Intersections: Gender and Sexuality in Asia and the Pacific
Monograph 1: The Philippines at the Turn of the Sixteenth Century
Malcolm W. Mintz
METALS AND METALWORKING
Metals, how they were mined, smelted, refined, forged and worked, form the content of this chapter. Section 1 opens with a discussion of gold, examining how gold was classified by colour, how poor quality gold could be transformed to deceive, how it could be tested to determine its authenticity, and how it was mined.
In Section 2, various other metals are examined: silver, lead and tin, iron, and copper, brass and bronze. Included here is a discussion of the various and conflicting terms applied to many of these metals and the reasons why this has happened.
The smelting of iron and copper is discussed in Section 3 drawing on available information from different areas in the Philippines, as well as adjacent areas such as Borneo. How charcoal, the dominant fuel of the furnace and forge, was made is the content of Section 4. Section 5 looks at the role of fire, and Section 6 the parts and function of the bellows.
In Section 7 the topic is refining and the stress here is primarily on gold, including the formation of alloys. The tools of the blacksmith are discussed in Section 8, the tempering and hardening of iron and steel in Section 9 and the process of forging tools and implements in Section 10. Section 11 focuses on the decorating processes of inlay and gilding, Section 12 on the repair processes of soldering and welding, and Section 13 on the drawing of metal threads and wires. The final section looks at the delicate processes of working with gold.
Gold was a valuable, though not overly exploited, metal in the Philippines, used traditionally for jewellery and decoration as well as traded for commodities and other items of value. The Spanish arrived on Masbate in 1567 to find mines operating in the province, although after an attempt was made to work them more intensively, they were subsequently abandoned. In a document recounting the history of the Recollect Missions in the same province at the end of the seventeenth century, mention is made that the mines had become uneconomical and the amount of gold extracted could not cover expenses.
When the Spanish arrived at Paracale in Camarines Norte in 1571, they also found gold mines in long-standing operation. While these mines contained rich veins of ore, they flooded easily and, proving difficult or impossible to drain, they remained unsuitable for large scale extraction. For the inhabitants of the area, however, used to working in such conditions, substantial amounts of gold were successfully mined. Ignacio Alcina writing in the mid-seventeenth century also mentions the gold mines both in Paracale and Masbate.
Gold was referred to generally as buláwan, the name relating to the colour of the metal, buláw .
buláw sandy colored, gold colored; blond; albino; ‑ON describing s/t with this color; MÁGIN to become blond; ‑AN gold [+MDL: having sandy colored or blond hair]
While many of the early lexicographers, including Lisboa, referred to the quality of various types of gold mined in the Philippines by the quilate or carat, this would not have been the defining reference for the early Filipinos. Gold would have been classed by its colour, by the presence or lack of noticeable impurities and by its ability to be worked in the production of jewellery or other items of adornment without splitting, cracking or leaving an unacceptable degree of waste (see Section 11).
For example, gold which contained a substantial mixture of silver would be light in appearance, and as such be given the name malamutíˈ, a form comprising the prefix mala‑ meaning '‑like' or '‑ish' and the root word putíˈ 'white'.
putíˈ white; MA‑ white ...; MAG‑ to turn white ... [+MDL: MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to bleach s/t; to whiten or make s/t lighter; ... maputíˈ na gáyo very white]
mala‑ adjectival affix meaning '‑like' or '‑ish', fossilized for most uses, but still actively used with colors: putíˈ white, malaputíˈ whitish; pulá red, malapulá reddish; itóm black, malaitóm or malaˈtóm somewhat black
haróm gold (typ‑ dark, of poor quality, low in carats); Haróm-haróm pa iníng buláwan mo Your gold is of inferior quality [MDL]
hinúlog gold containing many impurities [MDL]
sinagitló gold of low quality, producing a lot of waste when worked; syn‑ tinló [MDL]
sinúbong gold (typ‑ low in carats) [MDL]
patatároˈ finest quality of the gold panikáˈ [MDL]
latók high quality, fine (pure gold): panikáng latók a high quality gold, pure gold [MDL]
úray gold, almost as high in quality as panikáˈ [MDL]
dalísay gold (typ‑ good quality, high in carats) [MDL]
Gold which was of high quality could be sold anywhere at an attractive price. It was not a commodity subject to protracted negotiations as shown in an example for the entry baríwas. Clearly it was a metal which was wanted and in demand.
dalóy high quality gold which covers poor quality gold beneath it, forming a gold bar meant to deceive; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to cover poor quality gold with that of higher quality; MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to place high quality gold over that of low quality; (fig‑) Dalóy pa lámang an saímong buˈót You appear to be a good person, but in your heart you are different [MDL]
kikhíˈ brush (typ‑ fine, made from hog's bristles, used to add red ochre dye (sulpóˈ) to gold); also used for cleaning the teeth; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to burnish gold or clean the teeth with such a brush; MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to remove reddish discoloration from between the teeth with such a brush [MDL]
harubúhob MA‑ gold (typ‑ of poor quality which does not reveal a pleasing color after a treatment with red ochre (sulpóˈ) has worn off); MA‑ or MAG‑ to return to its original poor color after red ochre is removed (gold); (fig‑) Himinulínang humarubúhob si saímong buˈót You have returned to your real (and not very nice) self [MDL]
dangyáp MA‑ or MAG‑ to block the light of the sun or moon (clouds, smoke); to obscure the sun or moon; to cover gold, diminishing its gleam (as soot); (PAG‑)‑AN to become obscured: the sun or moon by clouds, a mirror by steam, gold by soot; MAPA‑, PA‑‑AN to steam up a mirror; to take the shine off gold [MDL]
There were a number of techniques which could be employed to determine if gold was of a particular stated quality. Used commonly was the touchstone (sanghíd). The gold to be tested would be drawn across a hard, black stone, such as basalt. The trace left by the gold would then be compared to a set of standard gold alloys to see which of those it most closely resembled. The technique described by Lisboa as tarák probably refers to this comparison.
tarák a technique used by goldsmiths to determine if gold is of low or high quality (panikáˈ) [MDL]
tiláˈ tree (typ‑ Garcinia binucao, producing a sour fruit and having acidic leaves) [MDL]
Gold could be found in veins of quartz, or it could be found mixed with the sand of rivers or beaches near where rivers emptied into the sea. The mining of gold in both these areas was undertaken in the Bikol region. Whether it was placer mining, the search for alluvial deposits of gold, or hardrock mining which was engaged in, these actions were referred to by the general term duláng, clearly a term with widespread application.
This more general use of the duláng is also referred to in Waray as is its use in the panning for gold. Use of the duláng exclusively in the search for gold is the meaning given in Hiligaynon,] Kapampangan, and Tagalog.
There are specific terms in Bikol for recovering alluvial gold. These refer to the washing of the sand or soil in a basin, most likely the duláng, (ligáy) and, by this process, separating out the gold (ápis).
ápis MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to separate gold from sand or soil by washing; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to separate out the sand or soil from the gold [MDL]
tukíˈ digging iron; MAG‑, ‑ON to dig with a digging iron [+MDL: iron bar used to dig out minerals from mines; MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑ ‑ON to dig s/t out with such an iron bar; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to dig minerals out from a mine with such an iron bar [MDL]
tultóg MAG‑, ‑ON to crush s/t with a hammering action; to smash s/t (as with a mallet) [MDL: MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to dent or smash s/t with one strong blow; MA‑ to be smashed, dented from one blow]
sabwág gold dust (unrefined) [MDL]
wagás gold dust [MDL]
giláng MA‑ glittering, gleaming, shining like particles of iron pyrite (gíla-gíla) [MDL]
Among the other metals which were found in the region were silver, lead and tin, and copper with its alloys of brass and bronze. Not all of these were actively mined, many occurring in the same rock formations which contained gold. Some of these metals were also not clearly identifiable by name, with confusion common in the naming of lead and tin, and the various alloys of copper.
While silver can occur separately in nature, it is most commonly found in combination with other metals or minerals with which it forms compounds, generally in the form of sulfides such as galena (lead sulfide).
In the Philippines galena, or argentiferous lead, is found in a number of areas across the archipelago, including Paracale and Mambulao (now Jose Panganiban) in Camarines Norte, close to or coincident with areas also rich in gold. Historically these areas were only mined for gold with neither silver nor lead generally being extracted from the obtained ore.
In Bikol 'silver' is pírak, and it is the cognate form, pilak, which is found in most of the central Philippines languages with either the twin meanings 'silver' and 'money' as in Cebuano and Tagalog or the single meaning 'silver', as in Bikol, Hiligaynon and Kapampangan. Interestingly, Antonio Sánchez de la Rosa for Waray records only the form salapíˈ for both the mineral and silver coin in common use as a currency.
Prior to the seventeenth century tin was considered a type of lead. To distinguish the two types of metals, lead was referred to as plumbum nigrum 'black lead' and tin as plumbum candidum or plumbum album 'white lead'. This type of distinction was carried over to the description of Philippine languages by lexicographers writing in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Adding to the complexity were borrowings from Malay where tin and lead also had closely related references.
For Bikol, Lisboa includes the entry hítam for 'lead'. Noceda for Tagalog defines hítam as 'black lead' or 'poor quality lead', and Mentrida for Hiligaynon similarly defines this is as 'black lead of poor quality'. In Waray hitam has a related meaning, recorded by Sánchez de la Rosa as 'black, medium quality lead'. Hitam is clearly a borrowing from Malay where it means 'black' and timah hitam, literally 'black tin' is 'lead'. From this point on, the situation becomes even more confusing.
timgáˈ tin; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to inlay s/t with tin; MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to use tin as an inlay [MDL]
The term for 'lead' in Hiligaynon is tínga, and for 'tin', tínga nga olay, literally 'pure lead'. Something having a bluish tinge, such as lead, is referred to by the infixed form, tinínga. For Cebuano, Encarnacion has tinggáˈ for 'lead' and for 'tin' an explanation indicating that tin (referred to as 'brass' in the definition) is essentially firmer and shinier than lead: 'Brass which is firm and shiny, like lead, having the colour of the silver coin, salapiˈ'.
For Tagalog, Noceda defines tinggáˈ as both 'lead' and 'tin', but then goes on to distinguish the two indicating tinggáˈ hítam, which we know literally means 'black lead', as 'lead which is softer than tinggá' putíˈ, and tinggáˈ putíˈ, literally 'white lead', as 'hard lead'. In the Spanish - Tagalog section of the dictionary, this latter term is specifically referred to as 'tin'. For Kapampangan, Bergaño has tingga for 'lead', and tinggaputi listed as an alternative. The listing of tingaputi, clearly the same reference as tinggaputi, in the Spanish-Kapampangan section of the dictionary is different. Here it is defined as laton metal 'latten' which in Spanish dictionaries is generally translated as 'brass'. This may have been an attempt, as it was in Cebuano, to convey the lighter colour and firmer texture of tin compared to lead.
On the island of Luzon, iron was found primarily in the province of Bulacan which also had a small industry based on the smelting of this metal (see Section 3(i)). It was also found in the provinces of Laguna and Pampanga, and in Camarines Norte near the towns of Paracale and Mambulao.
One of the terms for 'iron' in modern Bikol is lansáng. Lisboa records this term as meaning 'nail', presumably of iron, as is specifically mentioned for Hiligaynon. In Cebuano, lansang had a wider meaning, referring to iron nails, as well as those of wood, bamboo, copper, silver, and so on. The other term for 'iron' is batbát which during Lisboa's time referred to iron which had already been worked in a forge in preparation for processing into iron plate or sheet, referred to as inirós, a term which did not survive into modern Bikol.
batbát iron, wrought iron; MAG‑, I‑ to work iron in a forge; to forge iron; kaputól na batbát an iron rod [MDL: iron which has been worked in a forge, later to be processed into iron plate or sheets (inirós); MA‑ or MAG‑ to forge iron; MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to use iron for plating; (fig‑) Garó na batbát iníng háwak niyá His body is strong as iron; Iyó man batbát an paglóng kainíng pagkaharóng-hárong ta The only iron you'll find in our house is that on the end of a top (Said when one is very poor and has poor accommodation]
inirós iron sheet, iron plate ready to be worked [SP‑ hierros irons, shackles] [MDL]
They first arrived in the region looking for gold, making landfall on the island of Masbate in 1567. From there they made a number of trips to the mainland, to the current provinces of Albay and Sorsogon. In 1571 they arrived at the gold mines of Paracale in Camarines Norte, returning to the province in 1572 to begin their dominance of the whole region. This was a full 30 years before Lisboa's arrival in 1602. It is possible that during this time a Spanish word entered the lexicon providing a term for a process that up to that point had remained unnamed, even if the word may have possessed an inexact reference when compared to the Spanish original.
The sheets of iron, inirós, were counted into bundles of 10 referred to as rangkól. Those that were uneven or not properly formed were described as lantáy. Of the central Philippine languages, only Tagalog had this term which meant 'beaten metal' and referred to gold, silver and copper. The term is most likely a borrowing from the Malay besi lantai which referred to 'iron sheets', where besi means 'iron' and lantai 'flooring' or 'decking'.
lantáy a thin, flat wafer of iron which is uneven or not square [MALAY besi lantai iron sheet] [MDL]
Nineteenth century reports identify copper in the Bikol region at Mambulao and a nearby locality called Iba in Camarines Norte, at Caramoan in Camarines Sur, and on the island of Masbate at Milagros on the Asid Gulf. During the seventeenth century, there were reports of copper at Paracale, occurring with gold in the mines of the area and said to be not particularly productive.
By far the largest and most mined deposits in the Philippines were in the northern province of Lepanto (now part of Mountain Province) near Mt Data and it is from this region that most of the information on copper smelting has been obtained (see Section 3(ii)).
Two common alloys of which copper is a principal part are brass, comprising copper and zinc, and bronze, primarily a mixture of copper and tin. During the Middle Ages these alloys were collectively referred to as 'lattens', something which might account for the confusion we find in the entries for these items in the early dictionaries of the Philippines.
Zinc was obtainable in the Bikol region, found in the gold producing areas of Camarines Norte, occurring in the veins of quartz along with gold and various other ores.
Tin was most likely imported and traded for other items of value. There are early references to vessels which carried both iron and tin, captained by individuals from Borneo and plying routes which took them to Mindoro and Luzon. Reference is also made to Chinese and Japanese vessels carrying out the same type of trade.
The Bikol term for copper is tumbága, with Lisoba giving a detailled description of the metal as found in the region. The same term is also used in Hiligaynon and Waray where a detailled description of the metal is also found: 'a metal possessing a dull, reddish colour, shiny, malleable, ductile, the strongest metal after iron, harder than gold or silver, giving strength to coins and other alloys'.
In Cebuano, tumbaga is defined as 'brass' and in Kapampangan as 'bronze' with the additional information, 'like copper, but harder'. In Tagalog Noceda simply defines the term as 'a common native metal'.
Prakrit, in Blust, is defined as a vernacular language which derived from classical Sanskrit, although this is not a universally accepted definition. Both this definition and a second possibility are discussed in the Encyclopaedia Britannica where Prakrit is seen alternatively as a vernacular form of language in contrast to the classical Sanskrit. This second position is stated even more clearly in Charles Allen's Ashoka, The Search for India's Lost Emperor. Here Prakrit, meaning 'ordinary', refers to a group of Indo-Iranian spoken languages which gave rise to the more restricted classical languages, both Pali and Sanskrit.
A metal related to copper, but not of the same quality, is talsíˈ. Lisboa gives no more information about this, and the term is not used in modern Bikol.
In Malay kalung is an item of jewellery, most commonly a chain or ring, and here referring to a metal band. Kaki gives us the meaning 'foot'. In other words, kalung kaki is an 'anklet', which, we might assume, was made most commonly from brass. Gangsa is defined in Kamus Dewan as an alloy of copper and tin, in other words 'brass'.  Winstedt lists the longer form, tembaga gangsa, which is also defined as 'brass'.
gangsáˈ a metal like brass (typ‑) [MDL] [MALAY tembaga gangsa brass]
There is no summary description in the Lisboa Vocabulario of how ores were smelted or metals were forged. There are, however, enough individual terms to indicate that there were techniques employed for the extraction of metal and its subsequent working into tools and implements or items of adornment. The specific techniques for smelting have to be drawn from other examples available in the Philippines and nearby southeast Asia.
The smelting of iron, and possibly copper, is the most relevant to the Bikol region as there is little evidence that the extraction of lead or silver from their respective ores was common. First we will look at the smelting of iron and then copper.
There is a belt of iron deposits found in the foothills of the dividing range which runs most of the length of Luzon, and it is in the foothills to the west of this range where the smelting and subsequent forging of iron most commonly took place.
The following is a description of iron smelting at Angat, Bulacan, written by a French traveller in 1887, translated from the original French.
'The bellows which provides air to the furnace is a large hollow tree trunk, placed on a slight incline. It has two valves or nozzles which allow air to be continuously supplied to the furnace. The person in charge of working these nozzles holds the valve-stem and moves it first forward and then back for hours on end.'
In Borneo the furnace is cylindrical in form, one metre high with a circumference of three metres and constructed of yellow clay, although any material capable of retaining heat, such as brick, earth or stone, would serve the same purpose. Down the centre of the furnace is a shaft where the iron ore in a mixture with charcoal is placed. At the bottom of the shaft is the smelting hearth, the base of which is covered in a layer of powdered charcoal. A hollow is formed in the centre of this layer for the collection of the smelted iron, referred to as a 'bloom'. A bloom is a mixture of iron and some of its impurities which still remain, referred to as slag. The rest of the slag collects under this hollowed out section and is run off about every 20 minutes through a hole, semicircular in shape. Access to the smelted iron is via a tapping hole through the wall of the furnace which is closed by clay until the iron is ready to be removed. This occurs at the end of the day when the smelting process has finished and all of the fuel is burned.
Just above the base of the hearth, giving direct access to the fire, are three holes, each at the same level and close to one another. Each of these holes is fitted with a clay nozzle, or tuyere, about 25 centimetres long and narrowing as they extend into the furnace. Into these holes are inserted bamboo tubes about one metre long through which air can be forced by use of a bellows, creating the blast that is needed to raise the fire to a temperature needed for efficient smelting.
The hollow trunk of a small tree, about 1.5 metres long and 7 centimetres in diameter, closed at the bottom and open at the top, supplies the blast of air through the bamboo tubes. In this bellows there is a valve which is kept air-tight by the use of feather down. This is worked by hand.
That is all the information which is given about the bellows. Some of the remaining questions about how it might work may be answered by looking at the description of a similar bellows recorded by William Dampier during his seventeenth century visit to Mindanao.
The area visited by Dampier, judging by the coordinates he gives, was probably the location of the current Cotabato City. The bellows described is a wooden cylinder formed from the hollowed-out trunk of a tree approximately one metre in length, the bottom of which is open. Near the bottom of the cylinder is a small hole. The cylinder is placed on the ground near the fire and a pipe leading to the fire is attached to the hole near the base. A stick with its end covered in fine feathers is then pushed down the centre of the cylinder, driving the air out through the small hole, into the pipe and onto the fire. The feathers serve as a seal to prevent air from escaping back around the stick. A sketch of this same type of bellows used in Lanao, to the north of Cotabao City, may be seen in Maranao Traditional Brasscasting (also see Section 6).
Returning now to the ore, before it is smelted it is first roasted by placing it in a pile alternating with layers of wood. This pile is then set alight and allowed to burn for a day. The roasted ore is then broken up into nut-sized pieces and mixed with charcoal in a ratio of one to 10. It is now ready to be added to the furnace.
Prior to adding the ore, burning charcoal is first placed into the shaft in the furnace through the top. This is heated by a blast of air being forced into the furnace by the pipes connected to the bellows. When the charcoal begins to glow, the ore and charcoal mixture is added. After about two hours the ore has sunk to the bottom, at which point more ore and charcoal is added. This continues until the end of the day when the last addition of ore and charcoal has reached the bottom of the hearth.
The tapping hole at the bottom of the furnace is now opened and the iron is removed with a set of wooden tongs. This iron, sometimes referred to as 'sponge' is placed on a layer of fine bits of slag and then beaten smooth with hammers. The resulting iron, generally 20 kilos in weight, is then divided into ten parts and resmelted. This is necessary as the iron still contains a great deal of slag. It is only after several processes of resmelting that the resulting wrought iron can then be used.
It is not clear if copper smelting took place in Bikol. Santiago de Vera in his letter to Felipe II in 1597 writes that while copper was available, he could not find any local people who knew how it was smelted. Vera was writing about Lumban in the province of Laguna, not Bikol, but it is possible that people of the Bikol region also did not possess this technology. What was clear was that copper smelting in the Philippines took place primarily in the north of Luzon, in what is now Mountain Province, and was a technology possessed for centuries by the local inhabitants.
The smelting of copper, a long and time consuming process, is described in detail in a report by D. José María Santos written in 1861. It can be read in the original Spanish or in English translation.
To summarise, the first step in the extraction of copper-bearing ore is the application of heat. A fire is built on the floor of the mine which has the effect of heating both the walls and roof of the cavern. The heat produced drives off the water vapour, loosening the ore from the surrounding rock. The removal of the ore is further aided by tools specifically made for this purpose.
The preliminary sorting of the ore takes place in the mine. The ore which is not considered useable is discarded and allowed to build up on the base of the cavern, thereby raising the floor so that the flames, and, therefore, the heat of the next fire is brought closer to the roof
A secondary sorting also takes place at this time. The purer ore is removed and set aside for immediate smelting. The ore which is still embedded in a large amount of quartz is subjected to a long process of roasting whereby most of the sulfur, arsenic and antimony is removed, leaving a residue of copper and iron sulfate formed in globules around the remaining quartz.
The initial smelting process is applied to both the purer and roasted ores, and produces an impure matte comprising copper to about 50-60 percent and iron sulfide. This matte is again smelted to remove the impurities. The copper, now totalling 70-75 percent is removed from this second matte in thin crusts by the application of water sprinkled on the surface. This matte is layered between wood to prevent crumbling and is again roasted to remove impurities. The matte is now subjected to a third smelting resulting in a metal of 94 percent refined copper. This final smelting process can be adjusted depending on how the copper is to be used. For copper intended for pipes or cooking utensils, the amount of charcoal is reduced and the quantity of air increased as the smelting comes to an end causing further oxidation of the carbon in the copper.
Charcoal was the fuel of furnaces and forges. There were specific types of wood chosen to be converted into charcoal depending on the type of heat required and the cleanness with which it would burn. A description in 1887 of the manufacture of charcoal in Angat, Bulacan would not be dissimilar to processes found elsewhere around the world 400 years ago. The primary aim of this and similar processes would be to drive the moisture out of the wood without allowing it to become hot enough to combust, hence the covering of the wood with soil to deprive it of oxygen.
húpot charcoal (typ‑ of poor quality which adheres to iron which is being forged); MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to adhere to iron (such charcoal) [MDL]
bunglíw tree (typ‑ the wood producing a charcoal used by goldsmiths when refining gold; Polyscias nodosa [MDL]
tubóˈ-túboˈ tree (typ‑ used by blacksmiths and goldsmiths for making charcoal; Antidesma ghaesembilla) [MDL]
salinggúgon tree (typ‑ possessing a wood used by blacksmiths and silversmiths for making charcoal; Cratoxylum formosum) [MDL]
The fire (kaláyo) was a central feature of the forge, the area where ores would be refined and metals heated, later to be worked into various tools and implements. Since charcoal was the main fuel of the forge, a wood-fueled fire would presumably have been fed and stoked (gátong) until the charcoal was fully lit, the wood then being reduced to glowing embers (bága). The burning charcoal could be used in place, or moved to an adjacent area where refining was to take place.
gátong MAG‑, I‑ to add fuel; MAG‑, ‑AN to stoke a fire; to add fuel to a fire; to feed a fire; PANG‑ fuel; PARA‑ stoker, furnace tender [+MDL: MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to feed a fire; MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to add fuel to a fire; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to raise the heat for s/t that is cooking by adding fuel to a fire]
bága embers; MAG‑ to smolder [+MDL: MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to reduce fuel to hot embers; ... ]
The second container is a sarapáˈ which is a part or fragment of an urn or pot which holds the coals. The implication in the entry is that this was not the primary function of the pot or urn, but a use to which it was put when it could no longer serve its initial purpose.
dapóg hearth, a place for cooking; kitchen [+MDL: PARA‑: paradápog or TAGÁ‑: tagadápog cook]
sarapáˈ part or fragment of an urn or pot serving as a brazier for goldsmiths; (fig‑) Garó ka na naglulútong sarapáˈ It is like you are cooking on a sarapáˈ (Said when one's hair is very matted or disheveled) [MDL]
Some indication that a larger fire area existed may be inferred from an entry such as híbong, referring to volcanic rock or stone placed in front of the bellows and used to retain and reflect the heat generated by the coals of the fire. There would have been little room for such rock in the braziers described above.
A hand fan (kabkáb) would have served as a rudimentary tool to raise the heat of a fire, but as more heat from a hotter fire was required, the smiths would have turned to more sophisticated mechanisms.
kawáyan bamboo [+MDL: karó-kawáyan bamboo-like reed; small bamboo]
tayhóp length of bamboo, used to direct air to a fire; MA‑, I‑ or MAG, IPAG‑ to use a bamboo tube for this purpose; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to fan a fire in this way [MDL]
hános bamboo tubes which reach up to the rocks surrounding the fire in a forge, used by blacksmiths as an extension to the bellows [MDL]
Refining took place in crucibles where the metal to be treated was melted down. In Bikol there is no unique word for crucible, with gagangbán (see gangób) referring in general to the forge as well as a crucible. The Kapampangan lila appears to refer uniquely to a crucible, while in Tagalog the same term can also mean 'fragments of pottery', perhaps indicating that use as a crucible was not its primary function. Tagalog, on the other hand, has lagángan defined as a crucible, whereas in Kapampangan this is a more general term also incorporating the concepts of 'brazier' and 'forge'. Tagalog and Hiligaynon both have sangagán (from sangág) with the meaning crucible, and in Bikol, while there is no noun form mentioned, the verb sangág indicates the place in which the purification of gold takes place, that is, a crucible.
sangág refined gold; MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑ ‑ON to refine or purify gold; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to purify gold in a crucible [MDL]
sugbá ... [+MDL: MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to roast s/t in a fire; to place gold in a forge; ‑ON: sinugbá roasted yams; anything roasted in a fire]
paspás MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to purify gold in a crucible; MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to remove the impurities in gold during the purification process [MDL]
lukát MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to remove or separate the fine quality gold called panikáˈ from the resins found within it by melting; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to refine such gold by removing its impurities [MDL]
hupáw MA‑ or MAG‑ to diminish, decrease (liquefied gold, metal when refined in a crucible or worked in a forge); (PAG‑)‑AN to remain after the refining process (gold, metal) [MDL]
The speed at which gold was liquefied gave some indication as to its quality. That which melted too quickly was considered a lower quality than that which took longer (luˈós). There was a reason for this. Twenty-four carat gold, for example, melts at a temperature of 1065°C while 18 carat gold melts at temperatures between 902°C and 988°C depending on the metals which are alloyed with it.
dalás MA‑ quick, referring to metal which liquefies quickly when heated, clouds which move quickly across the sky when driven by the wind; MA‑ or MAG‑ to liquefy quickly (metal when heated in a process of forming alloys with gold or silver) [MDL]
túlag MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to liquefy or melt together various kinds of metals or different qualities of gold [MDL]
húlog MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to mix high quality gold with that of a lower quality; MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to add lower quality gold to that of a higher quality [MDL]
sumbát MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to make a gold alloy consisting of equal parts of fine quality gold, brass and copper; an sinumbát the alloy resulting from this mixture [MDL]
kúlag small stick used to mix gold when it is liquefied; MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑ ‑ON to mix liquid gold with such a stick; (fig‑) to stir things up: Taˈ daw taˈ kinukúlag mo namán an daˈí nagiíwal? So why is it that you make trouble between people who are not quarreling? [MDL]
dugáng MA‑ or MAG‑ to cool and harden (metal after it has been liquefied) [MDL]
langsá MA‑ having a tinny or metallic taste; MAG‑ to develop this type of taste [MDL: MA‑ the smell of a crocodile when near; the smell of metal, brass; MA‑ or MAG‑ to become stronger (such a smell); (PAG‑)‑AN: to become aware of this smell (a person)]
Common to all of the central Philippine languages is the term pandáy, a term whose central meaning is 'craftsman' and one which applies equally to carpenters as well as blacksmiths, goldsmiths and silversmiths. It refers to one who is particularly good in a specific field of endeavour. Additionally, Bikol had the term laˈóg, which pertained to a silversmith who travelled from town to town in search of work, carrying his tools with him. While Lisboa quite specifically defines this person as a platero, it is likely that the reference is more general and includes those who also worked in gold and other forms of fabrication associated with jewellery.
laˈog a silversmith or jeweler who travels from town to town in search of work; MAG‑, PAG‑ ‑AN to travel to or stay in another town far from one's own (a silversmith, jeweler); MAG‑, IPAG‑ to carry one's tools when traveling from town to town [MDL]
datpót things which are required to complete a task (such as those needed by a carpenter to build a house or a blacksmith to forge metal); MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to be necessary to complete a task (as having a bolo when building a house) [MDL]
digmí burnishing iron made from wood or brass, used for polishing gold; MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to burnish gold with such an iron [MDL]
kátriˈ tin snips, metal cutters MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to cut metal with a tin snips; MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to cut s/t off with a tin snips; MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to use a tin snips for cutting metal [MDL]
sipít tongs, forceps, pincers; clips; chopsticks; MAG‑, ‑ON to pick s/t up with tongs, chopsticks; MAG‑, ‑AN to pick s/t up from somewhere; to clip s/t; to fasten s/t with a clothes pin,; PANG‑ clothes pin, clothes peg; tongs, forceps [+MDL: pincers, tongs such as that used by a blacksmith for grasping hot metal; MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to pick up s/t with pincers, tongs; to grasp a fruit on a tree with a forked stick]
Hardening and tempering are two different and, generally, sequential processes undertaken in the processing of steel. Steel is essentially an alloy of iron and carbon, and it is only steel with a higher concentration of carbon (1.2% for steel used in machine tools) that can be effectively hardened and tempered by heating. The iron produced by the early smelting techniques in the Philippines (see Section 3(i)) was wrought iron, and by definition, low in carbon, and so it is not known how effectively attempts at hardening and tempering by heating were.
Hardening had the effect of strengthening the steel, but at the same time making it more rigid and brittle and, therefore, susceptible to snapping or shattering. Tempering was a subsequent process whereby steel was toughened and made more malleable. Both of these processes were accomplished by heating the metal and cooling it, but at different temperatures and in different ways. Steel was hardened by heating it to a high degree and then cooling it quickly. It was tempered by heating it to a lower temperature and letting it slowly cool.
As an exact temperature was impossible to determine by early forging techniques, temperature was determined generally by the colour of the heated metal. Lisboa has entries indicating steel, in general, could be heated until it was white hot (see bága), and more specifically, the blade of a knife to the same degree (lásiˈ). The ends of metal tools and implements, such as prongs and forks, were also tempered by exposing them to heat (tútod).
lásiˈ MA‑ or MAG‑ to gleam, glow, radiate with light (the steel blade of a knife when heated white-hot) [MDL]
tútod MA‑, ‑AN: tutóran or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN: pagtutóran to temper the ends of metal implements, such as prongs and forks, by exposing them to fire; MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to apply the heat of a fire to such implements [MDL]
sagitsít a screeching sound; a hissing or fizzing sound; MAG‑ to screech; to fizz; to hiss (as when steam escapes or food cooks in a little water) [+MDL: the hissing sound when hot metal is placed into water; MA‑ or MAG‑ to make this sound]
sagutsót ... [MDL: hissing sound when hot metal is placed into water]
The hammer, dungsól, could be used generally, or more precisely, for the pounding of iron on an anvil, something which is specifically stated in the Spanish-Bikol section of Lisboa's Vocabulario. Such hammering did not just occur on a single occasion, but had to frequently be repeated (hundóg). There are also more specific entries referring to beating metal into a particular shape (bagasbás) and to beating it until it became thinner and wider (bugwáy), resulting in a thin sheet of metal such as that of tin, brass or gold (gahíˈ). It was also possible to make metals thinner and flatter by pressing (salsál).
hundóg MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to pound rice for the third time in a mortar; to pound metal for a third time in a forge [MDL]
bagasbás beaten down, battered: Bagasbás na an aaníhon The harvest is battered down (as by wind or other natural forces) [MDL: MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to beat metal into shape in a forge; to forge or burnish metal]
bugwáy MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to beat metal in a forge in order to make it wider and thinner [MDL]
gahíˈ thin sheet or leaf of tin, gold or brass; MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to beat metal into thin sheets [MDL]
salsál MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to thin or flatten out metal by pressing [MDL]
tuló three; ... [+MDL: ... tuló-tuló by threes or in groups of three; MAG to be three people pounding rice in one mortar or hammering one piece of metal in a forge]
apát-ápat MA‑, ‑AN to join with three other people to make four; MAG‑ to join together (four people to pound rice or hammer steel on an anvil); MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to pound rice, hammer steel (four people) [MDL]
buˈáy tartar; plaque, the yellowish substance that collects on the teeth; dross, the waste or impurities formed on the surface of metal when it is worked in a forge [+MDL búˈay]
lásik referring to small things which get propelled through the air for a short distance ... [+MDL: MA‑ or MAG‑ to fly off (as chips or splinters from wood that is being whittled, bits of metal when being hammered or worked); (PAG‑)‑AN or MA‑‑AN to be hit by s/t which flies off in this way; MAKA‑ to cause such chips or splinters to fly off; MAPA‑, PA‑‑ON to send chips, splinters, metal flying ...]
únoy describing s/t made from a single piece (such as a knife, the blade and handle of which are made from the same piece of metal); also describing a natural phenomenon that by chance serves a useful function (such as a tree growing across a river, thus serving as a bridge): únoy na tuytóyan a natural bridge; MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to make s/t from a single piece of material; (fig‑) si únoy na buˈót nin táwo inflexible; fixed in one's ways [MDL]
tikalá a metal ring used to fasten a handle to a knife blade; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to fasten a handle to a knife by means of a tikalá; MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to use such a ring for such fastening [MDL]
baybáy knife (typ‑ plated with steel after it has been forged); MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to plate a knife with steel; MA‑, I‑ or MA‑, IPAG‑ to place steel on a knife as plating [MDL]
A forged rod of heated steel would have been doubled over the existing iron blade to cover both the top and bottom parts of the cutting edge. An instrument referred to as a fuller, a piece of metal with a rounded or cylindrical nose on both the top and bottom parts, would then be placed over and under the edge and tapped with a hammer. The fuller would be moved at intervals through the whole length of the blade until the process of spreading the steel across the surface of the iron edge was completed. The result would be a knife with a cutting edge coated in a layer of steel, but with ridges left from the tapping. The blade would then be reheated in a forge and the edge ground to a smooth surface, perhaps by filing (balhág), or by use of an abrasive such as a pumice stone (búgaˈ) or sand placed on a flat stone surface (see Section 8). The final process would be the creation of a fine cutting edge (dagupdóp) which would have been accomplished by honing on a whetstone (táˈis). A similar process would no doubt have been employed on well-worn knives with many nicks or notches on the blade (ríbiˈ).
dagupdóp MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to put an edge on steel; to put a new edge on knives or weapons which have become dull; to sharpen knives or weapons to a new edge [MDL]
táˈis MAG‑, ‑ON to hone, grind or whet s/t; to sharpen a blade; MAG‑, ‑AN to sharpen s/t on or against s/t; ‑AN whetstone [+MDL: MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to grind s/t on a stone; to file recently completed gold chains to make the links even; to grind the teeth; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑ ‑AN to grind s/t on or against a whetstone; ‑AN: tataˈísan grinding stone, whetstone]
ríbiˈ describing a knife that has small nicks on its blade from long use or misuse; MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to place nicks or notches on a blade; MA‑ to develop such nicks (a knife) [MDL]
Tools and implements were primarily functional and it is doubtful that much time was spent on their embellishment or decoration. Knives and other bladed weapons, however, potentially available for use in combat (of which there were many occasions) were objects of pride. These were worked on and decorated to further reflect their status and value to the holder. A knife that was particularly treasured for its delicacy and beauty (hadáp) is one that would never be sold or traded.
rímot decoration or design made from lead, tin or another metal on the haft or handle of a lance or other weapons; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to decorate a haft or handle in this way; MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to use lead or tin for such decoration [MDL]
lákip MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to plate s/t; to cover s/t with a thin film of gold (such as the scabbard of the dagger called baladáw); MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to use s/t for plating (a finer or more delicate metal such as gold) [MDL]
baladáw dagger (typ‑); MAG‑ or ‑ON to be armed with a dagger; to be carrying a dagger; MA‑, ‑AN to arm s/o with a dagger; MA‑, I‑ to place a dagger in one's waistband; MANG‑, PANG‑‑ON to kill s/o with a dagger [MDL]
Historically there were two techniques used to apply gold leaf. Water gilding is the more labour intensive and delicate of the two, and it is doubtful that it would have been used on an item exposed to rough use such as a scabbard. In the second technique, oil gilding, the surface material, such as wood, is prepared with a varnish or sizing (hipóˈ). As this dries and becomes tacky, the gold leaf is pressed onto the surface and smoothed out. Once dry the gold leaf can be treated with a clear coat of varnish for further protection.
amás a measure of gold, equivalent to 1/16 of a tael; a mace of gold; KA‑ a measure of 1 amas; 1 kaamás = 16 bangatí; 6 kaamás = 1 tigambalá; 16 kaamás = 1 baˈsíng [MDL] [MALAY emas gold]
hipóˈ paint, varnish; MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑ ‑ON to paint or varnish s/t; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to paint a particular part; MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to use a particular paint or varnish; PARA‑ painter, varnisher [MDL]
ludás MA‑ or MAG‑ to split, crack (poor quality gold when being thinned by hammering); (fig‑) Maludás nang gáyo ngápit an buˈót ni kuyán That person's character will eventually split apart (Said when one who appeared reformed, begins to show signs of reverting back to earlier and less acceptable behavior) [MDL]
gutáng cracks or splits which develop in gold which is being worked; MA‑ or MAG‑ to split or develop cracks (gold); (fig‑) si daˈí magutáng na buˈót nin táwo a reliable person (one with an unbreakable will); Magutáng nang gayód an buˈót kaiyán ngápit That person's demeanor will probably break at some time (Implying that any bad characteristics will eventually come out) [MDL]
lásag cracked or split (brass); MA‑ to crack, split (brass) [MDL]
There would have been any number of occasions when a tool, implement or weapon was in need of repair. Knives that had become rusty or discoloured near the haft or handle, or at the tip, could be reworked by adding a new layer of iron (húbong), or the pieces of broken knives could be rejoined making them useable once again (dampóg). Tupá referred to any implement, including knives, that had been reworked or refashioned.
dampóg MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to bring together the pieces of two broken knives in a forge to form one repaired knife; to forge the pieces of two broken knives to form one; MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to add the piece of one broken knife to another; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to join the piece of one broken knife with another; (fig‑) Harí daw akó dampogán ki kuyán Don't lump me in with that person or Don't look at me in the same light as that person [MDL]
tupá referring to a knife or tool of iron or steel which has been reworked or refashioned; MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to rework the iron or steel of a knife or tool [MDL]
For soldering, two types of solder (hínang) were used, either hard or soft depending on the melting point of the alloys involved. Alloys of lead, including lead and tin, would be considered soft, while those of brass or those containing silver would be considered hard. Soft solders have a melting point between 90ºC and 450ºC, with 180ºC to 190ºC being the most common range. Hard solders have a melting point above 450ºC.
Soldering is used to join metals which have a melting point above that of the solder, with soft solder generally reserved for metals which might be damaged by heat, such as items made predominately of lead. Hard soldering would be used on items of gold, copper, bronze and iron, among others.
Two alloys used for soldering are mentioned by Lisboa. The first, ampáy, refers either to an alloy of tin, used for soldering brass, or an alloy of copper used for soldering gold. The components of the second alloy, pidál, are not specified, but it is used for soldering brass or gold.
ampáy an alloy of tin used for soldering articles of brass, or an alloy of copper for soldering articles of gold [MDL]
pidál an alloy (mixture of metals) used for soldering gold or brass; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑ ‑AN to solder gold or brass; MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to use an alloy of metal for soldering [MDL]
Repairs made by fusion were of two types. The first was accomplished by burning or running together the two parts of a fracture. The two broken parts would be set in a clay mould and additional metal would be cast on to join them. For the second type, the ends of the two broken parts would be heated and then placed firmly together until they became fused. Risík refers to the heating of metal to the point where it can be soldered or welded.
Wire or threads of varying kinds of metal (náhot) would have been have been produced by passing the material through a metal die or block called babatákan (see bátak), ragpósan (see rapgós) or tutubísan (see tubís) possessing many fine holes. This would no doubt have been a repetitive process whereby the material was passed through dies with successively smaller holes until the required thickness was achieved. In the case of gold, extremely fine threads could be produced, so much so that they were described by Antonio Morga as resembling 'spun silk'.
rapgós MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to pull gold or copper threads through a metal block called babatákan or rapgósan in order to make them thinner; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑ ‑AN to pull such threads through such a block; ‑AN: rapgósan a metal block with many holes used for drawing gold or copper threads [MDL]
tubís fine threads of gold, other metals; MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to draw such threads; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to draw such threads from gold, other metals; ‑AN: tutubísan a block of metal with many small holes used for drawing out threads of gold, brass [MDL]
karót MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to scrape a wire made of copper or other metal with a knife to make it thinner; MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to scrape off filings in the process of thinning; (fig‑) Daˈí máyo nakadará si kuyán, mínsan garó kinarót lámang sa dágom That person has come back empty-handed, not even with the filings of a needle (copper filings) (Implying that the trip produced no benefit at all) [MDL]
There were many intricate designs fabricated with gold. Using the fine threads which were pressed or pulled through the dies, such gold could be spun to resemble a fishing net (hiníkot na buláwan, see híkot), and more commonly used in the making of various types of filigree.
butáng MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to filigree s/t with small particles of gold, silver or other metals; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to add such filigree to s/t, soldering it into place [MDL]
garíp a flat piece of gold to which the gold filigree called ráwa-ráwa is attached; MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to make such a piece of gold [MDL]
tinggál resin (typ‑ white, used by goldsmiths for affixing or attaching gold) [MDL]
púpod remnants, remaining pieces (of gold after completing a particular object; of wood after a house has burned); MA‑ to remain (gold, wood); MA, MA‑‑AN to remain from s/t; to be remnants of s/t; also see takás [MDL]
tayamutám MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to divide gold or silver into small pieces; MAGKA‑ to be in small pieces (gold or silver); (fig‑) Tayamutám na tumúyaw si kuyán That person has become annoyed at s/t [MDL]
búlo-búlo small container, somewhat like an inkstand, where one keeps small pieces of gold or silver [MDL]
taltál MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON ... to open a box where gold is stored; MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to use a key to open a box ... [MDL]
The story of metals and metal working in the Philippines at the turn of the sixteenth century could not be reconstructed from information found only within the Philippines, nor information recorded only during that century or the centuries before. There was just not sufficient data. The story constructed here uses available data found in the early dictionaries and accounts of those present in the Philippines at the time. It, however, also supplements this by using data relating to similar situations found in nearby geographical areas, and by descriptions of ancient technologies found in traditional cultures across the world and the centuries. Many of the techniques used by the blacksmith described here would still be used today.
The first section on gold, its types and attributes, attempts at deception in trade, quality testing, and aspects of mining was fairly well documented. There was also significant information on other metals, such as silver, lead and tin, iron, and copper, brass and bronze, but to make sense of the confusion in the use of some of these terms it was necessary to examine other, more modern, accounts where a cogent explanation could be found. While detailled information on the location of particular metals and minerals was available, nineteenth century accounts were able to make this information more specific and useable.
The details of smelting, both of iron and copper, had to be pieced together from a variety of geographical areas such as the northern Philippines, Mindanao and Borneo, and more modern accounts dating from the nineteenth century. Specifics of refining, particularly of gold, were almost completely missing and had to be reconstructed from descriptions of similar techniques used elsewhere in the ancient world. The same was true of the processes of tempering and hardening of iron and steel where detailled information from sixteenth and seventeenth century accounts was not available.
The common fuel of the furnace and forge was charcoal, and while there was adequate information in the Lisboa dictionary about the types of wood used, description of the actual process of making charcoal could only be found in documents published a number of centuries later. And details of the bellows, a tool so instrumental in the smelting and forging process, could only be pieced together by examining three different accounts as well as modern diagrams of traditional processes.
When it came to the repair of knives and tools, it was clear processes such as soldering and welding were in some way involved, but the specifics of how these techniques were applied, and which of the techniques were relevant, were missing. These were found in more general descriptions of such processes. The same was true of inlay and gilding, the decorative processes used on the hafts and sheaths of knives and other bladed weapons. Modern sources were also used to clarify fairly well documented processes such as the drawing of metal wires and threads, used so skillfully by the jeweller in creating filigreed ornaments of gold and silver.
 Danilo Madrid Gerona, From Epic to History: A Brief Introduction to Bicol History, Naga City, Philippines: Ateneo de Naga, 1988, p. 38.
 Miguel de Loarca, Relación de las Yslas Filipinas, in Blair and Robertson, vol. 5, pp. 34-187, p. 53.
 Juan de la Concepcion, Historia General de Philipinas, vols. 1-14, Manila: A. de la Rosa y Balagtas 1788; Sections have been reproduced in 'Recollect Missions,' in Blair and Robertson, vol. 41, pp. 236-272, pp. 241-242.
 'Early Franciscan Missions,' 1649, in Blair and Robertson, vol. 35, pp. 278-322, p. 300-301.
 Ignacio Francisco Alcina, History of the Bisayan People in the Philippine Islands, 1668, vols. 1 and 2, translated, edited and annotated by Cantius J. Kobak and Lucio Gutiérrez, Manila: UST Publishing House, 2002, vol. II, Chapter 12, pp. 231-233.
 'Carat (purity),' Wikipedia, English, n.d. (accessed 26 February 2014).
 Francisco de Sande, Relation and description of the Phelipinas islands, 1577, in Blair and Robertson, vol. 4, pp. 98-118, pp. 99-101.
 Hernando Riquel and Others, 'News from the Western Islands,' 1574, in Blair and Robertson, vol. 3, pp. 230-249, p. 243.
 See Chapter 8, 'Money, Weight and Measures'.
 'Ochre,' Wikipedia, English, n.d. (accessed 28 June 2014).
 Elmer Drew Merrill, An enumeration of Philippines flowering plants, Manila: Bureau of Printing, 1922, p. 83.
 See Marie Boas, Robert Boyle and Seventeenth Century Chemistry, Cambridge: The University Press, 1958, p. 128 for various acid techniques for determining the amount of gold or other minerals in an alloy.
 13 Hans Dietrich Disselhof and S. Linné, Ancient America: The civilizations of the New World, translated by Ann E. Keep, London: Methuen, 1961, p. 246; as cited in Ramon N. Villegas, Kayamanan: The Philippine Jewelry Tradition, Manila: The Central Bank of the Philippines, 1983, p. 72.
 George F. Becker, Report on the Geology of the Philippine Islands,' 1901, Washington: Government Printing Office; Extract from the 21st Annual Report of the US Geological Survey, Part III, p. 92-93.
 Juan Feliz de la Encarnacion. Diccionario español- bisaya, Manila: Imprenta de los amigos del pais, á cargo de M. Sanchez, 1852, see dolang.
 Antonio Sánchez de la Rosa, Diccionario español - bisaya para las provincias de Sámar y Leyte, 3rd edition, aumentado por Antonio Valeriano, Manila: Santos y Bermal, 1914, see dulang.
 Alonso de Mentrida, Diccionario de la lengua Bisaya, Hiliguena, y Haraya de la Isla de Panay, Manila: La Imprenta de D. Manuel y Felix Dayot, 1841, see dulang.
 Fr. Diego Bergaño, Vocabulario de la lengua Pampanga, en romance, 1732, Manila: Imprenta de Ramirez y Giraudier, Reimpreso 1860, see dulang.
 Juan José Noceda and Pedro de Sanlucar, Vocabulario de la lengua Tagala, 1753, Manila: Imprenta de Ramirez y Giraudier, Reimpreso 1860, see dolang.
 Becker, 'Report on the Geology of the Philippine Islands,' p. 94.
 Noceda and de Sanlucar, Tagala, see uagás.
 Sánchez de la Rosa, Sámar y Leyte, see uagas.
 Bergaño, Pampanga, see vagas.
 de Mentrida, Bisaya, Hiliguena, y Haraya, see vagas.
 Noceda and de Sanlucar, Tagala, see gilagila.
 'Cupellation,' Wikipedia, English, n.d. (accessed 28 June 2014).
 Becker, 'Report on the Geology of the Philippine Islands,' p. 104.
 de la Encarnacion. Bisaya, see pilac; Noceda and de Sanlucar, Tagala, see pilac.
 de Mentrida, Bisaya, Hiliguena, y Haraya, see pilac; Bergaño, Pampanga, see pilac.
 Sánchez de la Rosa, Sámar y Leyte, see salapi; also see Chapter 7, 'Money, Weights and Measures.'
 'Lead,' Wikipedia, English, n.d. (accessed 28 June 2014); R. J. Forbes, Studies in Ancient Technology, Leiden: EJ Brill, 1964, vol. 9, pp. 155-159.
 Noceda and de Sanlucar, Tagala, see hitam; de Mentrida, Bisaya, Hiliguena, y Haraya, see hitam; Sánchez de la Rosa, Sámar y Leyte, see hitam.
 R. O. Winstedt, Unabridged Malay-English Dictionary, Singapore: Kelly & Walsh Ltd, n.d., see hitam.
 Sánchez de la Rosa, Sámar y Leyte, see timga.
 de Mentrida, Bisaya, Hiliguena, y Haraya, see tinga.
 de la Encarnacion. Bisaya, see plomo.
 de la Encarnacion. Bisaya, see estaño; Lenny Pinches, personal communication, for the translation of Tombaga nga magahi gahi ug masinao sa tingga ug maingon ingon sa color sa salapi, 25 February 2014.
 Noceda and de Sanlucar, Tagala, see tingga, tinggahitam, tinggaputi.
 Bergaño, Pampanga, see tingga, laton.
 Report of the Philippine Commission to the President, vol. III, Washington: Government Printing Office, 1901, p. 236.
 Becker, 'Report on the Geology of the Philippine Islands,' pp. 105-106.
 Guía Oficial de las Islas Filipinas para 1898, publicada por la secretaría del Goberno General de Filipinas, Manila, 1898, pp. 1144 and appendices; 'Reino Mineral,' pp. 124-131, as cited in George F. Becker, 'Report on the Geology of the Philippine Islands,' p. 106.
 de Mentrida, Bisaya, Hiliguena, y Haraya, see lansang.
 de la Encarnacion. Bisaya, see lansang.
 See Chapter 3, 'Christianity'.
 See Chapter 7, 'Money, Weights and Measures'.
 Noceda and de Sanlucar, Tagala, see lantay.
 Winstedt, Unabridged Malay-English Dictionary, see lantai; Kamus Dewan. Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka, 1994, see lantai or besi.
 Becker, 'Report on the Geology of the Philippine Islands,' pp. 102-103.
 de Morga, Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas, 1609, in Blair and Robertson, vols. 15 and 16; vol. 16, pp. 101-102; 'Early Franciscan Missions,' 1649, in Blair and Robertson, vol. 35, p. 301.
 Becker, 'Report on the Geology of the Philippine Islands,' p. 98.
 52 'Brass,' Wikipedia, English, n.d. (accessed 30 April 2014); 'Bronze,' Wikipedia, English, n.d. (accessed 30 April 2014); 'Latten,' Wikipedia, English, n.d. (accessed 30 April 2014).
 Becker, 'Report on the Geology of the Philippine Islands,' p. 92.
 'Resume of Contemporaneous Documents, 1559-68,' in Blair and Robertson, vol 2, pp. 77-160, pp. 116, 142; 'Relation of the Voyage to the Philippines, M. L. de Legazpi,' Cebu, 1565, in Blair and Robertson, vol 2, pp. 196-219, p. 207.
 'Letter to Felipe II of Spain from M.L. de Legazpi,' Cebu, 1567, in Blair and Robertson, vol. 2, pp. 234 -239, p. 238.
 de Mentrida, Bisaya, Hiliguena, y Haraya, see tumbaga.
 Sánchez de la Rosa, Sámar y Leyte, see tumbaga.
 de la Encarnacion. Bisaya, see tombaga.
 Bergaño, Pampanga, see tumbaga.
 Noceda and de Sanlucar, Tagala, see tumbaga.
 Winstedt, Unabridged Malay-English Dictionary, see tembaga; Kamus Dewan, see tembaga.
 Spoken Sanskrit Dictionary (accessed 30 April 2014).
 Robert Blust, 'Tumbaga in Southeast Asia and South America,' Anthropos, Bd 87, H 4/6, 1992, pp. 443-457, p. 449.
 'Prakrit Languages,' Encyclopaedia Britannica (accessed 30 April 2014).
 Charles Allen, Ashoka, The Search for India's Lost Emperor, London: Abacus, 2012; Notes, p. 426; for those interested in pursuing the subject further, the following article may also be of interest: Walter Petersen, Vedic, Sanskrit and Prakrit, Journal of the American Oriental Society, vol. 32, No. 4, December 1912, pp. 414-428.
 Noceda and de Sanlucar, Tagala, see tanso, tangso.
 Bergaño, Pampanga, see tangso.
 Sánchez de la Rosa, Sámar y Leyte, see calongaqui.
 de la Encarnacion. Bisaya, see calonggaqui.
 Also see Chapter 8, 'Jewellery and Body Ornamentation.'
 Kamus Dewan, see gangsa.
 Winstedt, Unabridged Malay-English Dictionary, see tembaga gangsa.
 Becker, 'Report on the Geology of the Philippine Islands,' p. 105.
 Alfred Marche, Luçon et Palaouan: Six années de voyage aux Philippines, Paris: Librarie Hachette, 1887; p. 85.
 Becker, 'Report on the Geology of the Philippine Islands,' pp. 106-107.
 Theodor Posewitz, Borneo, its geology and mineral resources, translated from the German by Fredrick H. Hatch, London: Stanford, 1892, p. 433.
 Forbes, Studies in Ancient Technology, vol. 6, pp. 74-86, discusses different types of ancient furnaces and blast mechanisms; 'Bloomery,' Wikipedia, English, n.d. (accessed 20 April 2014), has general information on the construction and function of a bloomery; and James M. Swank, History of the Manufacture of Iron in all Ages, and particularly in the United States from Colonial Times to 1891, Philadelphia: The American Iron and Steel Association, 1892, Chapter VII: Early Process in the Manufacture of Iron and Steel, p. 65-79, has a chapter devoted to iron smelting in Asia.
 William Dampier, London, 1697, 'Dampier in the Philippines,' from A New Voyage Round the World, in Blair and Robertson, vol. 38, pp. 241-286 and vol. 39, pp. 21-121; Chapter 12, p. 30.
 Dampier, 'Dampier in the Philippines,' p.26.
 Dionisio G. Orellana and Efren V. Endriga, Maranao traditional brasscasting, Tibanga, Iligan City, Philippines: Coordination Center for Research and Development, MSU-Iligan Institute of Technology, 1982, pp. 15, 43.
 Santiago de Vera, 'Letter to Felipe II', Manila, June 26, 1597, in Blair and Robertson, vol. 6, pp. 297-310, p. 301.
 D. José María Santos, Informe sobre las minas de cobre de las Rancherías de Mancayan, Suyuc, Bumucun y Agbao en el distrito de Lepanto, Isla de Luzón de las Filipinas, 1861, Manila: Imprenta de Ramírez y Giraudier, pp. 9-11 (PDF pp. 18-20) (accessed 30 April 2014).
 Becker, 'Report on the Geology of the Philippine Islands,' pp. 101-103.
 Marche, Luçon et Palaouan: Six années de voyage aux Philippines, p. 85.
 Elmer Drew Merrill, A Review of the Identifications of the Species Described in Blanco's Flora de Filipinas, Manila: Bureau of Public Printing, 1905, p. 51.
 E. W. M. Verheij and R. E.Coronel, Plant Resources of South-East Asia 2: Edible fruits and nuts, third impression, Bogor, Indonesia: Prosea Foundation, 1999, Prosea 2; p. 317, as cited in Asean Tropical Plant Database,' identified as Bikol on the website Globinmed: Global Information Hub on Integrated Medicine.
 I. Soerianegara, and R.H.M.J. Lemmens, (Editors), Plant Resources of South-East Asia, No. 5(1), Timber trees: Major commercial timbers, Pudoc, Wageningen, the Netherlands, 1994, pp. 149-150, as cited in Asean Tropical Plant Database.
 Winstedt, Unabridged Malay-English Dictionary, see dapor; Kamus Dewan, see dapur.
 Orellana and Endriga, Maranao traditional brasscasting, pp. 15, 42.
 Bergaño, Pampanga, see lila, lagángan; Noceda and de Sanlucar, Tagala, see líla, laganán, sangág; de Mentrida, Bisaya, Hiliguena, y Haraya, see sángag.
 Forbes, Studies in Ancient Technology, vol. 8, pp. 172-173; 'Cupellation,' Wikipedia, English, n.d. (accessed 28 June 2014).
 Hauser and Miller, Specific Gravity and Melting Point (accessed 30 April 2014).
 Forbes, Studies in Ancient Technology, vol. 8, p. 134.
 de la Encarnacion. Bisaya, see payá; de Mentrida, Bisaya, Hiliguena, y Haraya, see payá; Sánchez de la Rosa, Sámar y Leyte, see paya.
 Sánchez de la Rosa, Sámar y Leyte, see sudo.
 de la Encarnacion. Bisaya, see boga; de Mentrida, Bisaya, Hiliguena, y Haraya, see buga, or boga; Sánchez de la Rosa, Sámar y Leyte, see buga; Noceda and de Sanlucar, Tagala, see buga; Bergaño, Pampanga, see buga.
 Sánchez de la Rosa, Sámar y Leyte, see catli; de la Encarnacion. Bisaya, see catli.
 de la Encarnacion. Bisaya, see landasan; de Mentrida, Bisaya, Hiliguena, y Haraya, see landasan; Sánchez de la Rosa, Sámar y Leyte, see landasan.
 Noceda and de Sanlucar, Tagala, see palihan; Bergaño, Pampanga, see palihan.
 Hardening and Tempering, (accessed 20 April 2014); 'Machine Tools,' Encyclopaedia Britannica, (accessed 20 April 2014).
 'Tempering (metallurgy),' Wikipedia, English, n.d. (accessed 30 April 2014).
 The Barbarian Keep: The Riddle of Steel (accessed 30 April 2014); Forbes, Studies in Ancient Technology, vol. 9, pp. 198-199.
 'Plating,' Wikipedia, English, n.d. (accessed 30 April 2014).
 Forbes, Studies in Ancient Technology, vol. 8, p. 142; 'Fuller (metalworking)', Wikipedia, English, n.d. (accessed 15 May 2014).
 See Chapter 1, 'War and Conflict.,
 Forbes, Studies in Ancient Technology, vol. 8, p 140.
 Noceda and de Sanlucar, Tagala, see salong.
 Kamus Dewan, see sarung.
 'Gilding,' Wikipedia, English, n.d. (accessed 15 June 2014).
 Forbes, Studies in Ancient Technology, vol. 8, p. 137; 'Solder,' Wikipedia, English, n.d. (accessed 30 May 2014).
 Forbes, Studies in Ancient Technology, vol. 8, p. 137.
 Forbes, Studies in Ancient Technology, vol. 8, p. 138.
 Forbes, Studies in Ancient Technology, vol. 8, p. 139.
 de Morga, Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas, in Blair and Robertson, vol. 16, p. 76, Note 49: Morga's original Spanish text has the words cera hilada which translates as 'spun wax' (Antonio de Morga, Sucessos de las Islas Filipinas, Edición crítica y comentada y estudio preliminar de Francisca Perujo, Mexico: Fondo de Cultura Económica, 2007, p. 221). As the note in the English translation included in Blair and Robertson indicates, this is assumed to be an error, either by the copier or the printer, and the intended text should have been seda hilada 'spun silk'.
 'Wire Drawing,' Wikipedia, English, n.d. (accessed 15 June 2014).
 See Chapter 8, 'Jewellery and Body Ornamentation.'
 'Filigree,' Wikipedia, English, n.d. (accessed 15 June 2014).
 de Mentrida, Bisaya, Hiliguena, y Haraya, see laua, laua-laua.
 Sánchez de la Rosa, Sámar y Leyte, see laua.