanus copelandii, used in the making of mats and bags) [MDL]

    palbád ... frond of the burí palm, rolled and placed into the hole in a pierced earlobe ... [MDL]

    ríras fronds of the burí (palm) or báriw (pandanus) which have been split and cleaned; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to split and clean such fronds; MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to remove s/t in the cleaning and splitting process [MDL]

    binúlan small roll of burí (palm) or báriw (pandanus) leaves; MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to roll the leaves of such plants for storage so that they will be ready to use when required to make mats and baskets, and for other uses [MDL]
When it is sufficiently dry, the báriw leaf is cut to a length of three fingers and wound through three or more turns. This is then inserted into the hole in the ear. The tension exerted as the roll follows a natural tendency to unwind increases the size of the hole. When the expansion reaches its limit, the original roll of bariw is augmented and further turns are added, sometimes up to twenty. This process is terminated when the hole reaches the size where an intended earring can be inserted.
 
For the Visayas, as indicated by Alcina, the first earring inserted into an enlarged earlobe was made from carabao horn, ivory or tortoise shell and this preceded the wearing of gold which was far more showy and attractive. Pigafetta, recording his observations in Cebu a century earlier, indicated that the holes were kept open by inserting a small piece of wood.[98] In Mindoro the earlobe was lined with a hollow gold ring which hugged the inside of the lobe, kept in place to further stretch the lobe.[99] Photos of domed, gold plugs attributed to the Bikol region can also be seen in Ramon N. Villegas, Ginto,[100] and these may have also been associated with keeping holes pierced in the ears open.
 
The process of widening the hole in the earlobe continued until the stretched earlobe would sometimes reach below the chin. While Colin[101] made the general observation that the more the ears were stretched, the greater the sense of beauty, for Bikol there must have been a limit beyond which the stretching elicited comment (yadát).
    yadát MA‑ to be high in the sky (the sun); MA‑ ‑AN to be detained until afternoon (a person); (fig‑) Anó taˈ pinagyadát mo na an saímong talínga? Why are you widening the holes in your ears? (Said when the holes in one's earlobes are very wide and are still being weighed down further by the gold earrings called palbád) ... [MDL]
These large holes in the earlobes could be filled by round plates of gold as large as three fingers in diameter.[102] In Bikol, paníkaˈ is the earring which best fits this description.
    paníkaˈ ear covering (typ‑ gold, large, round like plates, worn by women); MAG‑ to wear such an ear covering; MA‑ to place such coverings on s/o's ears [MDL]
Clearly, while the term panica was commonly used, its reference differed. For the Waray speaking areas of Samar and Leyte panica is described as a type of gold wheel or disk inserted into the lower part of the ear.[103] A reference and photo of the panica from Samar, translated as tube hoops, can be found in Ramon N. Villegas, Kayamanan.[104] For Alcina, writing about eastern Samar, panica is a secondary earring placed in a piercing above the lobe and worn in conjunction with a larger earring below.[105]
 
In Bikol, palbád and tarúnaˈ, respectively earrings for women and men, are types of inserts held in place by the gold fasteners, bugól. The entry for yadát above indicates that these earrings were used in the enlarged opening in the earlobe. Photos in Ginto show square ear ornaments from Mindoro in the form of abstract flowers with edges snipped to resemble petals which were large enough to have been worn in the earlobe, although this detail is not mentioned.[106] Earrings were clearly of gold, something mentioned in all of the early references.[107]
    palbád gold earrings worn by women ...; MA‑ or MAG‑ to wear such earrings; MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to use s/t as an earring; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to place such earrings in the ear [MDL]

    tarúnaˈ gold earrings worn by men, no longer in fashion; MAG‑ to wear such earrings; MA‑ to place such earrings in s/o's ears [MDL]

    bugól small pyramid-shaped pieces of gold used as fasteners at the end of the posts of the male earrings called tarúnaˈ and the female earrings called palbád; MA‑ or MAG‑ to make such gold fasteners; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑ ‑AN to fasten earrings with such pieces of gold; MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to place such fasteners on earrings [MDL]
Where rings were used in the ear, these could be opened and removed and added to another item of adornment such as a chain (híwiˈ).
    híwiˈ MA‑ or MAG‑ to open one end or tip (as of a ring so that it may be removed from the ear where it has served as an earring and added to a chain) [MDL]
While the largest hole in the ear was in the lobe, there were one or two smaller holes above this. One additional piercing was usual for both men and women.[108] A third piercing in the thick cartilage above the other two was made by some women. Associated with each of these piercings were earrings of differing sizes, ranging from the largest in the earlobe, to the smallest in the uppermost hole.[109] Lisboa has an entry for one other type of earring (tanáw), but there is no mention as to where on the ear it was worn.
    tanáw PA‑ drop earrings (typ‑ gold, worn by women, shaped like a small trowel); MAGPA‑ to wear such earrings; MAPA‑ or MAGPA‑ to place such earrings on s/o's ears [MDL]

7. BRACELETS, ARMBANDS AND ANKLETS
 
Bracelets, armbands and anklets were commonly worn by both men and women. These were made from materials such as gold, brass, ivory, seashells and rattan. A number of bracelets of varying sizes and materials could be worn on one arm, with the other adorned by just one or by none at all.[110] Bracelets could also be worn in a series reaching up to the elbow and comprising, in addition to gold and ivory, strings of cornelian and other precious stones.[111] Having an arm covered in bracelets must not have been unusual for similar descriptions are found for the north in the Cagayan Valley[112] and the south in Mindanao.[113]
 
Perhaps the most basic of the bracelets or armbands were those made of rattan. Lisboa records such a bracelet worn by women in the mountains (túgot) and another worn around the arm in lowland communities which he doesn't specify by gender (bakláw). One further bracelet which could be of rattan or gold, and possibly other materials, and specified as having a distinctive shape, was the bantúlang which was worn by men. The distinctive shape may be that given by the rattan, and so it is possible that some of the armbands and bracelets later made of gold may have originally taken their styling from a such a material.
    túgot a thin chain of rattan, used as a bracelet by women living in the mountains [MDL]

    bakláw rattan ring placed around a broom or basket to hold the material used in its construction in place and to give it extra strength; ... [MDL: (arc‑) armband (typ‑ worn tightly around the arm for adornment); small, woven rattan rings of unusual design used to tie or reinforce various objects; MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to use rattan for this purpose; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to fasten or reinforce s/t with such rings; MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to attach such rings]

    bantúlang bracelet (typ‑ of a distinctive shape, made from rattan or gold, or other materials fashioned in the same style, worn on the arms by men); ring (typ‑ placed on knives or other items); MAG‑ to wear such a bracelet; MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to put on such a bracelet; to fashion such a bracelet from rattan or gold [MDL]
Bracelets made of seashells were also worn, although how commonly, it is not known. Lisboa makes reference to the dálak, without specification as to it being worn by men or women. This bracelet is mentioned by de la Rosa for Waray without an indication of the materials used, confirming it was also found in the eastern Visayas.[114] It is also found in the Tagalog dictionary of Noceda where it is simply glossed as a type of jewellery.[115]
    dálak (arc) bracelet (typ‑ made from seashells); MAG‑ to wear such a bracelet; MA‑ to place such a bracelet on s/o [MDL]
What type of seashell was used is not indicated. If it was the cowry (buskáy), a shell still used in Philippine jewellery, and one of the easier shells to string together, then it certainly had its own inherent value. The 1865 edition of the Lisboa Vocabulario notes that the Bikol buskáy is equivalent to the Tagalog sígay, although there is no mention of this in the original 1754 edition. Both of these are cowry shells, although they might not be the identical species.
 
Cowry shells had value in Southeast Asia where they were used in particular countries as currency. This is mentioned by Lisboa, and Noceda refers to the cowry as being used as money along the coast.[116] Loarca records that ships from Borneo came to the Cuyo Islands to barter for the cowry which was used as money in Siam[117] and Morga has two references to such trade; one to the inhabitants of the Calamianes Islands who collected such shells to sell to the people of Siam, Cambodia and Patani where it was is used as money,[118] and a second to a Spanish captain who set out for Siam with cowry shells and other goods for barter.[119]
    buskáy cowry (typ‑ seashell, saltwater) [+MDL: used in children's games and serving as money in Siam (Thailand) and Guinea; MAG‑ to play with such shells (children)]
Another shell was that of the tortoise (kára) which could be carved (randás) into bracelets or anklets, or other items of adornment, used alone (dandán) or interspersed with brass (tambúriˈ).
    kára tortoise shell; bracelet or anklet made from tortoise shell; MAG‑ to wear such an anklet or bracelet; MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to put on such a bracelet, anklet; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to adorn s/o or a particular part of the body with such a bracelet or anklet; MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to put such a bracelet or anklet into place [MDL]

    randás MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to carve tortoise shell (as when making bracelets, other items); to separate and work on tortoise shell [MDL]

    dandán anklet (typ‑ of brass or tortoise shell worn by men); MAG‑ to put on or wear such an anklet; MA‑ to place such an anklet on s/o [MDL]

    tambúriˈ thin bracelets of brass worn interspersed with those of tortoise shell; MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to wear these two types of bracelets; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to intersperse tortoise shell bracelets with brass; MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to place brass bracelets with those of tortoise shell [MDL]
Tortoise shell was also a valuable commodity, recorded in 1579 by Gabriel de Ribera as being used to pay tribute[120] and by Morga in 1609 as an item of trade, sold to the Chinese and Portuguese as well as other nations to also be used in the manufacture of ornaments.[121] Lisboa has entries which detail the various parts of the tortoise, perhaps an indication of its importance. These entries include the upper and lower shells (alukabá and karáhan respectively), the segments forming the under shell (aluníb) and the shell that is formed in one piece and not divided into segments (daráhit).
    alukabá the upper shell of a turtle, tortoise or crab [MDL]

    karáhan shell (typ‑ such as that of the under part of a turtle or tortoise, comprised of segments [MDL]

    aluníb segments which make up the turtle or tortoise shell called karáhan [MDL]

    daráhit MAG‑: magdaráhit tortoise or turtle with a shell all in one piece and not in sections [MDL]
Gold was clearly a metal of choice for bracelets, as it was for earrings, in many parts of the Philippines. Among the jewellery items which have been found and preserved are a pair of gold armlets from Samar-Leyte, two sets of gold forearm wraps comprising four and five strips of sheet gold, respectively, believed to be from Mindoro,[122] a four-part wrist clasp from Mindoro and wrist bands with hand-forged fluting from the Cagayan Valley.[123]
 
Surprisingly, in light of the above, Lisboa refers to only two bracelets of gold, the butók, worn women, and the kalambugás or kalumbigás worn by men. One further bracelet worn by both men and women is the ládas. There is, however, no way of knowing what material this was made from as Lisboa gives no indication of this, and this particular bracelet does not appear in other dictionaries of the region.
    butók gold bracelet (typ‑ worn by women); MAG‑ to wear such a bracelet; MA‑ to place such a bracelet on s/o's wrist [MDL]

    kalambugás bracelet or armband (typ‑ gold, worn by men); MAG‑ to wear a such a bracelet or armband; MA‑ to place such a bracelet or armband on s/o; var‑ kalumbigás [MDL]

    ládas bracelet (typ‑ worn by men and women); MAG‑ to wear such a bracelet; MA‑ to place such a bracelet on s/o [MDL]
Morga describes the kalambugás as large armlets of wrought gold formed in a variety of patterns.[124] This particular bracelet was clearly widespread in the central Philippines with Noceda referring both to kalumbigas and kalambigas as gold bracelets worn by men.[125] This reference is to the Tagalog region which is also the reference for Morga. Mentrida has an entry for kalambugas as a bracelet of gold with no indication of whether it was worn by men or women, indicating its existence in the Western Visayas,[126] and Encarnacion for Cebuano defines kalambugas as a bracelet made from metal, bone or ivory and worn on the wrist, or as an anklet on the instep of the foot. Again, as with Mentrida, he makes no mention of gender.[127]
 
This particular item of jewellery is probably, at least partially, a borrowing from Malay and is comprised of two parts, the first of which is kalong. We see the same form appearing in kalóng káki which has been borrowed into Bikol with the meaning 'brass,' but is the term in Malay for an 'anklet'. Kalung is an item of jewellery in Malay, most commonly a chain or ring, referring to a metal band. Kaki gives us the meaning 'foot'. Waray and Cebuano have meanings similar to Bikol associated with a form that differs only in the lack of a 'k,' kalong aki a 'brass' or 'metal ring' in the case of Waray and the replacement of 'k' by 'g,' kalong gaki 'brass' or 'anklet,' in the case of Cebuano.[128]
    kalóng káki brass; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to make s/t from brass; to add brass to s/t [MALAY kalung kaki anklet] [MDL]
For kalambugas or kalumbigás we then have the compound which is most probably kalong + bigás / bugás. The change in the final segment of kalong from the '‑ng' to 'm' is explained by assimilation to the following 'b'. The alternation between 'a' and 'u' is not explained but most likely due to the incorporation of an unfamiliar word into one or more borrower languages. This, then leaves us with determining a meaning for bigás or bugás. If it is a bracelet which takes its name from a specific group of people found in the region, such as the Bugis, then sound changes which probably involve dissimilation need to be explained.
 
While the Bugis homeland is centred around Makassar at the southern tip of Sulawesi, their trading and political influence was widespread throughout the Malay world. They had a jewellery tradition that dated back centuries, and the Philippines lay to the north of them on their trading route to China.[129] It is worth considering this as a possible origin of the bracelet type kalambugás / kalumbigás.
 
Brass is a harder metal than gold, being an alloy of copper and zinc, and it is perhaps for this reason that it appears to be more popular for use in bracelets, armbands and anklets in the Bikol region. Lisboa lists the baksál and pakingkíng as anklets both of which are essentially brass rings, although only the former is specifically identified in this way. The pakingkíng is clearly onomatopoetic, with kingkíng representing the sound of jingling, and pa‑ a causative prefix.
    baksál brass rings worn below the knee or at the ankle; anklet; MAG‑ to wear such rings; MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to put on such rings; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to place such rings on s/o [MDL]

    pakingkíng brass anklets; MA‑ to wear such anklets; to place such anklets on s/o; Garó na daˈá nagúlay-úlay an pakingkíng It's as if the anklets are talking to each other (Said when the anklets jingle) [MDL]
Lisboa mentions one other item which was worn on the leg, the bitík which appears to be more a type of garter than an item of jewellery.
    bitík a black band which is usually worn below the knee; MAG‑ to wear a bitík; MA‑ to place a bitík on s/o [MDL]
The bitik is found in other dictionaries of the region. In de la Rosa's Waray dictionary it is described as a band taken from a vine and worn below the knee by the Moros as a form of adornment.[130] Noceda for Tagalog describes it as a band worn around the calf of the leg.[131] Fr. Diego Bergaño in his Vocabulario de la Lengua Pampanga describes it as a coloured garter made from the same material used in the fishing basket called bacay, wrapped around the leg as an aid in walking by the peoples of Zambales.[132] This is similar to the description by Morga of the inhabitants of this province wearing certain twined cords covered with a black pitch as garters.[133]
 
Alcina also mentions the bitík, describing it as a black cord which is wrapped around the leg from below the knee to the calf and worn as a sign of valour.[134] Cantius J Kobak, in the notes to his translated, edited and annotated edition of the Alcina, identifies this 'black cord' as the climbing forest fern, nítoˈ.[135] The entry below is Bikol.
    nítoˈ forest fern with a main stem that can climb upwards to a length of several meters (typ‑ black, used for weaving baskets, hats; Lygodium circinatum [+MDL: plant like black rattan, used for edging on straw hats]
Judging by the number of entries as well as the detail given, bracelets made of ivory must have been highly prized in Bikol society. They may have also been expensive. The entry for ivory (gáding) indicates that covering the arm from the wrist to the elbow with such bracelets was something found only among the upper classes of society.
    gáding ivory; bracelets worn on the arm from the wrist to the elbow by the upper classes of society; MAG‑ to wear such bracelets; MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to place such bracelets on s/o's arm [MALAY] [MDL]
Gold was plentiful in the Bikol region, but ivory had to be imported for elephants were not found in the Philippines. Ivory was carried to the Philippines from China on Chinese junks,[136] on Portuguese ships loaded in the Moluccas, Malacca and India[137] and, less commonly, on ships sailing from Thailand and Cambodia.[138]
 
Ivory bracelets were also referred to generally as padángan, although there were more specific terms depending on where on the arm they were placed. The first in a series of ivory bracelets worn by women, the bracelet placed closest to the wrist, was called pasúra and the one placed furthest from the wrist, at the end of a series of bracelets, was called paˈmón, this last with a more general reference to bracelets of other materials as well.
    padángan ivory bracelet; MAG‑ to wear such a bracelet; MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to put on such a bracelet; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to put such a bracelet on s/o's wrist [MDL]

    pasúra the first of a series of ivory bracelets worn by women close to the wrist; MAG‑ to wear such bracelets; MA‑ to place such a bracelet on s/o's wrist [MDL]

    paˈmón bands of ivory, tortoise shell, gold or brass worn by women furthest from the wrist, at the end of a number of other bracelets [MDL]
These bracelets did not have to be of pure ivory, but could also be further decorated with a trimming of tortoise shell, gold or brass (ligpít), materials which were more readily available in the Philippines and which were used on their own in the making of bracelets.
    ligpít setting of tortoise shell, gold or brass placed along the edges of ivory bracelets or similar items; MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to set bracelets with such edging; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to set a particular part of a bracelet with tortoise shell, gold; MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to use gold, tortoise shell or brass as a setting [MDL]
When women wore bracelets that were all of the same size, and this presumably referred to the width, this was referred to as sampát. If, however, the bracelets appeared too wide for the person wearing them, and, therefore, unsuitable, they were referred to critically as hakál-hakál.
    sampát uniform, equal; in conformity (such as the ivory bracelets worn by women which are all of the same size); MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to bring s/t into conformity with s/t else; to make s/t uniform; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to make s/t uniform with s/t else; to conform to s/t; ... [MDL]

    hakál-hakál used to describe ivory bracelets which are too wide and unsuitable for the person wearing them; MANG‑ to be too wide for a person's arm (ivory bracelets): Nanhakál-hakál na iníng mga gáding mo Your ivory bracelets are too wide for your arms [MDL]
In the manufacture of ivory bracelets, if the ivory was thick, a lathe turner could produce two bracelets from the same raw material by essentially cutting a second bracelet out of the first (lúˈab). Bracelets were held together by a resin which was called galá-galá.
    lúˈab MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to cut a second ivory bracelet from within the first when the ivory is thick (a lathe turner); MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to cut from the first bracelet, a second [MDL]

    galá-gála resin (typ‑ decorative, used in the making of the ivory bracelets (gáding) and other jewelry and ornaments); MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑ ‑ON to join or manufacture jewelry with such resin; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to place such resin on a particular part or section [MDL]
Galá-gála was widely used in the Philippines as an adhesive or caulking. Encarnacion for Cebuano records this as being made from lime and oil and de la Rosa for Waray as a mixture of lime, oil and resin or pitch. Noceda for Tagalog simply lists this as a type of adhesive as does Bergaño for Kapampangan, with the additional information of it also being used for sealing boats, therefore serving as a type of caulking. Mentrida for Hiligaynon has this defined as a varnish used on boats and so differs in this respect from the other entries.[139]
 
Bracelets and armlets were put in place by slipping them over the hand and onto the arm, an action expressed by líso which applied as well to the placement of necklaces by slipping them over the head. Bracelets were meant to fit tightly over the arm, as mentioned in Lisboa's entry for líso, and this may have applied in particular to those made of ivory. Slipping the bracelets over the hand and onto to arm may also not have been so easy, with Mentrida including an entry for Hiligaynon to the tree handalamáy whose moistened bark was rubbed on the skin to facilitate the slipping on or removal of ivory bracelets.[140] Bracelets could be removed by slipping them off (hulpós) or by spreading the two ends apart (lungát).
    lísoˈ MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to slip on bracelets, armlets or gold necklaces with the hand; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to adorn the arms, neck with such jewelry which can be slipped into place; MAKA‑, MA‑ to be able to move, turn (such armlets, bracelets): Daˈí nalilísoˈ iníng sakóng gáding My ivory bracelet is so tight it can't be moved or turned ... [MDL]

    hulpós MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to slip or slide s/t off (as a ring from the finger, a bracelet from the wrist, a loose knot); MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to slip or slide s/t off from s/t else; MA‑ to slip or slide off; MAKA‑ to slip out (as a chicken from a loose knot tied around its feet) [MDL]

    lungát MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to spread two ends apart (as of rings, bracelets so that they can be removed from the hand) [MDL]

8. RINGS
 
While the wearing of rings was described as common in the Philippines with Chirino including a mention of 'finger rings,'[141] Colin describing the fingers of the hand being covered with many rings of gold and precious stones,[142] and Lisboa also including a mention in his entry for sunód (see Section 4), there is only one entry for 'ring' in the Vocabulario and that is singsíng. Singsíng is a general term for 'ring' found in the central Philippine languages, but only de la Rosa for Waray[143] defines it as being worn mainly an item of jewellery: 'a ring of metal or other material, plain or decorated, with or without a pearl or other precious stone, worn primarily for adornment on the fingers of the hand'.
    singsíng ring (typ‑ as worn on the finger); MAG‑, ‑ON to wear a ring; MAG‑, ‑AN to place a ring on the finger; siró-singsíng or suró-singsíng ringlets, rings (as for curtains) [+MDL: MAG‑ to wear a ring; MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to put on a ring; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to place a ring on s/o's finger]
There are other rings mentioned. Bergaño for Kapampangan has an entry for kapúpot which he defines as a 'gold ring of a particular form or appearance'.[144] This is the same word, albeit with different affixation, as the Tagalog pamupót which Noceda defines comprehensively as 'a small thumb ring which keeps the other larger rings in place so that they do not slip off'.[145] Noceda has one other entry for 'ring' which is most likely a form of jewellery, and that is simpák with an accompanying example indicating one of the metals used in its fabrication is gold.[146]
 
There are hardly any specific references in Lisboa to precious stones or gems. Besides the mention of dalupániˈ 'cornelian' (see Section 5) there is only a general reference such as tampók. There are, however, two references to pearls, mutyáˈ and badrayá, of which mutyáˈ is still current. This is a borrowing from Malay with its ultimate origins in Sanskrit.
 
Badrayá appears to also have its origins in Sanskrit, from the words vaidūrya[147] or vaidårya. Unlike mutyáˈ which was probably borrowed directly from Malay, badrayá has a form much closer to the original than the Malay which is baiduri.[148] Clearly there was another intermediary language. Meaning is another complicating factor. The Malay baiduri means 'opal' or 'cat's eye'. Vaidūrya has any number of meanings, including 'diamonds,' 'emeralds' and 'lapis lazuli'. There is no mention of 'pearl'. The term, as it entered Bikol, must have first been used in a general sense and then came to be associated with 'pearl' as a specific reference with a core meaning of 'valuable gem'.
    tampók a precious stone used in a ring; a gem, jewel [+MDL: MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to set a jewel; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to set a ring with a jewel]

    mutyáˈ pearl, jewel, gem; precious stone; anything one holds dear; s/t beloved [MDL: pearl; ‑AN an oyster with a pearl; a person possessing a pearl] [MALAY mutia from SANSKRIT muktā]

    badrayá pearl [MDL] [SANSKRIT vaidūrya referring to a variety of gems, including diamonds, emeralds and lapis lazuli]

9. CHAINS
 
Although most of the chains worn by men and women were made of gold, there were others made from different materials as well. A small chain of horsehair or the bristles of a pig of cow was called sugí. What this chain was used for or if it was indeed worn as a form of adornment, is not mentioned and it does not appear in the other dictionaries of the region. Women could also wear a chain made from wire around the waist, and this was called kawád. Kawád in its various forms refers generally to some form of fine wire,[149] but only de la Rosa for Waray indicates that in addition to this general meaning, it may also refer to a chain of gold.[150] More detail on the shaping of wires and their use in jewellery can be found in Villegas, Ginto.[151]
    sugí small chains made from horsehair or the bristles of a pig or cow; MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to make such chains [MDL]

    kawád or ‑ON: kinawád or kinakawád chain (typ‑ made of wire, worn by women around the waist); the form kawád is used in verse [MDL]
Beads were also commonly strung together to form chains (saráwag) which could be worn or used as decoration on items of clothing (tandás).
    saráwag string of beads; ‑AN to be decorated with strings of beads [MDL]

    tandás (arc‑) strings of beads placed along the edge of a skirt (tápis); MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to place strings of beads as a trimming; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to trim or edge a skirt with strings of beads [MDL]
These beads could be of cornelian, used in a chain worn around the waist (hulón), or around the neck (dinumágat, see Section 5). Beads could also be of gold and formed into necklaces (hinapón, gamáy, see Section 5). Madág is identified by Lisboa as a small, yellow bead, but I have been unable to discover any more information about what type of bead it might be.
    hulón a string of small beads or cornelian worn by women around the waist; MAG‑ to wear such a string (women); MA‑ to place such a string around s/o's waist [MDL]

    madág beads (typ‑ small, yellow) [MDL]
To form chains, beads would have to be strung (túhog) and then be removed if they were to be used again (hughóg). Beads could also come off and scatter when the string which held them might inadvertently fray and give way (raydáy). A particularly uniform stringing of beads came in for verbal praise (idˈíd).
    túhog MAG‑, ‑ON to string s/t (as beads); to skewer s/t; to place s/t on a stick; to impale s/t; MAG‑, ‑AN to string (as beads on a thread); to place s/t on a skewer or stick [+MDL: MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to string s/t (as beads); MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to place beads on a string; ‑ON: tutughón a string of beads]

    hughóg unstrung (as beads); MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to remove beads from a string; to remove links from a chain; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to unstring; to undo a string or chain by removing beads or links [MDL]

    raydáy MAG‑ to fray; to become unstrung (as beads); MAG‑, ‑AN to unstring s/t (as beads) [MDL: MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to unstring s/t; to remove beads, links; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to remove beads, links (as from a belt, chain)

    idˈíd describing s/t prized for its uniformity or regularity; ‑ON to be equalized, regularized; to be made uniform; ... Garó na inidˈíd pagtúhog kainíng tutughán It's as if the beads have been strung uniformly on the necklace [MDL]
Chains were also commonly comprised of links (káwing) which could be joined together (sumpáy) to produce a chain of the desired length.
    kawíng link of a chain; MAG‑ to be chained or linked together; MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to link two things together; MAG‑, IPAG‑ to add links to a chain; MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to extend a chain by adding additional links; MA‑, I‑ to add a link to a chain; MA‑, ‑AN to extend a chain by adding a link [MDL]

    sumpáy a link; MAG‑, ‑ON to connect or join two things together; to link things together; ... [+MDL: MA‑, ‑AN to make s/t longer by adding s/t; MA‑, I‑ to add s/t to make s/t longer; MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to join s/t end to end, making it longer; MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to add to s/t with a number of things; MAG‑, IPAG‑ to add a number of things to s/t]
The process could also easily be reversed with links removed (bágot, banhóg) and then spread out and kept separate, perhaps waiting for another use (ragáy).
    bágot MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to undo or remove the gold links of a chain; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to remove such links from a chain; ... [MDL]

    banhóg MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to remove the links of a gold chain; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to detach such links from a gold chain [MDL]

    ragáy MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to spread things out; ... to separate out the links or beads in a chain; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to spread things out over a particular surface or area; ... nararagáy na buláwan gold links or beads which have been removed from a chain and remain separate [MDL]
To make chains from threads of gold (binátak), gold ingots would have been prepared in such a way that they could be passed through a metal block called babatákan (see bátak), ragpósan (see rapgós) or tutubísan (see tubís) possessing many fine holes. This process produced the threads of gold of a required thickness needed to be bound or twisted together to form particular chains. These gold threads could be produced at such a degree of fineness that they were described by Morga as 'spun silk'.[152]
    binátak gold chain (typ‑) [MDL]

    bátak MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to draw copper or gold into threads by passing the metal through a wide piece of steel possessing many holes called babatákan; ‑AN: babatákan the piece of steel used for drawing threads of copper and gold [MDL]

    rapgós MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to pull gold or copper threads through a metal block called babatákan or rapgósan in order to make them thinner; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑ ‑AN to pull such threads through such a block; ‑AN: rapgósan a metal block with many holes used for drawing gold or copper threads [MDL]

    tubís fine threads of gold, other metals; MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to draw such threads; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to draw such threads from gold, other metals; ‑AN: tutubísan a block of metal with many small holes used for drawing out threads of gold, brass [MDL]
Many of the gold chains could be worn interchangeably on different parts of the body (layón), in particular around the neck or waist, although there were some where the location was specific.
    layón gold chain (typ‑ worn in a variety of ways); MA‑ to place such a chain on s/o; MAG‑ to wear such a gold chain; Saróˈ kahabáy may duwá kapaglayóna One chain around the waist and two gold chains around the neck [MDL]
Of those worn around the waist by women in the Bikol region were the sash or waistband used to keep a skirt in place (habáy), the wide chain referred to as imbót and the kamági, this last commonly found throughout the central Philippines.
    habáy sash or waistband made of a variety of materials used by women to keep a skirt (tápis) in place; MAG‑ to wear a sash or waistband; MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to put on a sash or waistband; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to place a sash or waistband on s/o; MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to use s/t as a sash or waistband [MDL]

    imbót a wide chain of gold worn around the waist by women; MAG‑ to wear such a chain; MA‑ to put such a chain around s/o's waist [MDL]

    kamági gold chain worn around the waist by women; MAG‑ to wear such a chain; MA‑ to put such a chain around s/o's waist [MDL]
It is clear from looking at entries in the other dictionaries of the region that kamági is a type of gold chain which could be worn, not only around the waist, but as a necklace or, as the Spanish influence grew greater, as a chain to hold rosary beads.[153] Alcina adds that the kamági could also be worn by men.[154]
 
The entry in de la Rosa which describes the kamági as comprising small, tight fitting segments which give the appearance of one continuous string, presents some insight into the workmanship which went into their fabrication. The production of the interlocking beads which fit together with tooth-like projections is described in more detail in Villegas, Ginto,[155] and the notes to Chapter 3, in Part 1, Book 1 of the Alcina.[156] These notes draw on sections of the harder to come by Part 1, Book 3.
 
There is some indication in the entries found in the Lisboa Vocabulario of the process involved in producing gold chains, in particular the kamági and hinapón. The links of such chains (gáris) were arranged to fit into one another (súkad), a process which was not always successful (bitás), and then tightened (sagpák) to give the chain strength. The finished chain would then be filed or ground by drawing it across a whetstone to even off the links (táˈis). Beads or links which were removed from such chains were referred to as wagáy.
    gáris rings, links (typ‑ small); MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to make such rings or links, or a chain comprising them [MDL]

    súkad a tightly fitting cap, cover or lid (such as that on a container or a cut section of bamboo); ... MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to encase s/t; to cover one thing with another ...; to place one thing inside another; magsuró-súkad to place a number of things, one inside the other (such as links of gold (gáris) on the chains kamági and hinapón) ... [MDL]

    bitás referring to the links or beads in gold chains such as kamági and hinapón which are incorrectly cut and do not fit together well; MA‑ to fit incorrectly due to incorrect cutting (the links or beads in a gold chain); Taˈ daw taˈ nabitás an pagbutáng mo kainíng ráwa-ráwa? How come the finishing touches you have put on this gold work are so poorly done? [MDL]

    sagpák MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to tighten the links of the gold chains called kamági and hinapón so that they fit together well and remain strong [MDL]

    táˈis MAG‑, ‑ON to hone, grind or whet s/t; to sharpen a blade ... [+MDL: MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to grind s/t on a stone; to file recently completed gold chains to make the links even ...; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑ ‑AN to grind s/t on or against a whetstone; ‑AN: tataˈísan grinding stone, whetstone]

    wagáy gold beads or links which have been removed from the chains called kamági and hinapón; MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to remove such links or beads; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to remove such links from a chain; MA‑ to become detached (such links, beads) [MDL]
The kamági and layón chains were finished with a peg-like clasp (palagáyaw), usually gold plated, or beads (tinabóg) which could also be placed at intervals across its length. Gold chains, in general, could be finished by the clasp called básong.
    palagáyaw clasp resembling a peg, used at the end of the gold chains kamági and layón, usually plated with gold [MDL]

    tinabóg beads used to finish off the ends of the gold chains, kamági and layón, or placed at intervals along the length of these chains [MDL]

    básong clasp of a gold chain; MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to place a clasp on a gold chain; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to fasten a gold chain with a clasp; ‑AN: binasóngan a gold chain with a clasp [MDL]
There were specific chains as well which were worn around the neck. Of these, perhaps the most general was the talikaláˈ which, in its decorative function, was made from gold and worn as a necklace, but in its more basic role was fashioned from iron and used to keep prisoners from fleeing.
    talikaláˈ a chain of gold, iron or other metals; MAG‑ to wear a gold chain around the neck; to be in chains (as a prisoner); MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to put a prisoner in chains; MA‑, ‑ON to put on a gold chain; MA‑, I‑ to place a gold chain around the neck [MDL]
Two other chains which must have been highly valued were the hinúyot and pinarugmók, both made from drawn threads of gold (see above), and both attaining a considerable length, although the hinúyot was the longer of the two.[157]
    hinúyot gold chain (typ‑ made from drawn threads of gold, worn around the neck; larger than the chain called pinarugmók); MAG‑ to wear such a chain; MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑ ‑ON to put on such a chain; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to place such a chain on s/o or around one's neck [MDL]

    pinarugmók gold chain (typ‑ made of gold threads, smaller than hinúyot); MAG‑ to wear such a chain; MA‑ to place such a chain on s/o [MDL]
Details of the pinarugmók, may be found in Alcina, although we cannot be certain that this description of the chain found in Samar is identical to that used in the Bikol region. Alcina talks of a chain worn by both men and women; the men simply placing it over the neck, winding it around, yet still wearing it long enough so that it may drag on the ground, with the women wearing it wound a number of times around the neck, letting it rest between the neck and the breasts.[158]
 
There were various ways to add decoration to gold chains. One of these was by adding the body of the beetle called laníban. This type of beetle also appears in de la Rosa for Waray where it is described as a 'green insect with bright, shining (perhaps 'golden') wings[159] and in Alcina where it is described as a variety of beetle about one-half finger in length and breadth, possessing a delicate green colour, more opaque though more intense and brilliant than that of emeralds, also giving the impression of gold superimposed over green.[160]
 
The laníban also is found in the Tagalog of Tayabas (Quezon)[161] where it is shown as equivalent to the standard Tagalog salagintô. Salagintô translates as the English 'golden tortoise beetle' or the Charidotella sexpunctata.[162] This may or may not be the same as the laníban. The Bikol entries below show the laníban and two other colourful beetles that may have also been used in the decoration of chains, although this is not specifically mentioned in the last of these two entries.
    laníban beetle (typ‑ shinny, green and gold, used for decoration, such as being placed on gold chains; larger than angguguríng); MANG‑ to go in search of these beetles; (fig‑) Garó na ing laníban an dukót kainí This color is like the laníban beetle (much like a sunflower) [MDL]

    angguguríng beetle (typ‑, green and gold, used for decorative purposes, such as being placed on gold chains); smaller than the beetle called laníban; MANG‑ to go in search of such beetles [MDL]

    sambulawán beetle (typ‑ yellow and gold, the same size as the beetle called angguguríng [MDL]

10. CONCLUSION
 
Interspersed among the days of daily toil, of cultivating crops, repairing houses, tending livestock, cooking, cleaning and rasing children, there would have been days of celebration. These may have been days of religious adoration, days of marriages or births, or days of simply giving thanks for some welcome bounty produced from the soil or forest. These would have been times to shed the clothes donned daily for work and choose more festive garments.
 
To accompany these clothes, Bikolanos wore an array of jewellery; earrings, rings, necklaces, bracelets, armbands and belts made from a variety of natural materials. Beads were sourced from common forest plants, gold was mined or traded, ivory was imported from Asian countries to the west and south, seashells were strung and tortoise shell was cut and polished.
 
The degree of workmanship which went into the fabrication of gold jewellery was exemplary and while much of this has been lost, the remaining pieces clearly show the high level of achieved skill. Men and women wore gold earrings that reflected both light and colour, and the chains worn wound around the neck could be of such great length as to still reach the ground. Bracelets were worn, not singly, but in multiples from the wrist to the elbow, and included those made from pure beaten gold in a series of forearm wraps, or bands of gold or ivory or strings of shells. Anklets were often brass rings, or black bands made from forest ferns signalling some act of valour or bravery.
 
Hair was worn long, particularly by women, and its appearance was highly prized. It was combed and cleaned with great care, and cut only in the direst of circumstances. Washing was done with a variety natural substances, generally sourced from the coconut, and then oiled, usually with sesame and scented with civet. Women could decorate their hair with clusters of flowers, and men would frequently wrap it with a long, flowing cloth of varying colours.
 
Tattoos covered the bodies of men from the ankle, up the rear of the legs to the back. These were the general tattoos that all men were expected to have. There were, however, others inked to commemorate some act of valour, with only those who showed particular skill in warfare bearing tattoos across the neck, cheek, eyes and forehead. Women wore more delicate tattoos, restricted for the most part to the fingers and the hand and these carried smaller and more intricate designs.
 
White, natural-looking teeth were clearly not prized among the early Bikolanos, nor among most of the ethnic groups of the central and northern Philippines. Teeth were dyed either black or red, and inlayed or pegged with gold. They were also filed to points, or to level the upper and lower incisors. The process generally began in childhood and continued into adulthood. While groups of the central and southern Philippines gradually abandoned this practice under the spreading influence of the Spanish, it is something still seen in the mountainous, northern areas of the county.
 
While specific customs have changed over the centuries, and materials such as gold and ivory have become less common and more expensive, the tradition of dressing up and looking good still remains strong in Philippine society.
 

ENDNOTES

[1] Malcolm W. Mintz, 'Anger and verse: two vocabulary subsets in Bikol,' Vical 2: Western Austronesian and Contact Languages, Papers from the 5th International Conference on Austronesian Linguistics, Auckland: Linguistics Society of New Zealand, 1991, pp. 231-244.

[2] Ignacio Francisco Alcina, History of the Bisayan People in the Philippine Islands, 1668, Volumes 1 and 2, translated, edited and annotated by Cantius J Kobak and Lucio Gutiérrez, Manila: UST Publishing House, 2002.

[3] Francisco Colin, 'Native races and their customs,' from Labor Evangélica, 1663, in Blair and Robertson, vol. 40, pp. 37-98, pp. 63-64.

[4] Antonio Pigafetta, Primo Viaggio Intorno al Mondo, 1525, in Blair and Robertson, vol. 33, pp. 26-267, p. 109.

[5] Diego de Artieda, 'Relation of the Western Islands called Filipinas,' ca. 1572, in Blair and Robertson, vol. 3, pp. 190-208, p. 200.

[6] Pedro Chirino, S.J., Relación de las Islas Filipinas, 1604, Manila: Historical Conservation Society, 1969, p. 252.

[7] Antonio de Morga, Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas, 1609, Cambridge: The Hakluyt Society - Cambridge University Press, 1971, pp. 245-246.

[8] Miguel de Loarca, 'Relación de las Islas Filipinas,' 1582, in Blair and Robertson, vol. 5, pp. 34-187, pp. 115-117.

[9] Diego de Bobadilla, 'Relation of the Filipinas Islands,' 1640, in Blair and Robertson, vol. 29, pp. 277-311, p. 287.

[10] Boxer Codex manuscript, ca 1590, Indiana University Digital Library, pp. 47-48 (accessed 7 March 2014).

[11] William Henry Scott, Barangay; Sixteenth Century Philippine Culture and Society, Quezon City: Ateneo de Manila University Press, 1994, pp. 20-21.

[12] Chirino, Relación de las Islas Filipinas, p. 252.

[13] Colin, 'Native races and their customs,' from Labor Evangélica, in Blair and Robertson, vol. 40, p. 64.

[14] Alcina, History of the Bisayan People in the Philippine Islands, vol. 1, p. 145.

[15] Boxer Codex manuscript, Indiana University Digital Library, p. 48.

[16] Colin, 'Native races and their customs,' p. 63; Chirino, Relación de las Islas Filipinas, p. 252.

[17] Alcina, History of the Bisayan People in the Philippine Islands, vol. 1, p. 141.

[18] Colin, 'Native races and their customs' from Labor Evangélica, in Blair and Robertson, vol. 40, p. 64; Chirino, Relación de las Islas Filipinas, p. 252; de Bobadilla, Relation of the Filipinas Islands, in Blair and Robertson, vol. 29, p. 287.

[19] Alcina, History of the Bisayan People in the Philippine Islands, vol. 1, pp. 141, 143.

[20] Alcina, History of the Bisayan People in the Philippine Islands, vol. 1, p. 143.

[21] Alcina, History of the Bisayan People in the Philippine Islands, vol. 1, p. 143.

[22] Alcina, History of the Bisayan People in the Philippine Islands, vol. 1, p. 143.

[23] Colin, 'Native races and their customs,' from Labor Evangélica, in Blair and Robertson, vol. 40, p. 64; Alcina, History of the Bisayan People in the Philippine Islands, vol. 1, p. 143.

[24] Colin, 'Native races and their customs,' from Labor Evangélica, in Blair and Robertson, vol. 40, p. 63; Chirino, Relación de las Islas Filipinas, p. 252.

[25] Colin, 'Native races and their customs,' from Labor Evangélica, in Blair and Robertson, vol. 40, p. 64.

[26] Alcina, History of the Bisayan People in the Philippine Islands, vol. 1, p. 143.

[27] Carlos Quirino and Mauro Garcia, 'The manners, customs and beliefs of the Philippine inhabitants of long ago'; being chapters of 'A Late 16th Century Manila Manuscript,' transcribed, translated and annotated,' Manila: The Philippine Journal of Science, vol. 87, no. 4 (December 1958), p. 397.

[28] Alcina, History of the Bisayan People in the Philippine Islands, vol. 1, p. 144.

[29] 'Tattoo Ink Chemistry,' About.com Chemistry (accessed 12 April 2013).

[30] 'Azurite,' National Museum Collections (Philippines) (accessed April 2013).

[31] Alcina, History of the Bisayan People in the Philippine Islands, vol. 1, pp. 143, 145.

[32] Antonio Sanchez de la Rosa, Diccionario español - bisaya para las provincias de Sámar y Leyte, 3rd edition, aumentado por Antonio Valeriano, Manila: Santos y Bermal, 1914, see labong.

[33] Thomas J. Zumbroich and Analyn Salvador-Amores, 'Gold work, filing and blackened teeth: dental modifications in Luzon,' The Cordillera Review, vol. 2, no. 2 (September 2010), pp. 3-42.

[34] Chirino, Relación de las Islas Filipinas, pp. 239-240.

[35] Alcina, History of the Bisayan People in the Philippine Islands, vol. 1, p. 99.

[36] de Bobadilla, 'Relation of the Filipinas Islands,' in Blair and Robertson, vol. 29, pp. 287-288.

[37] Colin, 'Native races and their customs,' from Labor Evangélica, in Blair and Robertson, vol, 40, pp. 60-61.

[38] de Morga, Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas, p. 249.

[39] Pigafetta, Primo Viaggio Intorno al Mondo, in Blair and Robertson, vol. 33, p. 123.

[40] Juan Francisco de San Antonio, 'Native Peoples and Customs,' Blair and Robertson, vol. 40, pp. 296-373; p. 327

[41] Scott, Barangay, pp. 18-19.

[42] Chirino, Relación de las Islas Filipinas, p. 239; de Morga, Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas, p. 78.

[43] Robert B. Fox, 'The Calatagan excavations: two burial sites in Batangan, Philippines,' in Philippine Studies, vol. 7, no. 3 (August 1959), pp. 321–389; p. 354 - PDF p. 36.

[44] Chirino, Relación de las Islas Filipinas, p. 239.

[45] Alcina, History of the Bisayan People in the Philippine Islands, vol. 1, p. 99.

[46] Alcina, History of the Bisayan People in the Philippine Islands, vol. 1, p. 99.

[47] Fox, 'The Calatagan excavations: two burial sites in Batangan, Philippines,' p. 353.

[48] Fox, 'The Calatagan excavations: two burial sites in Batangan, Philippines,' p. 355.

[49] Chirino, Relación de las Islas Filipinas, pp. 239-240.

[50] Alcina, History of the Bisayan People in the Philippine Islands, vol. 1, p. 99.

[51] Colin, 'Native races and their customs,' from Labor Evangélica, in Blair and Robertson, vol. 40, p. 61; San Antonio, 'Native Peoples and Customs,' in Blair and Robertson, vol. 40, p. 327.

[52] de Bobadilla, 'Relation of the Filipinas Islands,' in Blair and Robertson, vol. 29, p. 287.

[53] San Antonio, Native Peoples and Customs, in Blair and Robertson vol. 40, p. 327; de Morga, Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas, p. 249; Colin, 'Native Races and their Customs,' from Labor Evangélica, in Blair and Robertson, vol. 40, p. 61; Alcina, History of the Bisayan People in the Philippine Islands, vol. 1, p. 99.

[54] de Bobadilla, Relation of the Filipinas Islands, in Blair and Robertson, vol. 29, p. 287; Chirino, Relación de las Islas Filipinas, p. 239.

[55] Alonso de Mentrida, Diccionario de la lengua Bisaya, Hiliguena, y Haraya de la Isla de Panay, Manila: La Imprenta de D. Manuel y de Felix Dayot, 1841, see lacha.

[56] Juan José Noceda and Pedro de Sanlucar, Vocabulario de la lengua Tagala, 1753, Manila: Imprenta de Ramirez y Giraudier, Reimpreso 1860, see lacha.

[57] Juan Feliz de la Encarnacion, Diccionario español- bisaya, Manila: Imprenta de los amigos del pais, á cargo de M. Sanchez, 1852, see lacha.

[58] Zumbroich and Salvador-Amores, 'Gold work, filing and blackened teeth: dental modifications in Luzon,' p. 11.

[59] P. C. Boyce, 'The genus Epipremnum schott (Araceae - Monsteroideae - Monstereae) in west and central Malesia,' Blumea, vol. 43 (26 May 1998), pp. 183-213, p. 205.

[60] Colin, 'Native races and their customs,' from Labor Evangélica, in Blair and Robertson, vol. 40, p. 60.

[61] San Antonio, 'Native peoples and customs,' in Blair and Robertson, vol. 40, p. 326; de Artieda, 'Relation of the Western Islands Called Filipinas,' in Blair and Robertson, vol. 3, p. 200.

[62] Alcina, History of the Bisayan People in the Philippine Islands, vol. 1, p. 101.

[63] Colin, 'Native races and their customs,' from Labor Evangélica, in Blair and Robertson, vol. 40, p. 60; Alcina, History of the Bisayan People in the Philippine Islands, vol. 1, p. 101.

[64] Encarnacion, Diccionario español - bisaya, see podong, podong-podong; de la Rosa, Diccionario español - bisaya para las provincias de Sámar y Leyte, see podong, podong-podong.

[65] Alonso de Mentrida, Diccionario de la lengua Bisaya, Hiliguena, y Haraya de la Isla de Panay, see potong; Noceda and Sanlucar, Vocabulario de la lengua Tagala, see potong.

[66] Colin, 'Native Races and their Customs,' from Labor Evangélica, in Blair and Robertson, vol. 40, pp. 61-62.

[67] Alcina, History of the Bisayan People in the Philippine Islands, vol. 1, p. 117.

[68] de Artieda, 'Relation of the Western Islands called Filipinas,' in Blair and Robertson, vol. 3, p. 200.

[69] Alcina, History of the Bisayan People in the Philippine Islands, vol. 1, p. 101.

[70] Alcina, History of the Bisayan People in the Philippine Islands, vol. 1, p. 101.

[71] Alcina, History of the Bisayan People in the Philippine Islands, vol. 1, p. 101.

[72] Alcina, History of the Bisayan People in the Philippine Islands, vol. 1, p. 101.

[73] 'Royal orders regarding the religious,' in Blair and Robertson, vol. 21, pp. 98-110; 'Ordering the correction of abuses against the Indians by the Dominicans,' issued by the King, Felipe IV, countersigned by Juan Ruiz de Contreras, and signed by the Council, 1624, pp. 105-106.

[74] San Antonio, 'Native peoples and customs,' in Blair and Robertson, vol. 40, p. 327.

[75] 'Entada phaseoloides,' Australian Tropical Rainforest Plants, n.d. (accessed 12 April 2013).

[76] 'Gogo,' Philippine Medicinal Plants, n.d., online: http://www.stuartxchange.org/Gogo.html, accessed 12 April 2013.

[77] 'Department of Animal Science - Plants Poisonous to Livestock,' Cornell University College of Agriculture and Live Sciences, n.d., online: http://www.ansci.cornell.edu/plants/toxicagents/saponin.html, accessed 12 April 2013.

[78] 'Bakong,' Philippine Medicinal Plants, n.d. (accessed 12 April 2013).

[79] Chirino, Relación de las Islas Filipinas, p. 258; Alcina, History of the Bisayan People in the Philippine Islands, vol. 1, p. 101.

[80] Chirino, Relación de las Islas Filipinas, p. 258; Alcina, History of the Bisayan People in the Philippine Islands, vol. 1, p. 101; Colin, 'Native races and their customs,' from Labor Evangélica, in Blair and Robertson, vol. 40, p. 60; de Morga, Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas, p. 249.

[81] 'Agarwood,' Wikipedia, English, n.d. (accessed 12 April 2013); 'Calambac,' Wikipédia, French, n.d. (accessed 12 April 2013).

[82] 'Operculum (gastropod,' Wikipedia, English, n.d. (accessed 12 April 2013).

[83] Quirino and Garcia, 'The manners, customs and beliefs of the Philippine inhabitants of long ago,' p. 398.

[84] de Artieda, 'Relation of the Western Islands called Filipinas,' in Blair and Robertson, vol. 3, p. 200.

[85] Colin, 'Native races and their customs,' from Labor Evangélica, in Blair and Robertson, vol. 40, p. 61; Alcina, History of the Bisayan People in the Philippine Islands, vol. 1, p. 147.

[86] Alcina, History of the Bisayan People in the Philippine Islands, vol. 1, p. 145.

[87] For this analysis to be correct, the base, pikít, would have to undergo the following processes: reduplication and suffixation = pipikitón > deletion = pipiktón > metathesis = pipitkón > dissimilation = pipidkón.

[88] 'Relation and treatise of Captain Torbio de Miranda's Deeds in the exploration and pacification of the said Province of Tuy,' 1594, in Blair and Robertson, vol. 14, pp. 292-301, p. 295; de Morga, Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas, p. 248; Francisco Combés, 'History of the Southern Islands,' in Blair and Robertson, vol. 40, pp. 99-182, p. 144.

[89] see Chapter 7, 'Money, Weights and Measures.'

[90] Carl Rubino, Ilocano Dictionary and Grammar: Ilocano-English, English-Ilocano, Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press, 2000.

[91] Roger Blench, personal communication, 10 July 2013.

[92] 'Subsuban,' Philippine Medicinal Plants, n.d. (accessed 7 March 2014); 'Polygonum barbatum L. - POLYGONACEAE - Dicotyledon,' Oswald Asia, n.d. (accessed 10 July 2013).

[93] Elmer D. Merrill, A Dictionary of the Plant Names of the Philippine Islands, Department of the Interior, Bureau of Government Laboratories, Manila: Bureau of Public Printing, 1903, pp. 113, 115, 123.

[94] 'Acorus calamus,' Wikipedia, English, n.d. (accessed 7 March 2014); 'Lubigan,' Philippine Medicinal Plants n.d. (accessed 12 April 2013).

[95] 'Carnelian,' 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica,' Wikisource, n.d. (accessed 12 April 2013).

[96] Alcina, History of the Bisayan People in the Philippine Islands, vol. 1, pp. 105-107.

[97] Rosanne Rutten, Artisans and entrepreneurs in the rural Philippines: making a living and gaining wealth in two commercialized crafts, CASA Monographs 2, Amsterdam: VU University Press, 1990. p. 67.

[98] Pigafetta, Primo Viaggio Intorno al Mondo, in Blair and Robertson, vol. 33, p. 151.

[99] Ramon N. Villegas, Kayamanan: The Philippine Jewelry Tradition, Manila: The Central Bank of the Philippines, 1983, pp. 76, 84.

[100] Ramon N. Villegas, Ginto: History Wrought in Gold, Manila: Banko Sentral ng Pilipinas, 2004, p. 92.

[101] Colin, 'Native races and their customs,' from Labor Evangélica, in Blair and Robertson, vol. 40, p. 61.

[102] de Bobadilla, 'Relation of the Filipinas Islands,' in Blair and Robertson, vol. 29, p. 287; Boxer Codex Image.

[103] de la Rosa, Diccionario español - bisaya para las provincias de Sámar y Leyte, see panica.

[104] Villegas, Kayamanan: The Philippine Jewelry Tradition, p. 84.

[105] Alcina, History of the Bisayan People in the Philippine Islands, vol. 1, p. 103.

[106] Villegas, Ginto: History Wrought in Gold, p. 103.

[107] 'Relation and treatise of Captain Torbio de Miranda's Deeds in the exploration and pacification of the said Province of Tuy,' in Blair and Robertson, vol. 14, p. 295; de Morga, Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas, pp. 249, 267; Guido de Lavezaris, and others 'Reply to Rada's Opinion [on Trubute],' 1574, in Blair and Robertson, vol. 3, pp. 260-271, p. 267.

[108] Colin, 'Native races and their customs,' from Labor Evangélica, in Blair and Robertson, vol. 40, p. 61; de Loarca, Relación de las Islas Filipinas, in Blair and Robertson, vol. 5, p. 117.

[109] Alcina, History of the Bisayan People in the Philippine Islands, vol. 1, p. 105.

[110] Alcina, History of the Bisayan People in the Philippine Islands, vol. 1, p. 115.

[111] Colin, 'Native races and their customs,' from Labor Evangélica, in Blair and Robertson, vol. 40, p. 62.

[112] 'Relation and treatise of Captain Torbio de Miranda's deeds in the exploration and pacification of the said Province of Tuy,' in Blair and Robertson, vol. 14, p. 295.

[113] Francisco Combés, 'History of the Southern Islands,' in Blair and Robertson, vol. 40, p. 144.

[114] de la Rosa, Diccionario español - bisaya para las provincias de Sámar y Leyte, see dalac.

[115] Noceda and Sanlucar, Vocabulario de la lengua Tagala, see dalac.

[116] Noceda and Sanlucar, Vocabulario de la lengua Tagala, see sigay.

[117] de Loarca, 'Relación de las Islas Filipinas,' in Blair and Robertson, vol. 5, p. 73; cowry is referred to as bruscay.

[118] de Morga, Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas, in Blair and Robertson, vol. 16, pp. 103-104.

[119] de Morga, Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas, in Blair and Robertson, vol. 16, pp. 184-185.

[120] Gabriel de Ribera, 'Account of expeditions,' in Blair and Robertson, vol. 4, pp. 299-300.

[121] de Morga, Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas, in Blair and Robertson, vol. 16, p. 103.

[122] Villegas, Ginto: History Wrought in Gold. pp. 156, 158-159.

[123] Villegas, Kayamanan: The Philippine Jewelry Tradition, pp. 90, 94.

[124] de Morga, Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas, in Blair and Robertson, vol. 16, p. 76.

[125] Noceda and Sanlucar, Vocabulario de la lengua Tagala, see calombigas, calambigas.

[126] de Mentrida, Diccionario de la lengua Bisaya, Hiliguena, y Haraya de la Isla de Panay, see calambugas.

[127] Encarnacion, Diccionario español - bisaya, see calambogas.

[128] de la Rosa, Diccionario español - bisaya para las provincias de Sámar y Leyte, see calongaqui; Encarnacion, Diccionario español- bisaya, see calonggaqui.

[129] Bruce W. Carpenter, Ethnic jewelry from Indonesia: continuity and evolution, Singapore: Editions Didier Millet, 2012, pp. 165-177.

[130] de la Rosa, Diccionario español - bisaya para las provincias de Sámar y Leyte, see bitic.

[131] Noceda and Sanlucar, Vocabulario de la lengua Tagala, see bitic.

[132] Fr. Diego Bergaño, Vocabulario de la lengua Pampanga, en romance, 1732, Manila: Imprenta de Ramirez y Giraudier, Reimpreso 1860, see bitic.

[133] de Morga, Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas, in Blair and Robertson, vol. 16, p. 77.

[134] Alcina, History of the Bisayan People in the Philippine Islands, vol. 1, p. 115.

[135] Alcina, History of the Bisayan People in the Philippine Islands, vol. 1, p. 131.

[136] de Morga, Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas, in Blair and Robertson, vol. 16, pp. 177-178, 179.

[137] de Morga, Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas, in Blair and Robertson, vol. 16, p. 184.

[138] de Morga, Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas, in Blair and Robertson, vol. 16, pp. 185-186.

[139] Encarnacion, Diccionario español - bisaya, see gala gala; de la Rosa, Diccionario español - bisaya para las provincias de Sámar y Leyte, see gala gala; Noceda and Sanlucar, Vocabulario de la lengua Tagala, see galagala; Bergaño, Vocabulario de la lengua Pampanga, see galagala; de Mentrida, Diccionario de la lengua Bisaya, Hiliguena, y Haraya de la Isla de Panay, see gala gala.

[140] de Mentrida, Diccionario de la lengua Bisaya, Hiliguena, y Haraya de la Isla de Panay, see handalamay.

[141] Chirino, Relación de las Islas Filipinas, in Blair and Robertson, vol. 12, p. 186.

[142] Colin, 'Native races and their customs,' from Labor Evangélica, in Blair and Robertson, vol. 40, p. 62.

[143] de la Rosa, Diccionario español - bisaya para las provincias de Sámar y Leyte, see sing sing.

[144] Bergaño, Vocabulario de la lengua Pampanga, see capuput.

[145] Noceda and Sanlucar, Vocabulario de la lengua Tagala, see pamopot.

[146] Noceda and Sanlucar, Vocabulario de la lengua Tagala, see simpac.

[147] 'Vaidurya,' Vedabase, n.d. (accessed 12 April 2013).

[148] 'Malay words of Sanskrit origin,' Veda, n.d. (accessed 7 March 2014); R. O. Winstedt, Unabridged Malay-English Dictionary, Singapore: Kelly & Walsh Ltd, n.d., see baiduri.

[149] Encarnacion, Diccionario español - bisaya, see caoat; Noceda and Sanlucar, Vocabulario de la lengua Tagala, see cauar; de Mentrida, Diccionario de la lengua Bisaya, Hiliguena, y Haraya de la Isla de Panay, see cauat.

[150] de la Rosa, Diccionario español - bisaya para las provincias de Sámar y Leyte, see cauad.

[151] Villegas, Ginto: History Wrought in Gold, pp. 61-62.

[152] de Morga, Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas, in Blair and Robertson, vol. 16, p. 76, note 49. Morga's original Spanish text has the words cera hilada which translates as 'spun wax' (de Morga, Sucessos de las Islas Filipinas, Edición crítica y comentada y estudio preliminar de Francisca Perujo, Mexico: Fondo de Cultura Económica, 2007, p. 221). As the note in the English translation included in Blair and Robertson indicates, this is assumed to be an error, either by the copier or the printer, and the intended text should have been seda hilada 'spun silk'.

[153] de la Rosa, Diccionario español - bisaya para las provincias de Sámar y Leyte, see camagui; de Mentrida, Diccionario de la lengua Bisaya, Hiliguena, y Haraya de la Isla de Panay, see barbar, camagui; Encarnacion, Diccionario español - bisaya, see camagi.

[154] Alcina, History of the Bisayan People in the Philippine Islands, vol. 1, p. 113.

[155] Ramon N. Villegas, Ginto: History Wrought in Gold, pp. 63-64; photos, pp, 142-143.

[156] Alcina, History of the Bisayan People in the Philippine Islands, vol. 1, pp. 126-127.

[157] It is possible to interpret the Lisboa entry as describing the pinarugmók as possessing threads of gold which were 'finer' than hinúyot and not necessarily 'smaller' in overall length.

[158] Alcina, History of the Bisayan People in the Philippine Islands, vol. 1, pp. 113, 127-128, note 4.

[159] de la Rosa, Diccionario español - bisaya para las provincias de Sámar y Leyte, see laniban.

[160] Alcina, History of the Bisayan People in the Philippine Islands, vol. 2, pp. 215-216.

[161] E. Arsenio Manual, 'A lexicographic study of Tayabas Tagalog,' The Diliman Review, Quezon City, vol. 19 (1971): 219.

[162] 'Salaginto', Wikipedia, Malay, n.d. (accessed 12 April 2013).


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