Intersections: Gender and Sexuality in Asia and the Pacific
Monograph 1: The Philippines at the Turn of the Sixteenth Century
Malcolm W Mintz
HEALTH AND PERSONAL HYGIENE
This is a chapter which examines health and personal hygiene practices. Bathing, which was almost a daily ritual, is discussed in Section 1 and includes various references made by the early visitors and residents. 'The Call of Nature', the euphemistic title of Section 2, examines various toileting practices and how some of these related to polite behaviour. What to do about head and body lice is the topic of Section 3 and presented here are some of the implements used to search for and remove lice. In Section 4 on oral hygiene, the discussion focuses on ways of sweetening the breath, brushing and cleaning the teeth, and dealing with transitory and chronic problems associated with the mouth and lips.
The eyes and ears are discussed in Section 5. Specific mention is made of cleaning the ears and some of the medical problems which could occur if the ears were to become infected. Deafness of varying degrees and the development of what appears to be a sign language is also mentioned. As for the eyes, these have natural ways of cleaning themselves, and this is discussed along with problems such as styes, cataracts and partial and complete blindness.
The hands and feet are the topic of Section 6, and examined here are problems associated with disability, skin diseases, as well as calluses and blisters. Section 7 includes a long discussion on the treatment of abscesses, boils and ulcers, distinguishing among these conditions and looking at some of the plants which were used to aid healing. Wounds of various types and from various causes are discussed in Section 8 which includes treatments to relieve pain and prevent infection.
In Section 9 is an examination of medicines and medicinal plants, and Section 10 a discussion of medical implements, basically the cupping glass. With Section 11 begins a general discussion of sickness, including contagious diseases many of which led to epidemics devastating not only families, but whole towns and districts. The course of an illness, the symptoms, effects, care and recovery, or otherwise, are examined in Sections 12 and 13. Section 14 presents a variety of other ailments, from stroke to the common cold.
Bathing was a ritual that was noted and commented on by most of the Europeans residing or recording events in the Philippines in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Morga mentions that, regardless of age or gender, Filipinos washed and refreshed themselves daily in creeks and rivers, a practice which started from the time they were born. Women bathed immediately after they gave birth and bathing of the infant also took place as soon as it emerged from the womb.
In modern Bikol, the baby's bath can be scented with leaves of the kadlóm (Pogestemon cablin, Patchouli), a plant of varying height to one metre and native to a number of Philippine provinces, including Camarines. While a number of parts of the plant are used for medicinal purposes, namely the leaves, flower spikes and roots, it is the fragrant leaves which are used in the bath. Lisboa does not record this usage, simply identifying the kadlóm as a sweet-smelling.
Sinibaldo de Mas in his annotations to Gaspar de San Agustin's Conquistas de las Islas Philipinas, mentions that men and women took daily baths and bathed discretely together. The women entered the water wearing a tápis which was wrapped around the body and tied or held over the bosom. This was later removed once in the water so they could wash themselves. The men came into the water shirtless and wearing wide, loose pants.
There were precautions that could be taken to preserve one's modesty, such as covering one's private parts with a cloth and holding it in place with the hand (tagpón). Nevertheless, there would have been occasions when someone would be seen naked, something made all the more probable if the intent was deliberate (bála). These entries need not refer specifically to an occasion when bathing, but bathing certainly gives rise to a time when such voyeurism could occur.
bála MAKA‑, MA‑ to inadvertently see a person's private parts; MA‑‑AN to be seen in this state (a person); MAHING‑, HING‑‑ON or MAGHING‑, PAGHING‑‑ON to put o/s in a position so as to be able to see s/o's private parts; MAHING‑, HING‑‑AN or MAGHING‑, PAGHING‑‑ON to peep or peek at s/o for this purpose; (fig‑) to catch s/o off guard: Pinaghihimaláhan ka bagá giráray ni kuyán That person is always looking to see when you make a mistake [MDL]
Waray uses the same set as Bikol, with rígos also having the fuller definition. For Hiligaynon there are three sets, each with an alternate: digo ~ digos, rigo ~ rigos, ligo ~ ligos, for Cebuano there is digos ~ digo and ligos ~ ligo with digo the more complete entry, and for Tagalog there is simply lígo.
rígos MAGKA‑ or MA‑ to bathe; to take a bath; MAGPA‑, PA‑‑ON to bathe s/o [+MDL: MA‑ or MAPA‑ or MAGPA‑ to bathe o/s; MA‑, ‑ON or MAPA‑, PA‑‑ON or MAGPA‑, PAGPA‑‑ON to bathe s/o; to wash s/t off when bathing; MA‑, ‑AN or MAPA‑, PA‑‑AN or MAGPA‑, PAGPA‑ ‑AN to bathe in a particular place (such as a river) (Note: the forms with KA‑ are used in Quipayó and those with PA‑ are used elsewhere)]
damóy MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PA‑‑AN to wash a part of the body smeared with soot or grime; MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to wash off soot or grime; MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to use s/t for washing the body; MANG‑ to wash the face; to wash s/o or other parts of the body [MDL]
puraˈmós MA‑ or MAG‑ to wash one's face; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to wash s/o's face; MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to wash s/t off (as dirt from the face): Puraˈmosí akó Wash my face; MANG‑, PANG‑‑AN to wash one's own face; MANG‑, PANG‑‑ON to wash s/t off (as dirt from one's face); (fig‑) Maghahápon pagpupuraˈmós nin lúhaˈ si kuyán That person has been crying all day; syn‑ muraˈmós [MDL]
páhid MAG‑, ‑ON to wipe s/t off (as moisture from the body, dirt from the shoes); MAG‑, ‑AN to wipe (as the body with a towel, shoes at the door) [+MDL: MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to wipe s/t that is wet or dirty; MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to wipe off moisture or dirt]
damós MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to smear the face with s/t held in the hand; MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to smear s/t held in the hand on the face [MDL]
Individual terms referred specifically not only to washing the face, but also the hands and feet (hanáw), or just the feet (pamsáˈ). Chirino describes houses commonly having an urn of water at the door for use by both residents and visitors. They washed their feet before entering, rubbing one foot against the other to remove any mud that would have adhered on their barefoot journey to the house or through work in the fields. The excess water and mud which was removed would have just drained away through the slats of the floor.
pamsáˈ MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to wash s/o's feet; MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to remove mud or dirt when washing the feet; MANG‑ to wash one's own feet [MDL]
rupít MA‑ dirty; MA‑‑ON filthy, foul; marupíton na táwo a filthy person MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to dirty or foul s/t which is clean; MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to dirty with s/t; MA‑, MA‑‑AN to be nauseated, sickened by s/t that is filthy, foul; to turn up one's nose at s/t [MDL]
bagangbáng grime or dirt which has remained on the body for a number of days; MA‑ or MAG‑ to remain or accumulate on the body (dirt, grime); to be dirty with such grime (a person) [MDL]
laˈláˈ dirt in the creases of the skin (of the neck, arms, legs); MAG‑ to collect (such dirt); ‑ON to have this type of dirt (a person) [+MDL: laláˈ dirt found along the creases of the neck of sweaty children, appearing as a black line; MA‑ or MAG‑ to collect in the folds of skin (such dirt or grime); (PAG‑)‑ON to have such dirt or grime (a child); ‑AN: laláˈan one with such dirt or grime]
ugsóng dirt which appears when the skin is rubbed; scum; MA‑ describing one with such dirt; MAG‑ to become dirty in this way [+MDL: dirt found on the body, clothes; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to dirty s/t; MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to dirty with s/t]
raˈpít dirty, filthy; also describing s/o with food smeared on the face, particularly around the mouth; MAG‑ to be dirty; to have food smeared on the face [+MDL: Nagraˈpít na iníng áyam This dog is filthy; Nagraˈpít ka na You're filthy]
gúyit-gúyit trails of sweat which show in make-up or dirt on the face; moisture trails on a melon or through the ink of s/t written; MA‑ or MAG‑ to run in this way (sweat); MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to leave trails on s/t [MDL]
dúlas (PAG‑)‑ON to be bathed in sweat: Dinúlas na akó nin gangsáˈ I am bathed in sweat [MDL]
angsód underarm odor; MA‑ describing s/o with underarm odor [+MDL: ‑IMIN‑ to have such a smell (a person): Iminangsód ka doy You really smell]
baˈngóg the smell of mud containing rotted wood, leaves; (fig‑) the sweaty smell of small children; MAG‑ to develop this type of smell
símang animal feces, excrement; MA‑ or MAG‑ to defecate (animals) [MDL]
This section looks at some of the more undiscussed areas of personal hygiene; what was the protocol of going to the toilet to defecate or urinate and what was said about the inadvertent passing of wind.
Where did the early Bikolanos go to relieve themselves? There were any number of options. Houses had a hole in the floor (lawá) through which residents could urinate or defecate. It is not clear from the entry in Lisboa exactly when this hole would have been used. With the availability of other options for relieving oneself, in the scrub or thickets found behind houses or at the edge of town (líbod), or even the river, it is possible that it would have been used at night when one might have been afraid to leave the confines of the house, or at times when one was ill. Dampier mentions that for homes in the area of Mindanao he visited, such a hole was used by the ill, with others using the river to relieve themselves. 
líbod backyard; the open area to the rear of a house [MDL: scrub or thickets found around towns or behind houses; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to relieve o/s in such an area]
líhoˈ MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to squat or position o/s over a hole or latrine when defecating or relieving o/s [MDL]
banglág a log or length of bamboo which one crouches down on when going to the toilet, defecating; also ‑AN: babanglágan [MDL]
salangpáˈ feces which remain at the edge of the hole or on the floor of a house after defecating; MA‑ to remain after defecating (feces); MA‑‑AN to be marked by feces after defecating (the rim of a latrine, the floor); MAPA‑, PA‑‑ON to leave traces of feces; MAPA‑, PA‑‑AN to leave traces of feces on the floor or on the rim of a latrine; var‑ salampáˈ [MDL]
abót (PAG‑)‑ON to be unable to go to the latrine or to a place where one is provided, and so be forced to take care of ones needs along the road [MDL]
sadóp to go into the forest; sadóp MA‑ or MAG‑ to go to relieve o/s; to go to defecate (polite usage); ‑AN: sasadopán a place where one goes to relieve o/s [MDL]
gílid edge, margin, perimeter, rim ... [+MDL: bank of a river; edge, perimeter; sa gílid nin dágat the edge of the sea, the seashore; MAPA‑ to go the edge; MAPA‑, PA‑‑ON to go to look for s/t at the edge or perimeter]
nanggílid MANG‑ to ease or relieve oneself; to say one has to relieve o/s; used in polite conversation to mean 'to defecate'; MANG‑, PANG‑‑AN to relieve o/s in a particular area [MDL]
ímil feces which one washes away when cleaning the bottom after defecating [MDL]
íwang MAG‑, ‑ON to wipe oneself after defecating; PANG‑ that which is used for wiping; toilet paper [+MDL: cloth or leaves used for wiping o/s after defecating; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to wipe s/o's behind (as that of a child); MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to wipe off feces; MANG‑ to wipe one's own behind; MANG‑, PANG‑‑ON to wipe off feces when cleaning one's behind]
iród MA‑ or MAG‑ to clean o/s with a stick after defecating (when nothing else is available); MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to clean away feces with a stick after defecating [MDL]
siból MAG‑, ‑ON to disturb or startle s/o (usually by doing or saying s/t crude); MAKA‑, MA‑ to be startled into inaction (often when urinating or defecating) [+MDL: MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑ ‑ON to startle s/o, causing them to stop what they are doing; to suddenly awaken s/o; to disturb a chicken in a nest before it has laid an egg; MA‑ to be suddenly awakened; to be startled into inaction (one who is working, a thief about to steal s/t, a chicken about to lay an egg); MAKA‑ to be startling; to create a disturbance]
súbak MAG‑, ‑ON to startle or disturb s/o by saying s/t crude; MAKA‑, MA‑ to be startled into inaction, often when defecating or urinating
daˈgós MAG‑ to groan under a strain, often associated with the strain of defecating when constipated [+MDL: MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to push forcefully (a woman giving birth, a constipated person when defecating)
igít MAG‑ to defecate bit by bit [MDL: bowel movement of a small child, an infant; MAG‑ defecate (a small child, infant)]
What must have been a severe form of diarrhea is listed by Lisboa as bulóng which he attributes to the eating of something unusual. Such diarrhea can result in extreme dehydration which can be a cause of death. It is hard to speculate further from the information provided in the entry about what the underlying cause of such diarrhea might have been.
irís watery diarrhea; MA‑ or MAG‑ to have diarrhea [MDL]
tabigíˈ tree (typ‑ small, the fruits and seeds of which may be used to stop diarrhea and the bark used to make an astringent; Zylocarpus granatum) [MDL: taˈbigíˈ tree (typ‑ possessing a good quality wood)]
bulóng MA‑ to have diarrhea, sometimes resulting in death; MAKA‑ to cause such diarrhea (as a type of food which is not usually eaten) [MDL]
Wind or gas (suˈdól) is produced in the stomach as part of the normal process of digestion, and when the build-up is sufficient, such wind escapes (atót). At times when one has a particularly bad stomach, expressed figuratively in the entry suknít, such escaped wind or gas could carry with it an offensive smell (batáˈ).
atót MAG‑ to break or pass wind; to fart; also MAKAPA‑, MAPA‑ [+MDL: MA‑ or MAG‑ to fart; MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to let out a sound when breaking wind; MAGKA‑ to inadvertently break wind]
suknít MA‑ wood which is difficult to split due to having a twisted grain: Abóng suknít kainí What a difficult piece of wood this is to split (due to its twisted grain); (fig‑) Si masuknít nin buˈót na táwo si kuyán What a bad stomach (digestive system) that person has [MDL]
batáˈ MA‑ describing a bad smell; foul, putrid, rank, stinking, having a stench; MAG‑ to develop a bad smell; to reek [+MDL: MA‑ smell of s/t rotten or dead; MA‑ or MAG‑ to grow stronger (such a smell); MA‑ to have such a smell; ‑IMIN‑: Minatáˈ na It really smells; Minatáˈ na kitá There is a real smell about us (Said in annoyance when someone has farted)]
pagarít sound of air forced through the lips; a raspberry; also a fart; MA‑ or MAG‑ to make this sound; to break wind, fart; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to direct this sound toward s/o [MDL]
parák-parák a booming sound such as that of thunder; MA‑ or MAG‑ to make such a sound; to have thunder and lightning; (PAG‑)‑AN to be affected by such a sound; Harí ka dihán sa pantáw; parák-parakán ka Get off the porch; you'll be struck by lightning; (fig‑) Síˈisay iyán parák-parák na? Who is making that thundering noise? (Said when one defecates with a lot of wind) [MDL]
Urine and the act of urinating is íhiˈ, a term commonly used by both men and women. Women, however, also had another term, ásaw, which was available to them, and not to men.
ásaw urine; MA‑ or MAG‑ to urinate (used only by women); both men and women use íhiˈ; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to urinate in a particular place [MDL]
muˈsón MANG‑ to urinate, a term commonly used in polite conversation by women; PANG‑ urination [MDL]
kuból MA‑ hard (water chestnuts, rice): Makuból iníng apúlid This water chestnut is hard; MA‑ or MAG‑ to become hard; (fig‑) Nakuból na iníng sakóng pamumuˈsónon Said in polite conversation by a woman who is urinating [MDL]
The entry wigwíg clearly refers to men, and so may the entry tagróˈ which is a problem men might have suffered from if they had an enlarged prostate. One of the modern slang words for urinating is tiˈrís which during Lisboa's time referred to the peeing of a cat.
tagróˈ MA‑ or MAG‑ to have difficulty urinating, the urine coming out in drops [MDL]
tiˈrís (sl‑) MAG‑ to urinate; to piss, pee (humans) [MDL: tirís MA‑ or MAG‑ to urinate (a cat); MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to urinate on s/t]
basáng describing s/t unthought out or unplanned; impromptu, impulsive, spontaneous... [+MDL: basáng lámang describing s/t which has no value or s/t which happened without being planned ...; MA‑, -ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to do s/t without thought or consideration; to mistreat or injure s/o without reason; to be rude, disrespectful: ... Nabasáng ka lámang na imíhiˈ dihán sa dálan What a rude thing you're doing, urinating by the road; MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑to do s/t without rhyme or reason; to do s/t unexpected; MANG‑, MANG‑‑AN to do s/t in vain; to do s/t which doesn't produce the desired result; MAKA‑, IKA‑ to do s/t impulsively]
taruˈpák senseless; rude, disrespectful; used in place of basáng ... when annoyed or angry; MA‑ to do s/t without rhyme or reason; to do s/t unexpected (and not appreciated); to do s/t rude or disrespectful: Nataruˈpák ka lámang na umíhiˈ dihán sa dálan What a rude thing you are doing, urinating by the road [MDL]
paˈrát MA‑ describing a strong smell of urine; MAG‑ to develop this smell [+MDL: parát MA‑ strong smell of old urine, stronger than pangsóˈ; ‑IMIN‑: Minarát na The urine really smells]
ludáˈ spit; to spit (said when annoyed or angry, used in place of lútab): Kíˈisay namán iníng ludáˈ digdí? Whose spit is this here? [MDL]
The head louse, Pediculus capitis, is a small (2.5-3.5 mm), blood-sucking insect which has only one host, humans. The claws on each of its six legs allow it to hold firmly onto the strands of hair. It is also capable of moving quickly across the scalp. The mature and immature lice, referred to as nymphs, feed on the blood drawn from the surface of the scalp.
Each louse can lay up to eight eggs a day, referred to as nits, enabling it to produce a substantial number of eggs during the span of its life, generally one month. The eggs are attached firmly to the base of the hair shaft near the scalp, and grow out with the growing of the hair.
Lice may be present in the hair for quite some time before one becomes aware they are there, and awareness generally comes due to the irritation caused by the their blood-sucking behaviour. The scalp becomes itchy and the person begins to scratch. Visually both the lice and their eggs attached to the hair can be seen when the hair is closely examined.
The hair louse in Bikol is kúto, a term which is shared not only among the central Philippines languages, but closely cognate forms are found throughout the Austronesian language family.
The immature lice, the nymphs, those which have recently hatched, are kuyumád in Bikol and recognisable cognate forms are also found in a number of the other central Philippine languages; Kapampangan, kumad,  Hiligaynon, kuyumar, and Cebuano, kuyamak. Modern Tagalog has a listing identical to that of Bikol, kuyumád, although this term does not appear in Noceda.
Luˈsá are the nits or eggs of a louse in Bikol. Tagalog has the cognate form, lisá in addition to an unrelated form, kupi  and Kapampangan the same form showing metaheisis, lias. The cognate form in Waray, Cebuano and Hiligaynon is lusa.
kuyumád tiny, young lice; ‑ON one having such lice; ‑ON or MA‑ to have such lice [+MDL]
luˈsá nit, the egg of a louse; ‑ON: luˈsáhon describing s/o with nits; ‑ON or MA‑ to have nits [+MDL: MA‑ one with nits]
dakí dandruff; ‑ON or MA‑ ‑ON a person with dandruff [MDL]
sukáy MAG‑ to part the hair, usually by using the fingers; MAG‑, ‑ON to search for s/t on the scalp by parting the hair [+MDL: MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to part or separate s/t, as grass with the hands, a stick; to part the hair with the hands to look for lice; MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑ ‑ON to look for s/t in the grass; to look for lice in the hair; (fig‑) Tará nakasukáy ka You have met your match; Tará nasukayán ka na kaiyán nin si pagrírong mo You have been caught out by your lie]
húgot MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to remove or pick things out with the fingers (as lice from the hair, grains of rice from the spike or head); MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to remove lice from the hair or grains from a spike [MDL]
tadós MAG‑, ‑ON to crush s/t with a fingernail [MDL: MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to crush lice with a fingernail; MA‑, ‑AN: tadsán or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN: pagtadsán to crush lice against s/t; (fig‑) Si makuríng kabaˈsógan ni kuyán, katadsán na nin túma an tulák That person is so full, body lice can be crushed against his stomach]
libgáw lice which remain in the hair after cleaning [MDL]
This section examines a number of issues which relate to the breath, teeth, mouth and lips. Included is not only a discussion of hygiene, but also a discussion of some of the conditions affecting these areas of the body.
Bad breath (áhaw) can have any number of origins, the sinuses, throat, stomach, esophagus and lungs, for example, but in the vast majority of cases the origin is bacteria in the mouth, located primarily at the back of the tongue (dílaˈ) or below the gumline (tatakdán nin ngípon, see ngípon). Having bad breath is usually something you have to discover for yourself, as sharing that type of information is generally considered impolite. What was considered polite at the turn of the sixteenth century in the Philippines is hard to know, but Lisboa does include one example where this information in conveyed by comparing the breath to the smell, most likely sour, given off by tubáˈ (the sap of the coconut, nípaˈ, or similar palm trees used in making vinegar or a liquor of the same name) when collected from bamboo containers attached to coconut or nipaˈ palms (haˈgós).
dílaˈ tongue; MAG‑, ‑AN to lick s/t; MAG‑, ‑ON to lick s/t off [+MDL: MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to lick s/t; MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to lick s/t off; to lap s/t up with the tongue; (fig‑) Uyá sa puró kan dílaˈ It's there on the tip of my tongue; diláˈ-dílaˈ MA‑ or MAG‑ to flick the tongue back and forth (like a snake or lizard)]
ngípon tooth, teeth; ‑ON: ngingipónon describing s/o with large or prominent teeth; MAGKA‑ to teethe; tutukdán nin ngípon gums; sockets in the upper and lower jaw into which the teeth fit; ... [+MDL: tatakdán nin ngípon or tutudkán kan ngípon sockets in the upper or lower jaw into which the teeth fit]
haˈgós MAG‑, ‑ON to collect tubáˈ; MAG‑, ‑AN to collect tubáˈ from a particular palm; MAG‑, I‑ to use a particular container for collecting tubáˈ [+MDL: hagós MA‑, ‑ON to collect tubáˈ; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to collect tubáˈ that has run from a particular palm; MANG‑, PANG‑‑ON to steal tubáˈ from the place where it collects; to collect the tubáˈ (the owner); (fig‑) Garó na ing hahagosán iníng hangáw mo Your breath smells like tubáˈ when it is collected (Said to s/o with bad breath)]
Whatever precautions were taken, carries did occur and needed to be attended to. Children could have rotting teeth, rubrób, a term which in modern Bikol refers to the decaying teeth of adults as well, or the teeth of adults could rot at the base, gúˈod. Additionally, a tooth could get knocked out, or fall out, an occurrence affecting both the young, with the loss of baby teeth, and the old (típoˈ). Rotting teeth would at some point be accompanied by a toothache and while we might assume that there would be any number of plant extracts capable of relieving the pain, I have not been able to find any references in Lisboa. A 1650 citation for Mindoro, however, does mention that the spine or barb at the tail of a stingray, removed when the fish is still alive, and rubbed against the teeth would bring relief.
gúˈod rotten at the base (posts in the ground, teeth); MA‑ to rot at the base; MA‑‑AN: maguˈóran to have rotten teeth (a person); to have one's posts rot at the base (an owner); (fig‑) Anó iníng garó ka na ing gúˈod What is this; it's like you are a rotting post (Said when approaching s/o who remains seated) [MDL]
típoˈ MAG‑, ‑ON to knock out a tooth or teeth; MAKA‑, MA‑ to get a tooth knocked out; MA‑ ‑AN to lose a tooth; IKA‑ to cause a tooth to fall out [+MDL: MANG‑ to lose one's teeth (one who is old, or one who is young when losing their baby teeth): Naninípoˈ na iníng ákiˈ This child is losing her baby teeth]
galhóˈ food which gets caught between the teeth; (PAG‑)‑ON or (PAG‑)‑AN to be dirty with particles of food (the teeth); I(PAG)‑ to be caught between the teeth (particles of food); MANGHING‑, PANGHING‑‑ON to remove particles of food from between the teeth; MANGHING‑, PANGHING‑‑AN to clean the teeth of particles of food; MANGHING‑, IPANGHING‑ to use s/t for the removal of particles of food (such as a toothpick); HING‑: higalhóˈ toothpick [MDL]
sipák MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to split off a tiny piece of wood or bamboo (as for use as a toothpick); MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to split off such a sliver from s/t; (fig‑) sipák na buˈót nin táwo disobedient; a person who does not do what he or she is told [MDL]
Ordinary cleaning would be done with a brush made from hog's bristles, kikhíˈ, an entry which also has reference to the removal of a reddish discolouration from between the teeth, no doubt caused by the chewing of betel nut. The teeth would be brushed to remove any particles of food, and rubbed to remove any unwanted stains (hínis, hishís). Teeth which were very black would need to be scoured (lítik).
hínis MAG‑, ‑AN to brush the teeth; MAG‑, ‑ON to clean the teeth of food particles [+MDL: MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to clean the teeth; to clean weapons by rubbing off rust or dirt with an abrasive such as iron fillings; MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to remove particles of food when cleaning the teeth; to remove rust or dirt when cleaning weapons; MANG‑ to clean weapons in this way on a regular basis]
hishís MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to clean arms, tools, the teeth; MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑ ‑ON to clean arms or tools of rust, dirt; to clean the teeth of food particles, stains [MDL]
lítik MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to scour or clean teeth which are very black: Garó na doy lítik iyán ngípon ni kuyán That person's teeth look like they need cleaning (Said when one's teeth are very black) [MDL]
Individuals could also develop health problems with the mouth (ngúsoˈ) and lips. In modern Bikol, ngábil refers to both the upper and lower lips, although the distinction found in old Bikol is also maintained, where ngábil can refer to just the lower lip when in comparison to ngímot which is the upper lip.
ngábil lips; lower lip [+MDL]
ngímot upper lip [+MDL: ‑ON: ngingimóton one with a prominent upper lip]
siwáng describing a person with a harelip or one with the front teeth missing; MAKA‑, MA‑‑AN to have a harelip or be missing one's front teeth [MDL]
This section looks not only at the care of the eyes and ears, but of some of the problems which might affect them, either occurring by accident, or due to congenital abnormalities.
Cleaning the ears (talínga) of wax would have formed part of the ritual of personal hygiene. Earwax (tulí) forms naturally in the ear canal, its presence serving to help lubricate the canal and protect the ear by forming a barrier against insects, water and bacteria. Earwax, however, can build up in the canal and, in addition to causing discomfort, can compact and press against the eardrum affecting the hearing. Such earwax would have to be removed.
tulí ear wax; MAGHING‑, HING‑‑ON to clean wax from the ears; MAGHING‑, HING‑‑AN to clean the ears of wax; PANGHING‑ cotton buds, Q-tips; anything used in cleaning wax from the ears [+MDL: MAHING‑, HING‑‑ON or MAGHING‑, PAGHING‑‑ON to clean wax from the ears; MAHING‑, HING‑‑AN or MAGHING‑, PAGHING‑‑AN to clean the ears of wax; (fig‑) Nakuˈán na kitá nin tulí The wax has been removed from our ears (Said when one hears a loud noise nearby)]
tingóg MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to puncture an eardrum (one who is cleaning his ears with a small stick who gets his arm accidentally knocked); to hurt the ears in this way; also MAKA‑, MA‑ [MDL]
Benign positional vertigo is a condition which has a number of symptoms, among them dizziness and loss of balance. Fluid in the tubes of the inner ear serve to tell the brain the exact position of the body. When small bits of calcium break off from the bone and float in the tube, the message sent to the brain is confused resulting in a spinning sensation and loss of balance. This may be the condition referred to in the Lisboa entry.
patíng somewhat deaf, hard of hearing; deaf in one ear; also: s/o who has trouble keeping their balance; MA‑ to be hard of hearing; ‑ON: patíng-patingón one who is partially deaf [MDL]
palbá sign language, the signs or gestures used when speaking to the deaf; also: to speak or write using code; MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑ ‑ON to speak with signs, gestures or images; to write using shorthand or symbols; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to gesture or speak in this way to s/o; MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to form signs or make gestures with the hand [MDL]
The eyes (matá) have ways of protecting themselves. Tears are produced from the tear glands located above each eye. This salty liquid runs down over the eye and is distributed over the surface by the action of blinking, serving to lubricate the eye while removing any dust or dirt. The tears then drain away into the nasal cavity.
mugháˈ MAG‑ to have eyes which are tearing; IPAG‑ to cause the eyes to tear; Nagmugháˈ akó kainíng asó My eyes are tearing because of the smoke [MDL]
muháˈ-muháˈ MA‑ or MAG‑ to feel as if s/t such as dirt, dust, water or smoke has gotten into or near the eyes, and show this by shaking the head, blinking or rubbing the eyes with the hand to clean MAG‑, ‑ON to throw dirt, dust in s/o's eye; MAKA‑ to fall into the eye (dirt, dust, cinders); MA‑ t them; I(PAG)‑ to affect the eyes in this way (dust, water, smoke) [MDL]
púling to have s/t caught in the eye [+MDL: MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON / MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to throw dirt in the eyes; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to introduce dirt, dust into the eye; MA‑‑AN to have s/t fall into the eyes; (fig‑) Aanhón ko iníng garó na ing púling? What am I going to do with the thing that is like dust in the eye? (Said when one is given s/t very small); Kadaˈí mo napupúling kaiyán, pinaggáyo na an saímong túgang Something insignificant happens to you, and you treat your family like that (Implying: very badly)]
baringkás sticky, mucus-like substance exuded from the eye [MDL]
butíng thin film over the eye [MDL]
Lisboa has a number of entries dealing with trauma to the eyes, having them poked or, more extremely, gouged out. Sulát, is one such entry, as are the related entries hulwát and luwát.
There are enough entry pairs in the Vocabulario, many of them still used in modern Bikol, which provide evidence for the existence of a fossilised prefix of the form hu- for which a unified meaning is particularly hard to determine. It can be seen clearly in the pair of entries presented above where, after affixation, the unstressed vowel in the root is deleted resulting in a form following the dominant disyllabic pattern of the language: hu- + luwát → huluwát → hulwát.
hulwát MAG‑ to bulge (eyes); MAG‑, ‑ON to poke or gouge out the eyes; MAKA‑, MA‑ to get one's eyes poked out [MDL: MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to poke out the eyes; to remove a stopper or plug; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to remove a stopper or plug from a container; to poke out s/o's eyes]
luwát MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to gouge out the eyes; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to gouge out s/o's eyes [MDL]
búˈaw MA‑ to have failing eyesight; to be going blind; KA‑: Kabúˈaw kainí, daˈí ka na nakakakítaˈ kaiyán How blind you must be not to see that [MDL]
mamanók‑ON describing s/o who is night-blind or one who has poor night vision; ‑ON to be night-blind [+MDL: (PAG‑)‑ON to be unable to see at night (and so be like fowl)]
manók chicken, fowl; ‑ON: manokón an matá describing eyes that stare somewhat cross-eyed [+MDL: MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to give a chicken in tribute; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to pay such a tribute to s/o; KA‑‑AN: kamanokán a great number of chickens]
buldíng describing s/o blind in one eye; MAG‑, ‑ON to blind s/o in one eye; MAKA‑, MA‑ to be blinded in one eye
hárap describing someone blind, but with the eyes open; MAKA‑, MA‑ to become blind in this way [+MDL] [MDL 1865: nearsighted, shortsighted]
The hands and arms (kamót, takyág) and legs and feet (bitís), the most used and exposed parts of the body, were susceptible to a number of disorders and injuries which could severely restrict movement and impede the execution of ordinary tasks.
takyág arm, sleeve; MAG‑, ‑AN to place a sleeve on an item of clothing [+MDL: MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to place an arm on a statue or figure; to place a sleeve on clothing]
bitís foot; MAG‑ to walk barefoot; ...[+MDL: feet of a person, an animal, a bench or chair; MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to make s/t with feet (like a bench); MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to place feet on s/t (like a bench, a table); MAHING‑‑AN to have one's legs begin to give way: Nahimitisán na akó pagapód-apód saímo My legs have almost given way walking around calling you]
Of the problems which affected the hands, karumkóm describes what must have been a severe case of arthritis in which use of the hands was extremely restricted.
The cognate form, tibak, is found in Hiligaynon and Waray. The non-reduplicated form in Bikol, tibák, with final stress and a meaning referring to unevenly woven cloth or twisted rope, appears to be unrelated.
bambán wild grass (typ‑ Schizostachyum bamban, used in making baskets and the framework of straw hats); MANG‑, PANG‑‑ON to collect such wild grass from the forest [+MDL]
kulátid muscle cramp (such as that which one feels when unable to extend a limb due to tensing of the muscle); also refers to the tensing of muscles in the neck and throat of s/o very ill, and the straining associated with defecating or urinating when experiencing some difficulty; MA‑ or MAG‑ to be cramped (a muscle); (PAG‑) ‑AN to have a muscle cramp (a person) [MDL]
The shortness of one leg compared to the other could also be commented on by drawing comparisons to other objects which were unequal in length, even though the intention was to have them paired and equal. (binhít, kunhós).
kunhós too short (so as not to reach a desired length or not be able to form a matching pair); MA‑ or MAG‑ to be too short; to have one leg shorter than the other; MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to shorten one thing but not the other (resulting in things of unequal length or things that can no longer be a matching pair); MAPA‑ to have s/t cut too short ... [MDL]
How these disabled states were arrived at is not made clear by Lisboa, and it is doubtful that a modern lexicographer would have mentioned the causes either. Clearly those who spent their lives tending fields, building houses and boats, raising livestock and engaging in what often appeared to be periods of intense conflict could have easily sustained injuries at some time in their lives leading to an inability to have complete use of their arms and legs.
bulíd MA‑ to be paralyzed or deformed to the extent that one is unable to get up from bed or move about; (fig‑) Bulíd-bulíd ka na Said when s/o tosses and turns in bed or rushes about [MDL]
pílay crippled, disabled, lame, maimed; a cripple; MAG‑, ‑ON to cripple, disable or maim s/o; MA‑ to get crippled, maimed; to go lame; MA‑‑AN to suffer an infirmity; MAKA‑ to cause s/o to become crippled, lame [+MDL: MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to make s/o lame; to cripple s/o; piláy-pílay MAG‑ to feign lameness]
The hands and feet also suffered from a number of skin ailments, many of which also affect other parts of the body. Perhaps the most common of these was the fungus infection athlete's foot, alipóng, which, if left untreated, could serve as an entry to the body of the streptococcal bacteria which normally live on the skin. Untreated cuts and bruises could also lead to the same types of infections, the most serious of which was erysipelas, amutól.
Erysipelas is a disease of the upper layers of the skin closely related to cellulitis which affects the lower layers. The infected area becomes red and swollen and feels hot to the touch. More systemic effects are fever and chills. In the modern world where the disease is relatively rare, sufferers would be treated with penicillin. For the Philippines at the turn of the sixteenth century, this was not an option, and recovery would only come after a period of rest with the leg raised as long as possible to reduce the swelling and relieve the pain. If erysipelas remained untreated, it could lead to the death of healthy tissue and the subsequent loss of fingers or toes, mutól. Encarnacion in his Cebuano dictionary even defines amumutol as a type of leprosy.
amutól erysipelas, an acute disease of the skin and subcutaneous tissue caused by a streptococcus and marked by spreading inflammation; affects the hands and feet and may lead to loss of fingers and toes; MAKA‑ to cause such a disease; (PAG‑)‑ON: to suffer from erysipelas; ‑ON: amutlón one suffering from erysipelas [MDL]
mutól MA‑ to lose one's toes and fingers (a person suffering from the disease erysipelas); MAKA‑ to cause such an illness; also see putól [MDL]
There were particular changes which occurred to the root when -um- was used. One of these changes occurred when it was affixed to roots beginning with 'b' or 'p' (see Section 2(ii) for an explanation): -um- + putól → pumutól → mutól.
As for the noun amutól 'erysipelas', there is also some evidence that a prefix of the form aN-, fossilised even during Lisboa's time, could be affixed to roots commonly serving as verbs to produce nouns which in some way incorporated the central meaning of the root. In this case, it was a disease which could lead to the loss or severing of fingers or toes: aN- + putól → amputól → amutól. The linguistic processes at work here are assimilation and deletion.
The central meaning of the word, bakás, itself is probably the more general 'trace', 'vestige' or 'marking' which it caries in Tagalog and Kapampangan, in cognate form in Malay, bekas, and in Bikol where the homonym refers to the marking left by the high tide or the high water mark of a river.
In the modern world, such an infection is treated effectively by the application of antifungal creams or the ingestion of antifungal tablets. Early Bikolanos would have had to rely on a natural remedy, and one of these was application of the sap of the paˈítan (Lunasia amara) a forest plant growing to three metres whose leaves, bark and seeds also have other medicinal uses.
The 1865 edition of the Lisboa also identifies another plant useful in treating ringworm. This entry is not found in the 1754 edition, and the description in the entry does not appear to be fully accurate. Sources refer to pangíˈ not as a plant possessing a number of smaller off-shoots, as described, but as a large forest tree to 25 metres growing, on Luzon, in the provinces of Camarines and Sorsogon. Any number of parts of the tree have medicinal properties, in particular the seeds and leaves, but there is no specific mention of the treatment of ringworm.
paˈítan plant (typ‑ Lunasia amara, the sap of which is used to treat ringworm) [MDL]
pangíˈ plant (typ‑ producing a number of smaller off-shoots, possessing a bean-like seed used in treating ringworm) [MDL 1865]
The palms of the hands and the soles of the feet, develop calluses over time as the body seeks to protect what was originally thinner and more delicate skin by a gradual thickening. Repeated friction or pressure over a long period of time will usually lead to the formation of calluses. A more extreme form of rubbing or friction which occurs on a single occasion over a short period of time tends to lead to blisters rather than the formation of calluses. There has been some change over time in the terms referring to blisters and calluses in Bikol.
A callus in modern Bikol is kubál which in old Bikol referred only to the skin on the palms of the hands and soles of the feet. Skin on the rest of the body was kublít in old Bikol, whereas it refers to all areas of skin in the modern language. As for a callus in old Bikol, the term was lapák a term which in modern Bikol means 'blister'. Old Bikol has lútok for a blister or a pimple.
kublít skin, scalp [MDL: skin everywhere on the body except the soles of the feet and the palms of the hands which is called kubál; after the skin is removed from an animal it is called ánit]
lapák a blister; IGWÁ or MAY / ‑AN or MA‑‑AN to have a blister; MAG‑ to develop a blister (the foot, hand); MAKA‑ to cause a blister to form [MDL: a callus on the hands or feet; (PAG‑)‑AN to have a callus (a person, a part of the body; MAKA‑ to cause a callus to form; ‑AN: lapakan s/o with a callus]
lútok blister or pimple which has not yet burst [MDL]
The hands, too, whether it was the hands of a farmer, smithy, carpenter, fisherman or those of any other person carrying out the myriad tasks required for day to day living, would toughen. Over the months and years the bottoms of the feet and palms of the hands would develop hard, thick calluses which served as protection, that is, until they began to split.
labót aperture, cavity, hole, pit; mesh (referring to the holes); IGWÁ or MAY to have a hole; MAG‑ to open out into a hole; MAG‑, ‑ON or MANG‑, PANG‑‑ON to make a hole; MAG‑, ‑AN or MANG‑, PANG‑‑AN to make a hole in s/t; to bore; to punch (as a ticket by a bus conductor); MAKA‑, MA‑ to get a hole (as 'be accidentally torn') [+MDL: MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to make a hole in s/t; KA‑‑AN a hole]
kikílay MA‑ or MAG‑ to limp in such a way that one foot is immediately lifted from the ground as if there were some wound or injury to the sole; MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to move the foot in this way [MDL]
Tahíg is the plant Homalomena philippinens found growing along lowland forest streams. Both the rhizomes and the leaves of the plant are used for medicinal purposes; the rhizomes made into a lineament and rubbed on the body to relieve pain, and the leaves placed in some form on open wounds to aid in healing. It is most likely that the leaves would have been used in the treatment of panlabót.
pató rice straw which is burned, the smoke being used to treat the condition panlabót which results from the splitting of calluses on the hands and feet; also used to treat circulatory conditions resulting in inflamation of the fingers or toes; MA‑ or MAG‑ to burn and smoke (such straw); MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to burn such straw; (PAG‑)‑AN to be exposed to such smoke (the hands, feet) [MDL]
tahíg plant (typ‑ like taro, used for treating ulcerations on the soles of the feet called panlabót [MDL]
kukukowán the place on the finger where the nail is located; (fig‑) Garó na pupukpók sa kukukowán It's like hitting yourself in the place where the fingernail should be (Said when one goes to do s/t but arrives without the necessary equipment, and as a result accomplishes nothing) [MDL]
hugák-hugák the growth of the fingernails or toenails [MDL]
kukód the nails or claws of animals such as the water buffalo, pig [MDL]
pálas MAG‑, ‑ON to cut the nails; MAG‑, ‑AN to cut s/o's nails [+MDL: MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑ ‑ON to cut the nails; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑ ‑AN to cut s/o's nails]
Abscesses, boils and ulcers are related conditions. In the discussion which follows an attempt is made to distinguish among these ailments, as well as identify the relevant terms included by Lisboa is his Vocabulario.
An abscess is a collection of pus which builds up within the body's tissues, generally resulting from an infection, most commonly that caused by staphylococcus bacteria. In the case of a boil (pigsá), also a type of abscess, it is the hair follicle which becomes infected. A sac which forms below the skin of the infected area gradually fills with an accumulation of pus and dead tissue, expanding and causing increasing pain and redness. As this accumulation increases, the mass becomes quite hard, kulábot (kurábot in modern Bikol). Bikolanos also believed that the hardness of the boil could be caused by treatment with particular herbs (baˈóg). Such infections may eventually resolve themselves, with the boil bursting open on its own (tadák) exuding pus and blood (hayháy) or the boil may need to be opened by lancing (tadók), allowing it to drain.
kulábot the hardened pus that forms in an abscess or boil; the root of an abscess or boil; var‑ kurábot [MDL]
baˈóg hard, referring to a boil or abscess one has tried to treat with various herbs; also taro which has been stored a long time after being harvested; MA‑ to grow hard (an abscess, taro) [MDL]
tadák MA‑ or MAG‑ to open or burst (a boil); MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to lance a boil; to open an abscess; Nagtadák na iníng pigsá This boil is ready to open; (fig‑) Nakatadák na si buˈót na maráˈot ni kuyán That person's bad character is about to be reveale d [MDL]
hayháy MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to exude pus or blood (a wound, abscess, boil) [MDL]
tabók MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to lance a boil; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to lance s/o's boil [MDL]
Pamílay comprises the instrumental prefix pang‑ and the root piláy 'lame, crippled' (see Section 6(i)), giving the underlying interpretation 'that which causes lameness', indicating, perhaps, the severity of ailment: pang‑ + piláy → pamílay. The assimilation of the final consonant of the prefix and the loss of the initial consonant of the root are to be expected, although the change of stress from final to penultimate position cannot be explained.
buswáng describing an abscess about to open or ulcerate; MA‑ or MAG‑ to develop in this way (an abscess); (PAG‑)‑AN an area of the body, or a person, with such developing abscesses [MDL]
nuˈnóˈ MAG‑ to run (the nose); Nagnunuˈnóˈ si siˈpón mo Your nose is running (lit: Your cold is running) [MDL: nunóˈ MA‑ or MAG‑ to weep, ooze (a sore, wound, ulcer); (PAG‑)‑AN to have such a wound, ulcer (a person); I(PAG)‑ to be exuded from a wound, ulcer (as pus)]
dánog liquid which flows from a sore, ulcer or wound; MA‑ or MAG‑ to flow (such liquid); (PAG‑)‑AN to exude such a liquid (a sore, ulcer wound) [MDL]
ukˈók ingrown; pulled in: ukˈók na kukó an ingrown toenail; MAG‑ to grow inward; to pull in the head or neck (as a chicken pulls in its neck) [MDL: MA‑ or MAG‑ to grow deeper (a hole, sore, wound); to sink deeper (a person, animal); MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to bore s/t out; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to burrow or bore into s/t (as a worm into wood); to sink deeper into s/t]
dangás MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to clean old sores, wounds or ulcers; MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to clean pus or other material from old sores, wounds or ulcers; MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to wash old wounds with s/t (as water) [MDL]
butí abscesses, tumors, pustules; ‑ON describing one with tumors, pustules; (PAG‑)‑ON to have tumors; the Spanish-Bikol section of the 1754 dictionary adds the meaning: venereal disease, syphilis [MDL]
liptók abscess, sore; IGWÁ or MAY to have an abscess; MAG‑ to develop (the abscess); ‑AN to have an abscess (a person) [MDL: blisters which appear on the skin and in the mouth when one has a fever; MA‑ or MAG‑ to develop (such blisters); (PAG‑)‑AN to have such (a person)]
ruríˈ describing s/o covered with sores or ulcers; MA‑ to suffer with one's body so covered with sores that one is unable to move; MA‑‑AN to be covered with sores (one's body); MAKA‑ to afflict s/o in this way (sores) [MDL]
luság old sores; also: sores which develop on the body due to unclean food which one has eaten; MA‑ or MAG‑ to develop (the sores); (PAG‑)‑AN to have such sores (a person or a part of the body); MAKA‑ to cause such sores (unclean food); (fig‑) Naluság namán si gáwiˈ mong maráˈot Your bad habits have again reappeared [MDL]
tibón MA‑ or MAG‑ to reopen (ulcers or wounds that have almost healed due to having eaten s/t harmful); I(PAG)‑ to cause such wounds to reopen; (PAG‑)‑AN to have one's ulcers, wounds reopen (a person); to break out again in ulcers, rashes; (fig‑) Natibón bagá an saíyang gáwing maráˈot His bad ways have returned or He has fallen back on his bad ways [MDL]
dapóg MAG‑, ‑ON to place a plaster of leaves or herbs on a sore or wound; MAG‑, ‑AN to place such a plaster on a part of the body; dapóg na dáhon a plaster of leaves placed on the body to relieve pain, fever [+MDL: MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑ ‑AN to place a plaster of herbs on a part of the body; MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to treat a sore or wound with a plaster of herbs]
manaba tree (typ‑ used in the treatment of sores) [MDL]
díta tree (typ‑ possessing a sap said to aid in the healing of sores and wounds; Alstonia scholaris) [+MDL: ditá]
tublíˈ a climbing vine (typ‑ possessing roots which produce a substance useful in treating sores or wounds, or in poisoning fish; Derris elliptica) [+MDL: MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to kill fish with the extract from this plant's roots; MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to use this root for treating sores, poisoning fish; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to poison an area of water with this root]
The Bikol region at the turn of the sixteenth century was not a peaceful place. The continual raiding of neighbouring communities as well as external raids in the search for wealth and slaves meant that conflict was an inevitable outcome of indeterminate periods of peace. Wounds from lances, knives and arrows would have been inflicted on the combatants with varying degrees of severity and these would have had to be treated and healed if the person were to survive. Added to this were the unavoidable accidents experienced by farmers working with their tools in the field, blacksmiths at the forge, and by those in charge of running the household and caring for the animals.
Wounds (lúgad) were referred to by their severity. They could be superficial, just grazing the skin and removing very little flesh (lukdáp), shallow and wide or long (ugíhap), or deep and penetrating, such as that caused by a weapon such as a knife or arow (ratóm).
lukdáp MA‑ or MAG‑ to have a superficial wound; MAKA‑, MA‑ to wound s/o superficially, removing only a small amount of flesh or skin; MAKA‑, MA‑‑AN to wound a particular part of the body in this way [MDL]
ugíhap a sore or wound (typ‑ shallow and wide or long); MA‑ or MAG‑ to widen or lengthen (such a wound); (PAG‑)‑AN to have such a sore or wound (a person) [MDL]
ratóm MA‑ to be deep (a wound); MAKA‑ to inflict a deep, penetrating wound (weapons); MA‑‑AN to be deeply wounded (a person) [MDL]
hurát MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to open or enlarge a wound with the hands; to stretch out a cloth; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to open or enlarge s/o's wound; MA‑ to be distended, stretched [MDL]
bukadkád MAG‑ to become ulcerated (a wound): Nagbukadkád na doy iníng kalugádan mo Your wound is really ulcerated [MDL]
sinák MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to sound a body of water; to look for the deepest parts of a river or the sea; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to find the deepest part in a particular area of river or the sea; MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to probe with s/t attempting to find the deepest part, or to find out if s/t is deep; also: MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑ ‑ON to probe a wound to see if it is deep: Sinaká daw iyán kalugádan kon harárom Probe that wound to see if it is deep [MDL]
puˈót MAG‑, ‑ON to stifle, smother or choke s/o; MAKA‑, MA‑ to be choked or smothered [MDL: MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to stop the flow of blood or tears; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to stem the flow of blood from a wound; to dry the eyes; MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to apply s/t to stem the flow of blood; MAKA‑, MA‑ to stop flowing (blood); to dry (one's tears); to stop crying]
pulpól plaster, bandage; covering placed on a cut or wound; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to place a plaster on a cut or wound; to bandage s/t; MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to use s/t as a plaster or bandage; (fig‑) Kapulpól mo doy! How deaf you are (Meaning: Your ears must be covered with a plaster) [MDL]
takpó l a patch; a bandage; MAG‑, ‑AN to patch s/t; to patch s/t up; to bandage s/t [+MDL: also: a cover, lid, plug, stopper; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to plug or cover a hole; to cover a wound with a bandage]
siból (arc‑) an ancient belief that it is forbidden to enter a house where a wounded person is being treated [MDL]
suríp infected, inflamed (a wound); MAKA‑, MA‑ to become infected, inflamed [+MDL: MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to enter a wound, causing it to become inflamed (water)]
rará MA‑ poisonous; MAG‑ to become infected with poison (a wound); ‑AN to be poisoned (a person); MAGPA‑, PA‑‑ON to make poison from s/t [+MDL: rára MA‑ inflamed, infected; poisonous, venomous; MA‑ or MAG‑ to become inflamed infected, septic (a wound); (PAG‑)‑AN to have an infected wound (a person); mararáng hálas a poisonous snake; Abóng raráng hálas idtó; daˈí máyoˈ na pabulóng That's a very poisonous snake; there is no antidote]
kulóg ache, pain, pang; ... MA‑ achy, aching, painful, sore; MAG‑ to ache, hurt, pain; MAG‑, ‑AN to harm s/o; to cause s/o pain; MA‑‑AN to feel pain; to be hurt or achy; to feel sore [MDL: MA‑ or MAG‑ to feel intense pain (such as that from the bite of venomous snake, or other bites which become infected); ‑ON to become infected and painful (bites); ‑AN to pain (a particular part of the body)]
nanayóp a sudden illness or fever caused by a wound, abscess or ulcer; MA‑ or MAG‑ to bring about such an illness (a wound); (PAG‑)‑AN or MA‑‑AN to suffer such a bout of illness or fever (a person) [MDL]
raˈró MA‑ or MAG‑ to be taken suddenly ill (due to a serious wound); also used as a curse: Naraˈró kang iyán I hope you die from that [MDL]
daldál (PAG‑)‑ON to suddenly fall ill (one who is wounded, due to the wounds becoming infected); MAKA‑ to cause such illness (an infection) [MDL]
pílaˈ a scar; MAG‑ to scab over (a wound); MA‑ to heal, knit, mend (a wound); MA‑‑AN to get a scar (a person); MAGPA‑, PA‑‑ON to aid the healing process; ‑AN: piniláˈan a scar [+MDL: MA‑ or MAG‑ to heal (a wound, leaving a scar); (PAG‑)‑AN to have a scar (a person or a part of the body]
rápoˈ MA‑ or MAG‑ to superficially heal (a wound, a fracture); (PAG‑)‑AN to have a wound heal superficially (still retaining foreign matter within it); to have a fracture superficially heal (a person) [MDL]
Medicines (bulóng) were generally derived from a wide variety of trees and plants, using the roots, flowers, stems, leaves and bark in various combinations to relieve pain, reduce inflamation and in general, aid in overall healing. At times, and with luck, a single medicine may have been sufficient to bring about a cure (bugtóng). Conversely, a number of medications administered simultaneously may have interacted negatively and due to their incompatibility, caused a deterioration in the patient's condition, resulting even in death (sánga).
bugtóng PA- medicines which, without any addition or admixture, are sufficient to bring about a cure; Pamugtóng na bulóng iní This medicine alone is enough to bring about a cure [MDL]
sánga MAGKA‑ to be incompatible (the medicines prescribed by different doctors, resulting in a deterioration in the patient's condition or death); PAGKA‑‑AN to be treated in this way (a patient); IPAGKA‑ to cause such a deterioration or death (incompatible medicines) [MDL]
tawák a charm which protects s/o from poison, or a poisonous snake bite; the charm is effected by pricking the person with an mixture of poisons called bulítan; MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑ ‑ON to treat s/o with an anti-venom in this way; MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to use this charm to protect s/o [MDL]
kalúnggay drumstick tree (typ‑ tree containing edible leaves and long, thin, edible seed pods; Moringa oleifera) [+MDL: kalúngay tree (typ‑ possessing high, delicate branches, and roots which are used as an antidote for poison; many line the streets of Quipayó and are referred to as 'from Ternate')]
madbád plant stalk (typ‑ bitter, serving as an anti-venom for snake bite and as treatment for stomachaches) [MDL]
bukábok plant (typ‑ similar to reed grasses, possessing a fruit which serves as an antidote when one has eaten the blowfish called butíti) [MDL]
tangán-tangán castor oil plant (typ‑ Ricinus communis) [+MDL: the leaves are used as a treatment or cure for a headache]
agpá plant (typ‑ delicate, eaten by men and women as an aphrodisiac); var‑ agpó [MDL]
What appears to be a prefix in Lisboa's entry is formed by a process which, when applied to verbs, shows what might be called mitigating action: an action which is not quite as deliberate as it would be if the affix were not used. Here, although we are dealing with nouns, not verbs, the meaning is similar: we have something that is similar to, though not quite identical to the unaffixed root.
There is another difference as well. The affix is normally formed by reduplication of the first consonant and vowel of the root into which is affixed the plural infix, an 'r' followed by a copy of the first vowel of the root, The prefix then should be bara-, but it is baro-, something which is true not only for this entry, but all of the other entries of this form as well. Why this is happening is not clear, although it may represent a type of dissimilation.
That still leaves us with trying to determine exactly what plant is being referred to. In Cebuano there is a plant, bagang (Phragmites vulgaris), which is an erect grass to 3.5 metres widely distributed throughout the Philippines. The roots and leaves are used for a large number of purposes, although specific use for nursing mothers is not mentioned. As for the addition of the -an suffix this is quite commonly used to show location, and in Bikol the original interpretation may have been 'an area of bágang grass'.
baˈgángan grass (typ‑ the roots of which may be processed into a tonic for nursing mothers)
lakád búlan scarlet sage (typ‑ medicinal plant) [+MDL]
lalantataˈón mulberry (typ‑ plant, medicinal); syn‑ lalagpakón [MDL]
langkáwas galangal (typ‑ plant in the ginger family, possessing roots used as a seasoning; Alpinia galanga) [+MDL: the roots are also medicinal]
There are only two implements which are mentioned by Lisboa; the syringe (singpít), which is now used for giving enemas, and during Lisboa's time was used to administer medicine, and the cupping glass.
The two implements used for cupping during Lisboa's time were the small glass imported from China, pinagatpát, and the tandók which was made from horn. This last term is found with the identical meaning in Kapampangan, in Tagalog where it is described as made from bamboo or horn  and in Waray where reference is to a cupping glass, a drinking glass, or a glass bell all used for the same medicinal purpose. The entry for Waray, as well, is extensive, describing not only the composition of the cupping glass, but its full application and use. The word, tandók, itself is most likely a borrowing from Malay where it does mean 'horn'. This meaning was clearly extended to other objects serving the same function in Tagalog and Waray. While tandók is still a term available for use in modern Bikol, the Spanish loan, realised as bintúsaˈ, is far more common, not only in Bikol, but throughout much of the Philippines.
tandók a cupping glass made from a horn [+MDL: MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to remove blood with a tandók; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to bleed s/o with a tandók; Pagpinghán mo an pagtandók mo sakóˈ Place a cupping glass on either side of me]
The cupping glass is then placed over the part of the body to be treated (súkob) and left there for as long as the treatment requires. In modern cupping techniques, this would be about 10 minutes. There is generally more than one cupping glass used at a time, and if this is done to excess, the patient may begin to feel some negative effects (taˈgán). The process is repeated as necessary to bring about relief or a cure.
haklóp MAG‑, ‑AN to cover a frame (as of a kite, lantern); to stretch s/t on a frame [MDL: a small leaf used for covering the top of a cupping glass to keep the air from entering; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to cover the end of a cupping glass with such a leaf; MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to use a leaf for this purpose]
tutób a covering; a book cover; MAG‑, ‑ON to cover an opening (as the mouth of a jar, glass); MAG‑, ‑AN to cover s/t (as a book, a container); MAG‑, I‑ to use s/t as a covering [+MDL: leaves or cloth used to cover a container or the end of a cupping glass; MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to cover the mouth of a container with leaves, a piece of cloth]
súkob MAG‑, ‑ON to tightly embrace s/o; to entirely cover s/o; MAKI‑, PAKI‑‑AN to share a place of shelter with s/o; to take shelter with s/o (as under an umbrella, in a shed, under a blanket) [+MDL: MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to throw the arms around s/o to restrain them (to keep them from fleeing, causing damage); to place a cupping glass over a wound, swelling; MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to put a cupping glass into place]
taˈgán MA‑ or MAG‑ to list to one side (a boat that is being unloaded); (fig‑) Timinaˈgán si payó ko na tinandokán akó I feel light-headed with all of these cupping glasses on me [MDL]
tangtáng MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to remove a cupping glass; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to remove a cupping glass from a person's body; MA‑ to become dislodged (a cupping glass); to fall out (a knife from its sheath); MA‑, MA‑‑AN to become dislodged from a person's body, a sheath (a knife) [MDL]
úmong lump or swelling which remains after a cupping glass is removed, or which forms after one has received a blow; MA‑ or MAG‑ to form (such a lump or swelling); (PAG‑)‑AN to have such a swelling (a person, a part of the body) [MDL]
kaldít MAG-, ‑AN to make an incision for the purpose of drawing blood [+MDL: MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to make an incision in the skin before applying a cupping glass]
sagisíˈ sound when one gets cut with a knife, or when cutting the skin for bleeding s/o with a cupping glass; MA‑ or MAG‑ to make such a sound [MDL]
takták MAG‑, ‑ON to tap or rap s/t; to dislodge s/t by tapping or rapping; MAG‑, ‑AN to tap or rap a particular part or section [MDL: MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to strike the head of a fish on a plate to remove the brains, or the bones of animals to remove the marrow; to strike a cupping glass to remove the blood; MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to remove brains, marrow or blood in this way]
While the goal of maintaining good health (hintóng) would have been admirable, nevertheless, throughout the lives of the early Bikolanos there would have been periods of illness (hílang), sometimes short and at other times extended, ranging from minor episodes of simply feeling indisposed (haból), to suffering lengthy bouts or recurrences of chronic conditions (laygáy).
hílang ailment, disease, illness, malady, sickness; IGWÁ or MAY to be sick; an may hílang the sick, invalids; MAG‑ to ail; to be sick or ill; hílang sa payó mental illness [+MDL: Anón (Anó an) hílang ni kuyán? or Guráˈno an hílang ki kuyán?What ailment is that person suffering from?; MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to suffer from a particular disease; KA‑‑AN sickness, ailment; MAKA‑ to cause sickness or ill health; MA‑ or MA‑‑ON: mahílang na táwo or mahilángon na táwo one who is ill]
haból (PAG‑)‑ON to be indisposed, ill; to feel under the weather; MAKA‑ to bring about such a feeling; ‑ON ill, under the weather [MDL]
laygáy (PAG‑)‑ON to suffer from a chronic ailment or illness; I(PAG)‑ to have a particular chronic illness; MAKA‑ to cause or bring about a chronic illness [MDL]
túbag MA‑ or MAG‑ to fall sick, ill (from exhaustion, excessive work or after being beaten) [MDL]
túlos MA‑ to suddenly die; MA‑‑AN to have s/o or s/t suddenly die on you; PAGKA‑ a sudden death; Natúlos ka May you suddenly die (Said as a curse) [MDL]
hagúroˈ describing a situation where many sick people are found in one place; MANG‑ to be gathered or found in one place (the sick): Nanhagúroˈ na sa kuyán na saróˈ kahárong Everyone is sick in those people's house [MDL]
dámat plague, pestilence, epidemic; MAG‑ or MAKA‑ to cause an epidemic, plague; (PAG‑) ‑ON or MA‑ to die in an epidemic; (PAG‑)‑AN or MA‑‑AN to be affected by an epidemic, plague (a town, region); PAGKA‑ a plague, epidemic [MDL]
sapóˈ MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to completely annihilate one's enemies; to kill all of one's enemies; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to wipe out a whole community; MA‑ to be completely wiped out, killed or annihilated (by war, disease, famine); to die (a whole community) [MDL]
Loarca also describes a situation in Panay in 1582-83 where people were affected by 'itch and buboes', something which was blamed on the arrival of immigrants from the island of Bohol. 'Buboes', a translation of the Spanish bubas, is generally rendered as 'bubonic plague', although this appears to be frequently incorrect as the illnesses to which it was applied usually were far less severe and the question of mortality rarely mentioned. In the case of Panay, as well, transmission of the unknown disease was blamed on person to person contact, something which usually does not occur with bubonic plague (although it is possible with pneumonic plague).
Augustinian priests also recorded an influenza epidemic in 1688 centered on the province of Pampanga which had continued from the previous year and was so severe and affected such a great proportion of the population that fields remained untilled or unharvested and people were seen rarely in the streets.
By far the most commonly reported epidemic was smallpox. One such epidemic was recorded by Chirino in Balayan, Batangas sometime between 1601 and 1604, and another in Catbalogan, Samar around 1627. The Dominicans recorded outbreaks around 1640 in the province of Nueva Segovia, centred on the Cagayan Valley, as well as in Pangasinan. The Augustinian Recollects also recorded an epidemic in the area of the Cagayan Valley in 1677.
The modern term for smallpox in Bikol is burútong, a term also found in Tagalog and Kapampangan. Lisboa, however, defines this simply as 'pimples on the face'. For smallpox he has pukóˈ, which is also given this meaning in Waray. In Cebuano the term is defined as 'bubas', a general term, as mentioned previously, translated into English as 'buboes' and having a wide variety of interpretations. If we look at John Wolff's dictionary of modern Cebuano we find the definition 'yaws', a contagious bacterial disease of the skin causing open lesions and ulcers. This is not smallpox. For Cebuano and Hiligaynon the term given for smallpox is buti.
pukóˈ smallpox; ‑ON or MA‑ to have smallpox; to have pock marks [+MDL: (PAG‑)‑ON to have smallpox; Makurí si pagpukó sakó I'm very ill with smallpox; mapiláng pukóˈ scarred with pock marks]
In modern Bikol, chicken pox is utós, a term which does not appear in Lisboa. In Hiligaynon, the second term defined as smallpox (viruelas) is hanga which is most likely a misheard or misrepresented form of hangga. If we look at Cebuano, we find what is most likely the same term, hangga, but here we get an extended definition: 'a skin eruption, somewhat between smallpox and measles, regularly affecting children; can be dangerous if not treated promptly with the proper medicines and the person not diligently cared for'. John Wolff in his modern Cebuano dictionary defines that as 'chicken pox'. Lisboa also has the term hanggá which he defines simply as 'a pox (or smallpox), viruelas, which is fatal'. Chicken pox is not usually fatal, and so the Bikol term would not readily be associated with this disease. However, given the existence of the same term in Hiligaynon and Cebuano, and the extended definition in Cebuano indicating it can be dangerous if not properly treated, we are probably dealing with the same illness. When the skin eruptions accompanying these infections become pussy, they are referred to as hubóg.
hanggá pox (typ‑ fatal); (PAG‑)‑ON to be sick with such a pox [MDL]
hubóg to become pussy (pock marks associated with chicken pox (utós), smallpox (pukóˈ, burútong), or other pox-like infections (hanggá) [MDL]
tipdás measles, an acute contagious disease, usually occurring in childhood, caused by a virus and characterized by a high fever, the eruption of small red spots, and inflammation of the mucus membranes of the nose and throat; ‑ON one with measles; ‑ON or MA‑ to have or suffer from measles [+MDL: (PAG‑)‑ON to have or suffer from measles]
karámaˈ disease (typ‑ rare, unknown); (PAG‑)‑ON to suffer from such a disease; I(PAG)‑ to cause such a disease [MDL]
The bacterium affects the skin and the nerves at the periphery of the body which tend to be the cooler areas. These include, in particular, the hands and feet, the nose, eyes and earlobes resulting in the greatest disfigurement to these parts. The collapse of the nose, the dropping of the earlobes, and the shortening of the toes and fingers are generally brought about by secondary disease resulting in cartilage being reabsorbed into the body, or damage due to the loss of feeling caused by the leprosy bacterium.
It was only in the 1980s that a sustainable, effective treatment was found to treat leprosy, a multi-drug therapy with treatment lasting for up to a year. A sufferer becomes non-contagious after just a few weeks of treatment, obviating the need for long-term isolation in a hospital or dedicated leper colony. Many of the early colonies remain open only to serve those residents whose disfigurement is so great that they prefer to remain among people who have suffered a similar fate.
The entry for leprosy found in Lisboa is kagihíˈ, a term which has disappeared from the modern language to be replaced by the Spanish loan, lépra. A second entry in the Vocabulario, bulát, may very well refer to another form of leprosy, and it is interesting that in his definition Lisboa appears to recognise the closeness between certain forms of leprosy and tuberculosis which, only centuries later, were shown to be genetically related. The central Philippine languages have, confusingly, numerous terms attributed to diseases which may or may not be forms of leprosy, but obviously have similar characteristics to the disease. These headword entries are included in the endnotes for those wishing to pursue the matter further.
bulát disease (typ‑ similar to leprosy or tuberculosis); (PAG‑)‑ON to suffer from such an illness; an bulatón referring to s/o with such an illness [MDL]
táhas urn or earthenware jar having no projecting rim; also: a person with no nose or mouth, more properly called píngos [MDL]
punód stuffed or clogged (the nose); congested (as from a cold); MAG‑ to become stuffed up or congested (a person); MA‑ to become stuffed up or clogged (the nose) [+MDL: nasal (in the way of speaking); MA‑ or MAG‑ to become nasal (a person); to have one's nose eaten away and as a result speak nasally; MA‑ to be eaten away, resulting in nasal speech (the nose)]
Any illness will run its course leading, ultimately, to recovery or death. In this section we will look at the general effects of illness and then go on to look first at a situation where the condition of the patient deteriorates, and following that, where care and treatment have a more satisfactory outcome leading to recovery.
There are any number of signs which might indicate that someone is ill, the most obvious being verbal exclamations such as áha, agóy or haláˈ-halaˈuˈoy to register a degree of discomfort or pain, or the less welcome grumbling about how unwell one feels (híriˈ-híriˈ).
agóy exclamation used when one feels tired or ill; MA‑ or MAG‑ to exclaim by saying agóy [MDL]
haláˈ-halaˈuˈoy expression of pain [MDL]
híriˈ-híriˈ MA‑ or MAG‑ to grumble or complain about the pain one feels, as by saying haláˈ-halaˈuˈoy; Híriˈ-híriˈ na You really complain a lot [MDL]
aríˈad MAG‑ to double over in pain; Nagaríˈad na si kuyán That person is doubled over in pain [MDL]
híwid MA‑ or MAG‑ to be doubled over in pain due to stomach cramps; to writhe in pain due to the pain of a stomachache; Híwid-híwid na kan daghán si kuyán That person is really doubled over from stomach pains [MDL]
nganáˈ too much, excessive; overdone, inordinate [+MDL: ngánaˈ...; MA‑ to be extreme, excessive; MA‑‑AN to be overdone; to have too much of s/t; to feel the extremes or excesses of s/t: nanganganáˈan nin hílang to be overly tired from one's illness; ...]
ilás MAKA‑, MA‑ to dream about s/t seen or done earlier in the day and react when sleeping by laughing, shouting, crying; to be unable to sleep due to things running through one's mind: Sa anó ka nailás? What did you dream about? or What was disturbing your sleep? [+MDL: PAG‑ ‑ON to be kept awake by what one imagines, or by pain or illness; MAKA‑ to keep one awake (one's imagination, pain, illness); MA‑ to be kept awake]
rúgon MAG‑ to fall or shed (the hair of humans, the fur of animals) due to infirmity or illness [+MDL: MA‑ or MAG‑ to fall (the hair of humans); to shed (the fur of animals) from illness or the consumption of bad food; I(PAG)‑ to cause this affliction (a particular food); (PAG‑) ‑AN to suffer from this affliction (a person)]
harabáhab the feeling of great distress or discomfort accompanying a fever-producing illness or drunkenness; MA‑ or MAG‑ to have a high fever; (PAG‑)‑AN to feel the effects of a fever or drunkenness [MDL]
harasáhas MA‑ warm and humid; muggy, sultry; MAG‑ to become sultry; KA‑‑AN humidity [MDL: the feeling of great distress or discomfort accompanying a fever-producing illness or drunkenness; MA‑ or MAG‑ to have a high fever; (PAG‑)‑AN to feel the effects of a fever or drunkenness]
bírik back to front, ... [+MDL: MA‑ or MAG‑ to turn o/s around; MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to turn s/t around; ...; (fig‑) Garó na pinagbírik an hinilíngan It is as if what I see is turned around (Said when one is drunk or suffering from a high fever) ...]
lisáng delirium; MA‑ to be delirious; (fig‑) Lisáng doy saindó You are very unsettled (doing things that just don't make sense); Kalisáng mong táwo, daˈí ka nakakakítaˈ kaiyán na yáˈon sa atubángan mo You must be delirious not to see what is right there in front of you [MDL]
rámi delirium; (PAG‑)‑ON or MA‑ to be delirious (due to illness); MAKA‑ to cause delirium; to make one delirious (a fever, another illness) [MDL]
úwaˈ MA‑ or MAG‑ to grow worse (an illness); to increase (the benefits of s/t); to grow better; (PAG‑)‑AN to be increasingly debilitated by one's illness (a person); I(PAG)‑ to increase by a particular amount or degree [MDL]
hiwás MAG‑ to be worried, distressed, tormented desperate (one who is dying); MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to travel from place to place in search of a cure for one's terminal illness; MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to search for a cure by traveling from place to place [MDL]
liswág MA‑, ‑AN or MAPA‑, PA‑‑AN or MAGPA‑, PAGPA‑‑AN to look for a remedy or cure (in a particular place, from a particular person or by analyzing a particular substance); MA‑, I‑ or MAPA‑, IPA‑ or MAGPA‑, IPAGPA to look for a cure or remedy for a particular ailment; (fig‑) Daˈí na kitáng liniliswagán na ibáng úlay We have nothing more to say to each other [MDL]
The entry himuráˈot is based on the root ráˈot which encompasses the negative meanings ranging from bad to unfavourable. Preceding this root is a series of two prefixes. The first of these is hing-, which, while not entirely fossilised, is limited in its use to bases which are known to take it, and rarely applied creatively to new bases. Its use on a root is to show transition, moving toward the state shown by the meaning of the root.
The second prefix, pu-, which we have seen before in entries such as puraˈmós (see Section 1), is fossilised and its independent meaning is difficult to determine. The final form is arrived at through the processes of assimilation and deletion: hing- + pu- + ráˈot → himuráˈot
himuráˈot MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to keep vigil over one who is about to die; to watch over one who is near death [MDL]
gadán corpse, the deceased; gadán na dead; ... MA‑ to die, pass away, perish; to succumb; MA‑‑AN to be bereaved; to have a death in the family; KA‑‑AN death, demise; PAGKA‑ the death of, the killing of [+MDL: MA‑, ‑ON to kill s/o; MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to kill an animal; Nagadán idtóng ákiˈ ko, daˈíng síring si buˈót ko I have never felt so bad as after the death of my child; ... MAKA‑: makakagadán or makagagadan deadly, fatal; MA‑ ‑ON: magagadánon mortal; MA‑: magadán may I die, on my life; an oath taken where one utters these words; MAMA‑, MAMA‑‑AN or MAGMA‑, PAGMA‑‑AN to take such an oath]
uyám MA‑ annoying, bothersome, irksome; ... [+MDL: MA‑ or MAG‑ to become annoyed; MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to annoy s/o; MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to annoy s/o about s/t; MA‑‑ON vexed, irritated; Iyó pang nakauyám idtóng si kuyán And that is it for the irritating ways of that person (Said when one dies shortly after falling ill, indicating that he will not be missed by the doctors who treated him or those who served him)]
The general term for care in modern Bikol is mangnó, a term which does not appear in Lisboa. The two terms which do appear in Lisboa and are still used in modern Bikol, although with slightly altered meanings, are átom and atáman, the latter of which is also found in Waray and Cebuano where reference is to carrying out an assigned duty or task quickly and efficiently.
Atóm, using the final stress indicated by Lisboa, was most probably the historical root for the longer form atáman. The stressed vowel 'o' was lost when the stress on the root moved to final position as can been seen in the form maatmán: ma‑ + atóm + -an → maatmán. This loss is not unusual and can been seen in other Bikol derivations. Subsequently, while the prefix ma‑ was clearly seen as an addition, the suffix ‑an must have been taken as part of a new root of the form atmán. As the vowel and consonant sequence atm is found in Bikol only in the name of the tree katmón and as a result of reduplication in words such as alimatmát, a vowel must have been added to resolve this anomaly. The vowel which was added, however, was not the original 'o', but the vowel 'a' found in both the first and last syllables of the word. This explanation is plausible, but not provable on the current evidence.
átom MA‑ conscientious; MAG‑, ‑AN to concentrate on s/t; (fig‑) PARA‑ a nosey person, a busybody; atóm-atóm ‑ON a busybody [MDL: atóm MA‑ careful, vigilant; MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑ ‑ON / MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to take care of s/o; to look after s/o or s/t; MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to offer particular help or care; MAKA‑, MA‑‑AN: maatmán to be able to take care of s/o or s/t; Daˈí na akó nakakaatóm kainíng pagkasasawayón mo I am no longer able to have an influence on your mischievous behavior; PAG‑ care]
atáman referring to s/o in the care of another; s/o who is adopted or is a foster child; a servant, pet; MAG‑, ‑ON to adopt s/o; to care for s/o; to nurse, nurture or support s/o; to foster a child; KAG‑: kagatáman nin amáˈ foster father; kagatáman nin ináˈ foster mother [MDL: MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to concern o/s with s/t; to take an interest in s/t; to attend to or look after s/o; MANG‑, PANG‑‑ON to take care of s/o; to show concern toward s/o or s/t; PAG‑ or PANG‑ care, attention, concern]
dapón MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON / MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to massage a part of the body which hurts with the hand to relieve pain [MDL]
binanáw (arc‑) oil (typ‑ medicinal, prepared for rubbing on the body) [MDL]
haplás MAG‑, I‑ to rub s/t in (as a balm, ointment); PANG‑ balm, liniment, lotion, ointment [MDL: root (typ‑ from which an oil is extracted by herbalists and rubbed into the body to cure illness); MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to treat s/o with such a root; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑ ‑AN to rub the preparation from such a root on a person or a part of the body; MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to use such a root for treating illness]
The derivation we are after requires a definite meaning for a root of the form, púlas, which is not obtainable from within Bikol nor the other central Philippine languages: ha- + púlas → haplás. A relevant meaning can be found in Malay where pulas means 'to twist', although it is impossible to know if this is the origin of the Bikol form.
Care could also involve finding a place where the ill could rest and be comfortable as they recovered. One such place was a small room or alcove where a person could be sheltered from the outside air. This was the atíbong. Why such shelter was necessary is unclear for Lisboa has no other references to the harmful effects of outside air. One possible interpretation is that such a place offered protection from other types of infection current in the community to which a sick person might be particularly susceptible.
arángay MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to say what food one wants to eat (those who are sick); MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to tell s/o what food one wants to eat so they can give it you or find s/o who has it [MDL]
tíˈog MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to place food or drink into the mouth of those who are too ill to feed themselves; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to feed an ill person in this way [MDL]
higoˈán MA‑ or MAG‑ to pass or lessen (the chills of one who is ill); (PAG‑)‑AN to feel chills passing or becoming less frequent (one who is ill) [MDL]
húbay (PAG‑)‑AN to feel a period of relief (a person from pain, illness); to have a period of clarity (one suffering a mental illness); to experience a break in the bad weather (a place); MA‑ or MAG‑ to clear or stop momentarily (wind, rain); to give some let-up or respite (pain, illness); húbay-húbay MA‑ to have a short break or interval [MDL]
gáboy MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to go to a town or a place where one has never been or which one hasn't visited in a long time; to go out of the house for the first time after a long illness; MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑ PAG‑‑ON to go to get s/t from such a place; MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to take s/t to such a place; Daˈí pa máyoˈ akó nagáboy kaiyán banwáˈan na iyán I have still not gone to that town [MDL]
úmay MAG‑ to heal; MAGPA‑, PA‑‑ON to heal s/t; to aid in the healing process; MA‑‑AN to get well, recover; to get over an illness; to rally [+MDL: MA‑ to be restored to health; to recover; MAKA‑, MA‑ to bring one back to health; to heal s/o; MAKA‑, IKA‑ to treat one with a particular medicine to restore them to health; MAKA‑: makauúmay a healer; PAGKA‑ recovery, healing; Makurí an pagkaúmay sakóˈ I've fully recovered]
baghát MAKA‑, MA‑ to have a relapse; PANG‑: pamaghát medicine (typ‑ consisting of a mixture of tree roots and alcohol, used to help one recover from a relapse; also given to nursing mothers) [+MDL: MANG‑, PANG‑‑ON to treat s/o who has had a relapse; to treat s/o who has recovered from an illness to keep them from relapsing; MANG‑, IPANG‑ to treat s/o with a particular medicine]
súkong MA‑ or ‑ON to fall sick again; to again feel the effects of an earlier disease or illness; I‑ to return; to strike again (a particular illness); súkong-súkong MAG‑ to walk, falling and getting up again (one who is ill); PAG‑‑ON to be affected by an illness in this way (a person); IPAG‑ to affect a person in this way (an illness) [MDL]
tagamtám plant (typ‑ medicinal, with roots which are used to treat s/o who has relapsed into illness) [MDL]
This section looks at other ailments which affected Bikolanos at the turn of the sixteenth century, and still continues to affect humans everywhere. These range from allergies and asthma to the common cold.
An allergy is the response of the body's immune system to some environmental substance which would not normally cause problems for others. Allergies certainly existed in the Bikol region when Lisboa was compiling his dictionary, as evidenced by the entry, gáhang. Additionally, the description accompanying duwóng also seems to represent an allergic reaction. The meaning of a further entry, bakóˈ, is less clear, although it appears to describe a severe allergic reaction which may have resulted in what is now called anaphylactic shock.
duwóng disease (typ‑ in which one breaks out in itchy swellings or lumps over the entire body); ‑ON to have this disease (a person); (PAG‑)‑AN to break out in such swellings or lumps [MDL]
bakóˈ disease (typ‑ arising from agitation in the flow of blood, resulting in itching which, if reaching the throat, causes the sufferer to choke); (PAG‑)‑AN to suffer from such a disease; MAKA‑ to cause such a disease [MDL]
The Bikol term for asthma, hápoˈ has not changed since Lisboa's time, although modern Bikol also uses the additional term, usól. The verbs describing the reaction of sufferers with asthma, however, have changed. The difficulty in breathing experienced by an asthma sufferer in modern Bikol is haguˈnók, a term which carried the meaning 'to moan' or 'groan' for Lisboa. For the early Bikolanos, the difficulty in breathing was expressed specifically by hágok, and more generally by hingkáb.
usól asthma; ‑ON: uuslón asthmatic; ‑ON or MA‑ to have or suffer from an asthmatic attack
haguˈnók MAG‑ to take deep breaths, as one tired or ill with asthma; to gasp due to tiredness or surprise; to wheeze; also MAKAPA‑, MAPA‑ [MDL: a groan or moan made when one falls or is knocked down; MA‑ or MAG‑ to groan, moan]
hágok MA‑ or MAG‑ to take deep breaths, as one tired or ill with asthma; to gasp; MAKA‑ to bring about this condition [MDL]
hingkáb MAG‑ to be exhausted by a fit of coughing; to have oneˈs strength completely sapped due to a terrible fit of coughing, or the trouble one has breathing when suffering an asthma attack: Naghingkáb na akó kainíng pagaábo ko I'm exhausted by this coughing fit [MDL]
Edema, or dropsy in earlier terminology, is a condition whereby fluid accumulates in the body's tissues. Generally affected are the lower extremities of the body, that is, the feet and legs. The condition is caused systemically by the weakening or failure of certain major organs of the body, in particular the heart, liver and kidneys, which results in the body retaining too much water. Having nowhere else to go, the excess liquid leaks into the spaces between the cells.
Bagóˈ is the term listed by Lisboa to identify edema. This and baˈós are both used in modern Bikol. There are two further terms used by Lisboa, hubág and labóˈ-labóˈ and both may indicate a more serious form of the disease where, not just the extremities, but the face and body are affected. A weakened heart which fails to pump a sufficient flow of blood is the start of the problem. The kidneys, sensing this lack, then retain more salt and liquid in the body. Of these two terms, labóˈ-labóˈ; is found with the same meaning in Waray and Cebuano. 
baˈós edema, a disease characterized by excessive accumulation of fluid in the tissues; MAG‑ to suffer from edema
hubág MA‑ or MAG‑ to have dropsy; to be swollen (the body); to be puffy (the face, due to illness) [MDL]
labóˈ-labóˈ illness (typ‑ resulting in the swelling of the face and body); MA‑ or MAG‑ to swell (the face and body); (PAG‑)‑AN to suffer from this disease [MDL]
Lisboa's definition of ságib is of a disease where a person suffers a 'fatal' or 'unlucky moment' (hora menguada) leaving one suddenly lame, or unable to move an arm, or unable to properly express things due to problems moving the mouth. Clearly this is a stroke. The term has disappeared from Bikol, replaced first by a Spanish loan, and then by English.
The two entries in Lisboa's Vocabulario, luluˈngáw and datóng are still in use in modern Bikol. For one of the entries, however, dátong, Lisboa also attributes the unusual actions to possession by an evil spirit.
datóng epilepsy, a nervous disorder characterized by convulsions and often accompanied by loss of consciousness; ‑ON: dadatngón or raratngón an epileptic; ‑ON to have epilepsy [+MDL: ‑ON: s/o suffering from epilepsy; s/o possessed by an evil spirit]
A hernia occurs when the muscles of the abdominal wall are weakened. Organs, such as the intestines, are pushed through this weakened section, protruding further as the split in the muscle widens and more of the organ extends through the gap, eventually forming a sac or bulge. The most common place for this weakening to occur is in the groin area, and judging from the entries in both old and modern Bikol, this is the area referred to.
Bayág is the scrotum or testicles, and the verbal forms indicate the development or presence of a hernia. For Lisboa, the specific term for hernia is formed from the reduplication of the first consonant and vowel of the root, babayág. This same process is maintained in a second term, bubungáw. While this is not a term used in the modern language, the root form, búngaw, is used, meaning 'scrotum' but only when one is annoyed or angry. Interestingly, this form does not occur with a similar meaning in Lisboa.
bubungáw hernia, rupture; ‑ON describing one suffering from a hernia; (fig‑) KA‑‑ON: kabubungáwon na táwo a liar [MDL]
búngaw scrotum, said in annoyance or anger in place of bayág
There was not much that could be done for those with a hernia as the only option for repair is surgery, an option which was not available. I have found no references to implements which might have relieved the condition, something which might function like a modern truss to push the protruding organ temporarily back through the gap in the muscle wall. There are references to the visual discomfort a hernia might have caused, affecting how a sufferer might have walked (bikráng, bingkáng).
bingkáng MA‑ or MAG‑ to walk with the legs apart (as if one has a hernia); MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to spread the legs apart when walking [MDL]
Certainly the least serious of the illnesses discussed here is the common cold (siˈpón) and all the symptoms experienced today would have been experienced in the Bikol region at the turn of the sixteenth century, including a runny nose due to an excess of mucus (tungáy) and the need to blow the nose to clear it (sungá). The specific term applied to the runny nose of children, húdot-húdot, no doubt referred to the constant state of mucus running from the nose which would be sniffed in, but rarely wiped clean.
tungáy mucus which collects in the nose; (sl‑) snot; MAGHING‑, HING‑‑ON to remove such mucus; MAGHING‑, HING‑‑AN to remove such mucus from the nose; to pick the nose [+MDL: ‑AN: tutungáyan a nose full of mucus]
sungá MAG‑ to blow the nose; ‑AN: susungáhan or susunghán handkerchief; nostrils [+MDL: MA‑ or MAG‑ to blow the nose; MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑to use the hand when blowing the nose]
húdot-húdot MA‑ or MAG‑ to run (the nose of a child); to sniff in the mucus of a runny nose (a child) [MDL]
káram sore throat, as when one has a cough or a cold; MA‑ or MAG‑ to be sore (the throat); (PAG‑)‑AN to have a sore throat; MA‑ sore (the throat) [MDL]
piˈdás MA‑ to be unable to say anything; to be unable to utter a sound; to lose one's voice; to have laryngitis [MDL]
Many of the afflictions which exist in the modern world, existed as well in the Philippines at the turn of the sixteenth century. People suffered from allergies and asthma, strokes and epilepsy, had hernias and managed from day to day with coughs and the common cold. Far worse, however, were the epidemics which spread from individuals to families, and from families to towns and entire districts, potentially devastating the entire population of an infected area. The debilitating effects of influenza were recorded, as well as what were probably outbreaks of the bubonic plague, but by far the most common and feared epidemics were of smallpox. Children's diseases such as mumps, measles and chicken pox would also have also worked their way through communities, their treatment involving rest and devoted care in a world without antibiotics. It wasn't until almost 400 years after Lisboa compiled his dictionary that a cure was found for leprosy, and his dictionary, and those of the other central Philippine languages, contain references to the disfiguring effects of this disease.
Lacking a knowledge of viruses and bacteria, a number of illness were blamed on bad food, particular types of food, or foods that were not properly cleaned. Such foods were said to cause stomach ailments (a reasonable assumption), the loss of hair and the development of sores over the entire body. Where the ill were concerned, specific precautions were taken which almost acknowledged the, as yet, urecognised existence of germs. When people were particularly at risk, they were isolated from others in the community. The reason given was to protect them from evil spirits, but the beneficial effect was to isolate them from contact with others who might possibly harbour bacteria capable of causing further infection. There may have also been a rudimentary knowledge of vaccination, for individuals were pricked with a small amount of mixed poisons in the belief that if they later were bitten by a snake or exposed to greater amounts of a poison, they would have the capacity to survive.
The medicines available to treat disease and infection were derived from plants growing in the immediate area. Leaves, roots, stems and bark could be worked into various infusions or used whole to relieve pain, reduce inflamation and slow the course of a disease. With luck a single medical preparation would lead to a cure, but combinations of incompatible medicines could have the opposite effect, resulting even in death. The primary medical implement at the time was the cupping glass, and this was used to draw blood to a particular area of the body, as well as for bleeding to relieve the body of what must have been seen as harmful toxins, although this is never explicitly stated.
People suffered with various abscess, boils and ulcers and sought ways to heal them by applying plasters of leaves or bark. Wounds which were caused by a variety of accidents, or inflicted in the course of combat would have to be treated before serious infection set in .Combat wounds would have to be enlarged to first remove the barbed head of the arrow or lance before any further treatment could be administered. Survival was never guaranteed. Systemic illness was always possible when infections spread through the body.
Skin diseases were common in the hot and humid climate of the Philippines. Some of these were caused by funguses, the effect often identifiable by white patches on the skin, others, such as scabies, by a tiny mite. Some skin diseases were further exacerbated by occupational factors such long immersion of the feet and legs in the water of the rice fields. Open lesions such as those caused by the common athlete's foot, also gave access to the body of bacteria naturally occurring on the skin. Lice was also a recurring problem, and various mechanisms were devised to help in their removal.
Gout, arthritis, and congenital impairments of the hands and feet would have affected movement and the ability of an individual to carry out everyday tasks. Deafness and blindness would have also led to dependancy, although this is never made explicit. Just as care was offered to the ill, it would no doubt have also bee offered to those with specific needs.
Early Philippine society was clean. All the early records emphasise the importance of bathing which was a daily ritual. This took place in creeks and rivers, and was a discrete and modest process whereby much of the body remained covered until the person was submerged in water. The ears were kept clean, the wax removed by a small stick, and the teeth cleaned by dedicated brushes and food removed after eating by a small sliver of wood serving as a toothpick.
As for the toilet, early Filipinos relieved themselves where they were able, taking advantage of the forest or the shrubs surrounding a house or village. Politeness played a part in the types of terms which were used, particularly by women, and shyness could bring a person to abort an attempt if they were seen. Houses came with a hole in floor through which individuals could relieve themselves, although there is some question as to how often this was used.
Medical care has clearly changed since the turn of the sixteenth century. Some of the diseases which once plagued communities have been completely eradicated and others are now controllable by medications which had never been thought of at the time. But people still fall ill and need treatment and assistance, and this is something which societies in the past and present still need to provide.
 Antonio de Morga, Sucecesos de las Islas Filipinas, 1609, in Blair and Robertson, vol. 16, pp. 78-79.
 Father Diego de Bobadilla, 'Relation of the Filipinas Islands by a religious who lived there for 18 years,' 1640, in Blair and Robertson, vol. 29, pp. 277-311, p. 288.
 'Kabling,' Philippine Medicinal Plants (accessed 23 February 2015).
 de Morga, Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas, in Blair and Robertson, vol. 16, p. 93.
 Pedro Chirino, Relación de las Islas Filipinas, 1604, Manila: Historical Conservation Society, 1969, Chapter 10, p. 258; also in Blair and Robertson, vol. 12, p. 213.
] Gaspar de San Agustin, Conquistas de las Islas Philipinas, Madrid, 1698, in Blair and Robertson, vol. 40, pp. 183-295, p. 219.
 William Dampier, 'Dampier in the Philippines,' from A New Voyage Round the World, London, 1697, in Blair and Robertson, vol. 38, pp. 241-86 and vol. 39, pp. 21-121; pp. 27-28.
 Antonio Sanchez de la Rosa, Diccionario español - bisaya para las provincias de Sámar y Leyte, 3rd edition, aumentado por Antonio Valeriano, Manila: Santos y Bermal, 1914, see digos, rigos.
 Alonso de Mentrida, Diccionario de la lengua Bisaya, Hiliguena, y Haraya de la Isla de Panay, Manila: La Imprenta de D. Manuel y Felix Dayot, 1841, see digo, rigo, ligo.
 Juan Feliz de la Encarnacion, Diccionario español- bisaya, Manila: Imprenta de los amigos del pais, á cargo de M. Sanchez, 1852, see digo, ligo.
 Juan José Noceda and Pedro de Sanlucar, Vocabulario de la lengua Tagala, 1753, Manila: Imprenta de Ramirez y Giraudier, Reimpreso 1860, see ligo.
 Malcolm W. Mintz, Malcolm W., 'The Fossilized Affixes of Bikol,' Currents in Pacific Linguistics: Papers on Austronesian Languages and Ethnolinguistics in Honor of George W. Grace, ed. by Robert Blust, Canberra: Pacific Linguistics C-117, 1991, pp. 265-291; pp. 280-281.
[ de la Rosa, Diccionario español - bisaya para las provincias de Sámar y Leyte, see damos.
 de Mentrida, Diccionario de la lengua Bisaya, Hiliguena, y Haraya de la Isla de Panay, see damos.
 de la Encarnacion. Diccionario español - bisaya, see damos, hilamos.
 Noceda and de Sanlucar, Vocabulario de la lengua Tagala, see damos, lamos, amos.
 Bergaño, Vocabulario de la lengua Pampanga, see lamos.
 Chirino, Relación de las Islas Filipinas, Chapter 10, p. 258; also in Blair and Robertson, vol. 12, p. 213.
 Malcolm W. Mintz, Bikol Dictionary, Vol. I: English-Bikol Index; Vol. II: Bikol-English Dictionary (Incorporates the 17th century Marcos de Lisboa Vocabulario de la lengua Bicol), Australia: Indonesian/ Malay Texts, 2004, Introduction, Section 6.5.
 Dampier, 'Dampier in the Philippines,' in Blair and Robertson, vol. 38, p. 28.
 'Tuba,' Philippine Medicinal Plants (accessed 23 February 2015).
 'Piyagaw,' :Philippine Medicinal Plants (accessed 23 February 2015); 'Zylocarpus granatum,' The ICUN Red List of Threatened Species (accessed 23 February 2015).
 Mintz, Bikol Dictionary, Vol. I: English-Bikol Index; Vol. II: Bikol-English Dictionary, Introduction, Section 6.20.
 The discussion here is on the discovery and removal of lice from the hair on the head and from the body. Care of the hair, how it was cleaned, oiled and scented, how it was worn and decorated and how it was combed, cut or trimmed is discussed in detail in Chapter 8, 'Jewellery and Body Ornamentation,' Section 3.
 'Head Lice,' Department of Medical Entymology, University of Sydney (accessed 23 February 2014).
 Waray, de la Rosa, Diccionario español - bisaya para las provincias de Sámar y Leyte, see coto; Hiligaynon, de Mentrida, Diccionario de la lengua Bisaya, Hiliguena, y Haraya de la Isla de Panay, see coto; Cebuano, de la Encarnacion. Diccionario español- bisaya, see coto, Tagalog, Noceda and de Sanlucar, Vocabulario de la lengua Tagala, see coto; Kapampangan, Bergaño, Vocabulario de la lengua Pampanga, see cutu.
 Bergaño, Vocabulario de la lengua Pampanga, see cumad.
 de Mentrida, Diccionario de la lengua Bisaya, Hiliguena, y Haraya de la Isla de Panay, see cuyumar.
 de la Encarnacion. Diccionario español- bisaya, see cuyumac.
 Fr. Leo English, Tagalog - English Dictionary, 1986, Manila: Congregation of the Most Holy Redeemer, see kuyumad.
 Noceda and de Sanlucar, Vocabulario de la lengua Tagala, see lisa, copi.
 Bergaño, Vocabulario de la lengua Pampanga, see lias.
 de la Rosa, Diccionario español - bisaya para las provincias de Sámar y Leyte, see lusa; de la Encarnacion. Diccionario español- bisaya, see lusa; de Mentrida, Diccionario de la lengua Bisaya, Hiliguena, y Haraya de la Isla de Panay, see lusa.
 Bergaño, Vocabulario de la lengua Pampanga, see culisap.
 Noceda and de Sanlucar, Vocabulario de la lengua Tagala, see colisap.
 de la Rosa, Diccionario español - bisaya para las provincias de Sámar y Leyte, see daqui; de la Encarnacion. Diccionario español- bisaya, see daqui.
 Waray, de la Rosa, Diccionario español - bisaya para las provincias de Sámar y Leyte, see toma; Hiligaynon, de Mentrida, Diccionario de la lengua Bisaya, Hiliguena, y Haraya de la Isla de Panay, see tuma; Cebuano, John U. Wolff, A Dictionary of Cebuano Visayan, Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines, 1971, see tuma; Tagalog, Noceda and de Sanlucar, Vocabulario de la lengua Tagala, see toma; Kapampangan, Bergaño, Vocabulario de la lengua Pampanga, see tuma.
 English, Tagalog-English Dictionary, see suyod.
 Noceda and de Sanlucar, Vocabulario de la lengua Tagala, see suyor.
 Wolff, A Dictionary of Cebuano Visayan, see sulod.
 de Mentrida, Diccionario de la lengua Bisaya, Hiliguena, y Haraya de la Isla de Panay, see sulor.
 de la Rosa, Diccionario español - bisaya para las provincias de Sámar y Leyte, see sorud.
 'Halitosis,' Wikipedia, English, n.d. (accessed 23 February 2015).
 Hernando de los Rios, Coronel, 'Memorial y relacion para su magestad,' Madrid, 1621, in Blair and Robertson, vol. 19, pp 183-298; p. 284.
 ] Dawn F. Rooney, 'Betel Chewing in Southeast Asia,' The Dawn F. Rooney Cultural Archive - Southeast Asia, accessed 23 February 2015.
 Domingo Fernandez Navarrete, OP., 'Manila and the Philippines about 1650 (concluded),' from his Tratados Historicos, Madrid, 1676, in Blair and Robertson, vol. 38, pp. 17-71, p. 31.
 See Chapter 8, 'Jewellery and Body Ornamentation,' Section 2.
 'Cleft Lip and Palate,' Medical Dictionary - The Free Dictionary.com (accessed 25 January 2015); 'Cleft Lip and Palate,' Wikipedia, English, n.d. (accessed 25 January 2015).
 'Blisters in the Mouth,' New Health Guide (accessed 25 January 2015).
 'Canker Sores,' Encyclopedia.com (accessed 25 January 2015).
 'Cold Sores,' WebMD (accessed 25 January 2015); 'Herpes Simplex,' Wikipedia, English, n.d., (accessed 25 January 2015).
 'Earwax,' Wikipedia, English, n.d. (accessed 25 January 2015).
 de la Rosa, Diccionario español - bisaya para las provincias de Sámar y Leyte, see colcog; de la Encarnacion. Diccionario español- bisaya, see colcog; Noceda and de Sanlucar, Vocabulario de la lengua Tagala, see qiqig.
 'Ruptured Eardrum,' Mayo Clinic: Diseases and Conditions (accessed 25 January 2015).
 'Ear Abscess - Mastoiditis,' Formula Medical Group: Head and Neck (accessed 10 March 2015); 'Mastoiditis,' WebMed, Ear Infection Health Center (accessed 10 March 2015).
 'Benign Positional Vertigo,' Medline Plus (accessed 10 March 2015).
 'The Tear Apparatus,' Aviva - Medical Encyclopedia: Function (accessed 10 March 2015).
 'Eye Discharge (Sleep in your Eyes),' All About Vision (accessed 10 March 2015).
 'Sty,' Mayo Clinic - Diseases and Conditions (accessed 10 March 2015).
 'Pink Eye (Conjunctivitis),' Mayo Clinic - Diseases and Conditions (accessed 10 March 2015).
 'Blepharitis,' Mayo Clinic - Diseases and Conditions (accessed, 12 March 2015).
 'Cataract,' Wikipedia, English, n.d. (accessed 12 March 2015).
 'Exophthalmos (Bulging eyes),' NHS Choices (accessed 12 March 2015).
 'Eye Injury,' Eye Health (accessed 12 March 2015).
 While Bikol has a specific word for arm, it does not have one for leg. It is common to use bitís to refer generally to both 'feet' and 'legs', although there are specific terms for various parts of the leg, such as 'calf', 'shin', 'knee' and 'thigh'.
 'Gout,' Wikipedia, English, n.d. (accessed 21 November 2014); 'Gout,' Mayo Clinic - Diseases and Conditions (accessed 21 November 2014).
 de Mentrida, Diccionario de la lengua Bisaya, Hiliguena, y Haraya de la Isla de Panay, see tibac; de la Rosa, Diccionario español - bisaya para las provincias de Sámar y Leyte, see tibac.
 Lisboa identifies kapnó as 'cebolla albarrana' and it is this identification which has been used to arrive at the English equivalents: 'Dirimia maritima,' Wikipedia, English n.d. (accessed 22 November 2014); The grass bambán is identifiable on the Kew Botanical Gardens online data base as: 'Schizostachyum bamban,' Kew Botanical Gardens (accessed 21 November 2014).
 'Osteomyelitis,' The Merck Manual: Home Edition (accessed 21 November 2014).
 'Leg length,' , Morgan Stanley Childrens Hospital of New York: Division of Pediatric Orthopaedics - Common Disorders (accessed 21 November 2014).
 'Erysipelas,' Healthline (accessed 26 November 2014).
 de la Encarnacion, Diccionario español- bisaya, see amomotol.
 Mintz, 'The Fossilized Affixes of Bikol,' pp. 268-269.
 'Vitiligo,' Wikipedia, English, n.d. (accessed, 26 November 2014).
 Ethel Tur, ed., Environmental Factors on Skin Diseases, Basel: Karger Medical and Scientific Publishers: 'Current Problems in Dermatology,' vol. 35, P. Itin, ed., 2007, pp. 78-102; genetic predisposition, p. 78, injury, p. 79, sun exposure, p. 81, psychological factors p. 86.
 Noceda and de Sanlucar, Vocabulario de la lengua Tagala, see bacas; Bergaño, Vocabulario de la lengua Pampanga, see bacas.
 Kamus Dewan, see bekas.
 'Tinea versicolor,' Wikipedia, English, n.d. (accessed 12 December 2014); 'Tinea Versicolor,' WebMD (accessed 12 December 2014).
 'Dermatophytosis,' Wikipedia, English, n.d. (accessed 12 December 2014); 'Ringworm (Tinea Corporis),' Patient.co.uk (accessed 12 December 2014).
 'Lunas,' Philippine Medicinal Plants (accessed 12 December 2014).
 'Pangium edule,' Philippine Medicinal Plants (accessed 12 December 2014).
 'Scabies,' Wikipedia, English, n.d. (accessed 12 March 2015).
 'Callus,' Wikipedia, English, n.d. (accessed 12 March 2015).
 de la Rosa, Diccionario español - bisaya para las provincias de Sámar y Leyte, see lubot; de Mentrida, Diccionario de la lengua Bisaya, Hiliguena, y Haraya de la Isla de Panay, see lubot; de la Encarnacion, Diccionario español- bisaya, see lobot.
 'Payau,' Philippine Medicinal Plants (accessed 19 March 2015).
 'Bunga,' Philippine Medical Plants (accessed 19 March 2015).
 'Abscess,' Wikipedia, English, n.d. (accessed 19 March 2015); 'Boil,' Wikipedia, English, n.d. (accessed 19 March 2015).
 'Dalupang,' Philippine Medicinal Plants (accessed 19 March 2015).
 'Caesar Weed Sampler,' Eat the Weeds (accessed 19 March 2015).
 'Ulcer (Dermatology),' Wikipedia, English, n.d. (accessed 19 March 2015).
 Elmer Drew Merrill, A Review of the Identifications of the Species Described in Blanco's Flora de Filipinas, Manila: Bureau of Public Printing, 1905, p. 87, see Similax pseudochina.
 'Magilik,' Philippine Medicinal Plants (accessed 19 March 2015).
 'Dita,' Philippine Medicinal Plants (accessed 19 March 2015); Merrill, A Review of the Identifications of the Species Described in Blanco's Flora de Filipinas, p. 59, see Echitea scholaris.
 'Tubli,' Philippine Medicinal Plants (accessed 19 March 2015); Merrill, A Review of the Identifications of the Species Described in Blanco's Flora de Filipinas, p. 40, see references for Derris.
 See Chapter 1, 'War and Conflict.'
 'Agdau,' Philippine Medicinal Plants (accessed 19 March 2015).
 'Malungay,' Philippine Medicinal Plants (accessed 19 March 2015).
 'Boto,' Philippine Medicinal Plants (accessed 19 March 2015); Merrill, A Review of the Identifications of the Species Described in Blanco's Flora de Filipinas, p. 56, see Scaevola lobelia.
 'Niog-niogan,' Philippine Medicinal Plants (accessed 19 March 2015).
 'Tangan-tangan,' Philippine Medicinal Plants (accessed 19 March 2015).
 'Tambo,' Philippine Medicinal Plants (accessed 19 March 2015).
 'Sambong,' Philippine Medicinal Plants (accessed 19 March 2015); Merrill, A Review of the Identifications of the Species Described in Blanco's Flora de Filipinas, p. 55, see Conyza balsamifera, 'lacad bulan.'
 'Langkawas na Pula,' Philippine Medicinal Plants (accessed 19 March 2015).
 'Cupping Theory,' WebMD (accessed 26 March 2015).
 Bergaño, Vocabulario de la lengua Pampanga, see tanduc.
 Noceda and de Sanlucar, Vocabulario de la lengua Tagala, see tandoc.
 de la Rosa, Diccionario español - bisaya para las provincias de Sámar y Leyte, see tanduc.
 R. O. Winstedt, Unabridged Malay-English Dictionary, Singapore: Kelly & Walsh Ltd, n.d., see tandok.
 de la Rosa, Diccionario español - bisaya para las provincias de Sámar y Leyte, see damat; de la Encarnacion. Diccionario español- bisaya, see damat.
 Pedro Murillo Velarda, 'Jesuit missions in the seventeenth century,' Manila, 1749, in Blair and Robertson, vol. 44, pp. 27-119; p. 47-48.
 Miguel de Loarca, Relación de las Islas Filipinas, 1582, in Blair and Robertson, vol. 5, pp. 34-187; p. 67.
 Casimiro Diaz, OSA, 'The Augustinians in the Philippines,' 1670-1694, Manila, 1718 (from his Conquistas), in Blair and Robertson, vol. 42, pp. 117-312; p. 268.
 Chirino, Relación de las Islas Filipinas, 1604, in Blair and Robertson, vol. 12, p. 208.
 Relation of 1626 (Unsigned and undated), ca. 1627, in Blair and Robertson, vol. 22, pp. 130-45; p. 133.
 Diego Aduarte, 'Historia de la provincia del Sancto Rosario de la orden de predicadores,' 1640, in Blair and Robertson, vol. 30, pp. 115-322, p. 309; and vol. 31, pp. 23-300 (continued), p. 156.
 Recollect Missions in the Philippines, 1661-1712, in Blair and Robertson, vol. 41, pp. 57-272; Chapter 7, 'The Year 1677,' pp. 146-157; p.156.
 Noceda and de Sanlucar, Vocabulario de la lengua Tagala, see bolotong; Bergaño, Vocabulario de la lengua Pampanga, see bulutong.
 de la Rosa, Diccionario español - bisaya para las provincias de Sámar y Leyte, see poco.
 Wolff, A Dictionary of Cebuano Visayan, see puku.
 de Mentrida, Diccionario de la lengua Bisaya, Hiliguena, y Haraya de la Isla de Panay, see buti; de la Encarnacion. Diccionario español- bisaya, see buti.
 'Chicken Pox,' The Medical Symptoms Database (accessed 26 March 2015).
 de Mentrida, Diccionario de la lengua Bisaya, Hiliguena, y Haraya de la Isla de Panay, see hanga.
 de la Encarnacion, Diccionario español- bisaya, see hángga.
 Wolff, A Dictionary of Cebuano Visayan, see hangga.
 de la Rosa, Diccionario español - bisaya para las provincias de Sámar y Leyte, see tipdas, de Mentrida, Diccionario de la lengua Bisaya, Hiliguena, y Haraya de la Isla de Panay, see tipdas, Wolff, A Dictionary of Cebuano Visayan, see tipdas, Noceda and de Sanlucar, Vocabulario de la lengua Tagala, see tipdas, Bergaño, Vocabulario de la lengua Pampanga, see ticdas.
 'Leprosy (Hansens's Disease),' MedicineNet.com, (accessed 26 March 2015); 'Leprosy,' Wikipedia, English, n.d. (accessed 26 March 2015).
 de la Rosa, Diccionario español - bisaya para las provincias de Sámar y Leyte, see caragna, good; de Mentrida, Diccionario de la lengua Bisaya, Hiliguena, y Haraya de la Isla de Panay, see caguirguir; de la Encarnacion, Diccionario español- bisaya, see amomotol, balahac, coayap, caguidguid, casamdan, copil; Noceda and de Sanlucar, Vocabulario de la lengua Tagala, see bocaocao, borog, buti, cagos, cati, catin putacti, hila, pangati, potos; Bergaño, Vocabulario de la lengua Pampanga, see gatal.
 Mintz, Bikol Dictionary, Vol. I: English-Bikol Index; Vol. II: Bikol-English Dictionary, Introduction, Section 6.6.
 de la Rosa, Diccionario español - bisaya para las provincias de Sámar y Leyte, see ataman; de la Encarnacion, Diccionario español- bisaya, see ataman.
 Noceda and de Sanlucar, Vocabulario de la lengua Tagala, see monay.
 de la Rosa, Diccionario español - bisaya para las provincias de Sámar y Leyte, see banao.
 Winstedt, Unabridged Malay-English Dictionary, see pulas; Kamus Dewan, Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka, 1994, see pulas.
 'Asthma,' Better Health Channel (accessed 26 March 2015).
 'Oedema,' WebMD: Heart Disease Guide (assessed 26 March 2015).
 de la Rosa, Diccionario español - bisaya para las provincias de Sámar y Leyte, see labo labo; de la Encarnacion. Diccionario español- bisaya, see labo labo.
 'Epilepsy,' Better Health Channel (accessed 31 March 2015).
 'Hernias,' Better Health Channel (accessed 31 March 2015).
 'Scrofula,' Medscape (accessed 31 March 2015).