Intersections: Gender and Sexuality in Asia and the Pacific
Monograph 1: The Philippines at the Turn of the Sixteenth Century

Malcolm W. Mintz

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Chapter 10


This is a chapter which examines health and personal hygiene practices. Bathing, which was almost a daily ritual, is discussed in Section 1 and includes various references made by the early visitors and residents. 'The Call of Nature', the euphemistic title of Section 2, examines various toileting practices and how some of these related to polite behaviour. What to do about head and body lice is the topic of Section 3 and presented here are some of the implements used to search for and remove lice. In Section 4 on oral hygiene, the discussion focuses on ways of sweetening the breath, brushing and cleaning the teeth, and dealing with transitory and chronic problems associated with the mouth and lips.
The eyes and ears are discussed in Section 5. Specific mention is made of cleaning the ears and some of the medical problems which could occur if the ears were to become infected. Deafness of varying degrees and the development of what appears to be a sign language is also mentioned. As for the eyes, these have natural ways of cleaning themselves, and this is discussed along with problems such as styes, cataracts and partial and complete blindness.
The hands and feet are the topic of Section 6, and examined here are problems associated with disability, skin diseases, as well as calluses and blisters. Section 7 includes a long discussion on the treatment of abscesses, boils and ulcers, distinguishing among these conditions and looking at some of the plants which were used to aid healing. Wounds of various types and from various causes are discussed in Section 8 which includes treatments to relieve pain and prevent infection.
In Section 9 is an examination of medicines and medicinal plants, and Section 10 a discussion of medical implements, basically the cupping glass. With Section 11 begins a general discussion of sickness, including contagious diseases many of which led to epidemics devastating not only families, but whole towns and districts. The course of an illness, the symptoms, effects, care and recovery, or otherwise, are examined in Sections 12 and 13. Section 14 presents a variety of other ailments, from stroke to the common cold.

Bathing was a ritual that was noted and commented on by most of the Europeans residing or recording events in the Philippines in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Antonio de Morga mentions that, regardless of age or gender, Filipinos washed and refreshed themselves daily in creeks and rivers, a practice which started from the time they were born. Women bathed immediately after they gave birth[1] and bathing of the infant also took place as soon as it emerged from the womb.[2]
In modern Bikol, the baby's bath can be scented with leaves of the kadlóm (Pogestemon cablin, Patchouli), a plant of varying height to one metre and native to a number of Philippine provinces, including Camarines.[3] While a number of parts of the plant are used for medicinal purposes, namely the leaves, flower spikes and roots, it is the fragrant leaves which are used in the bath. Lisboa does not record this usage, simply identifying the kadlóm as a sweet-smelling plant.
    kadlóm plant (typ‑ having sweet-smelling leaves and said to contain medicinal properties; used in a baby's bath and as a hair conditioner) [MDL: a native, sweet-smelling plant]
Some of the areas used for bathing would have had water suitable only for washing, being too murky for drinking or use in cooking (tangód), and others would have to be protected from natural predators such as crocodiles (see Chapter 17, 'Hunting and Trapping,' Section 5 (vii)). To this end, enclosures would be formed with close-set poles to keep the bathers safe.[4]
    tangód the murky water of rivulets and streams used for washing, but not clean enough for drinking or for use in cooking [MDL]
Chirino describes Filipinos bathing with great modesty, almost sitting with the water reaching their necks so that no part of the body was exposed. Sunset was the most common time for bathing. It was a time when work in the home and fields was done and people were readying themselves for a more relaxing evening.[5]
Sinibaldo de Mas in his annotations to Gaspar de San Agustin's Conquistas de las Islas Philipinas, mentions that men and women took daily baths and bathed discretely together. The women entered the water wearing a tápis which was wrapped around the body and tied or held over the bosom. This was later removed once in the water so they could wash themselves. The men came into the water shirtless and wearing wide, loose pants.[6]
    tápis wrap-around skirt, sarong (typ‑); MAG‑, ‑ON to wear a tápis; MAG‑, ‑AN to dress s/o in a tápis [+MDL: MA‑ or MAG‑ to wear a tápis; MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to put on a tápis; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to dress s/o in a tápis]
A situation, perhaps a bit less modest, is described by Dampier for the part of Mindanao which he visited, the area of the current Cotabato City judging from the coordinates given. Here he mentions that if people came into the river to wash their clothes, they would strip, stand naked until the clothes were washed, then put them back on again and leave. As with the other reports, he mentions the frequency people bathed, and the delight they seemed to take in both washing themselves and swimming.[7]
There were precautions that could be taken to preserve one's modesty, such as covering one's private parts with a cloth and holding it in place with the hand (tagpón). Nevertheless, there would have been occasions when someone would be seen naked, something made all the more probable if the intent was deliberate (bála). These entries need not refer specifically to an occasion when bathing, but bathing certainly gives rise to a time when such voyeurism could occur.
    tagpón MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to cover one's private parts or genitals with a small cloth, holding it in place with the hand; MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to use a piece of cloth for this purpose [MDL]

    bála MAKA‑, MA‑ to inadvertently see a person's private parts; MA‑‑AN to be seen in this state (a person); MAHING‑, HING‑‑ON or MAGHING‑, PAGHING‑‑ON to put o/s in a position so as to be able to see s/o's private parts; MAHING‑, HING‑‑AN or MAGHING‑, PAGHING‑‑ON to peep or peek at s/o for this purpose; (fig‑) to catch s/o off guard: Pinaghihimaláhan ka bagá giráray ni kuyán That person is always looking to see when you make a mistake [MDL]
For Bikol, the two terms which most commonly described bathing were dígos and rígos, with the more detailed rígos the term used in the modern language. This set of cognates, with the addition of ligos, are those used through the central Philippine languages.
Waray uses the same set as Bikol, with rígos also having the fuller definition.[8] For Hiligaynon there are three sets, each with an alternate: digo ~ digos, rigo ~ rigos, ligo ~ ligos,[9] for Cebuano there is digos ~ digo and ligos ~ ligo with digo the more complete entry,[10] and for Tagalog there is simply lígo.[11]
    dígos MA‑ or MAG‑ to bathe; MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to bathe s/o; to bathe an animal; to wash the entire body; nadígos nin dugóˈ bathed in blood [MDL]

    rígos MAGKA‑ or MA‑ to bathe; to take a bath; MAGPA‑, PA‑‑ON to bathe s/o [+MDL: MA‑ or MAPA‑ or MAGPA‑ to bathe o/s; MA‑, ‑ON or MAPA‑, PA‑‑ON or MAGPA‑, PAGPA‑‑ON to bathe s/o; to wash s/t off when bathing; MA‑, ‑AN or MAPA‑, PA‑‑AN or MAGPA‑, PAGPA‑ ‑AN to bathe in a particular place (such as a river) (Note: the forms with KA‑ are used in Quipayó and those with PA‑ are used elsewhere)]
In modern Bikol, hísoˈ is a stone used for rubbing the body during bathing to help remove dirt or grime. During Lisboa's time the reference was to rubbing the body with oil, water, or another liquid to achieve the same end. If just part of the body was smeared with soot or grime, this area alone could be washed (damóy), as could the face (puraˈmós). Dirt could also just be wiped from the body, as well as moisture once one had finished bathing (páhid).
    hísoˈ MAG‑, ‑ON to rub dirt off the body with a stone while bathing; MAG‑, ‑AN to scrub the body clean in this way; PANG‑ the stone used for this purpose [MDL: MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to rub the body with water, oil or another liquid to clean it; MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to rub off dirt, grime when cleaning the body; MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to use a particular liquid, oil for this purpose; MANG‑, PANG‑‑ON to rub the body with a liquid frequently, or repeat the process on many people]

    damóy MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PA‑‑AN to wash a part of the body smeared with soot or grime; MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to wash off soot or grime; MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to use s/t for washing the body; MANG‑ to wash the face; to wash s/o or other parts of the body [MDL]

    puraˈmós MA‑ or MAG‑ to wash one's face; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to wash s/o's face; MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to wash s/t off (as dirt from the face): Puraˈmosí akó Wash my face; MANG‑, PANG‑‑AN to wash one's own face; MANG‑, PANG‑‑ON to wash s/t off (as dirt from one's face); (fig‑) Maghahápon pagpupuraˈmós nin lúhaˈ si kuyán That person has been crying all day; syn‑ muraˈmós [MDL]

    páhid MAG‑, ‑ON to wipe s/t off (as moisture from the body, dirt from the shoes); MAG‑, ‑AN to wipe (as the body with a towel, shoes at the door) [+MDL: MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to wipe s/t that is wet or dirty; MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to wipe off moisture or dirt]
There are enough pairs of entries in the Lisboa Vocabulario to indicate that there must have been a fossilised affix of the form pu-, perhaps the remnants of a longer, disyllabic word of which this is the remaining first or last syllable.[12] Not only are puraˈmós and muraˈmós synonyms, but modern Bikol has yet a third form, kuráˈmos. The closest possible root which can be found is damós which, while relating to the face, appears to carry the exact opposite meaning. The change of 'd' to 'r' intervocalically occurred commonly in old Bikol, even if this is not a change expected in the modern language. While the lack of the internal glottal stop cannot be explained there are enough pairs of words in old and modern Bikol showing an inconsistent appearance of the internal glottal stop that this may not be a major problem.
    kuráˈmos MAG‑ to wash or wipe the face with the hand

    damós MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to smear the face with s/t held in the hand; MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to smear s/t held in the hand on the face [MDL]
While damós caries the primary meaning of dirtying the face throughout the central Philippine languages, there are enough indications that the meaning may have once been more general. In Waray we also get the meaning 'to pass the hand over the face',[13] and in Hiligaynon we also find a meaning 'to scrub' or 'wash the face'[14] as we do in Cebuano, although the unambiguous reference to cleaning the face is to the entry hilamos.[15] References in Tagalog to two of the forms indicated, dámos and lámos, and additionally, amós, are only to dirt or blemishes on the face,[16] and in Kapampangan, lámos refers to the application of herbal preparations rubbed on the body, such as that of a person who is ill.[17]
Individual terms referred specifically not only to washing the face, but also the hands and feet (hanáw), or just the feet (pamsáˈ). Chirino describes houses commonly having an urn of water at the door for use by both residents and visitors. They washed their feet before entering, rubbing one foot against the other to remove any mud that would have adhered on their barefoot journey to the house or through work in the fields. The excess water and mud which was removed would have just drained away through the slats of the floor.[18]
    hanáw MAG‑, ‑ON to wash the hands or feet; MAG‑, ‑AN to wash s/o's hands or feet [+MDL: MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to wash s/o's hands or feet; MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to wash off mud or other dirt; MANG‑ to wash one's hands and feet; MANG‑, PANG‑‑AN to go around washing the hands and feet of others; MANG‑, PANG‑‑ON to wash off mud or other dirt; PANG‑‑AN: panhanáwan or panhahanáwan basin used for washing the hands or feet]

    pamsáˈ MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to wash s/o's feet; MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to remove mud or dirt when washing the feet; MANG‑ to wash one's own feet [MDL]
Pamsáˈ is a complex entry based on the root basáˈ 'to wet' or 'wash' and a prefix of the form pang- which is most likely from the set of general verbal affixes.[19] There is also one other change which has occurred over time, loss of the unstressed vowel of the root, leading to the rather specific entry associated with washing the feet: pang- + basáˈpamasáˈpamsáˈ.
    basáˈ wet, damp, soggy; MAG‑, ‑ON to wet, dampen or drench s/t; ... MAKA‑, MA‑ to get wet; KA‑‑AN: kabaˈsán lowlands; basáˈ-básaˈ soaking wet, sodden [+MDL: MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to wash (as rice, fish, boards); MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to wash off mud, dirt, grime; ‑ON: binsáˈ or binasáˈ water remaining after s/t has been washed]
No matter how common and frequent bathing was, there were obviously occasions when one did not or could not bathe or wash. One returning from the fields could be covered in mud (laˈmóy), something which, if not washed clean, could result in the more general and extreme reference to being filthy or foul (rupít).
    laˈmóy MAG‑ to be very muddy; to be covered in mud (a person): Naglaˈmóy ka na You are very muddy [MDL]

    rupít MA‑ dirty; MA‑‑ON filthy, foul; marupíton na táwo a filthy person MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to dirty or foul s/t which is clean; MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to dirty with s/t; MA‑, MA‑‑AN to be nauseated, sickened by s/t that is filthy, foul; to turn up one's nose at s/t [MDL]
Dirt on the face, limbs or body was referred to initially as duˈríng, and then as bangbáng when it remained there for a number of days. Such dirt might be seen in the creases of the skin (laˈláˈ), or noticeable when the skin was rubbed (ugsóng).
    duˈríng dirt (on the face, hands, body); MAG‑ to be dirty (a person): Nagduˈríng ka na You are dirty [MDL]

    bagangbáng grime or dirt which has remained on the body for a number of days; MA‑ or MAG‑ to remain or accumulate on the body (dirt, grime); to be dirty with such grime (a person) [MDL]

    laˈláˈ dirt in the creases of the skin (of the neck, arms, legs); MAG‑ to collect (such dirt); ‑ON to have this type of dirt (a person) [+MDL: laláˈ dirt found along the creases of the neck of sweaty children, appearing as a black line; MA‑ or MAG‑ to collect in the folds of skin (such dirt or grime); (PAG‑)‑ON to have such dirt or grime (a child); ‑AN: laláˈan one with such dirt or grime]

    ugsóng dirt which appears when the skin is rubbed; scum; MA‑ describing one with such dirt; MAG‑ to become dirty in this way [+MDL: dirt found on the body, clothes; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to dirty s/t; MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to dirty with s/t]
For modern Bikol muˈmóˈ describes someone with dirt on the face. Raˈpít, for Lisboa, is a more general term, but also includes the specific reference to food found around the mouth.
    muˈmóˈ describing s/o with dirt on their face; MAG‑, ‑AN to smear dirt on s/o's face, to dirty s/o's face; MAKA‑, MA‑‑AN to get one's face smeared with dirt

    raˈpít dirty, filthy; also describing s/o with food smeared on the face, particularly around the mouth; MAG‑ to be dirty; to have food smeared on the face [+MDL: Nagraˈpít na iníng áyam This dog is filthy; Nagraˈpít ka na You're filthy]
Working in a hot and humid climate such as the Philippines would have caused one to regularly sweat (gaˈnót and its synonym gangsáˈ), perspiration showing in trails on any grime that may have been on the skin (gúyit-gúyit), or bathing the whole body on days of extreme heat or exertion (dúlas).
    gaˈnót sweat, perspiration; ‑ON to sweat, perspire; ... MA‑‑AN to be wet with perspiration [+MDL: (PAG‑)‑ON to sweat, perspire; (PAG‑)‑AN to be wet with perspiration (clothes); syn‑ gangsáˈ]

    gúyit-gúyit trails of sweat which show in make-up or dirt on the face; moisture trails on a melon or through the ink of s/t written; MA‑ or MAG‑ to run in this way (sweat); MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to leave trails on s/t [MDL]

    dúlas (PAG‑)‑ON to be bathed in sweat: Dinúlas na akó nin gangsáˈ I am bathed in sweat [MDL]
Anghól, the smell of perspiration, is a term which has been lost in modern Bikol, although that of underarm odour, angsód, would be fully recognisable. Baˈngóg is a modern term referring to the smell of mud with rotted leaves and wood, and figuratively to the sweaty smell of small children.
    anghól the smell of mange, human sweat, an ulcerated wound; MA‑ to have such a smell; ‑IMIN‑ to develop such a smell: Iminanghól na kitá We smell sweaty; Iminanghól na iníng bádoˈ mo Your clothes smell of sweat [MDL]

    angsód underarm odor; MA‑ describing s/o with underarm odor [+MDL: ‑IMIN‑ to have such a smell (a person): Iminangsód ka doy You really smell]

    baˈngóg the smell of mud containing rotted wood, leaves; (fig‑) the sweaty smell of small children; MAG‑ to develop this type of smell
Lisboa's entry, bangóg, is undoubtedly the same entry as the modern Bikol, baˈngóg, although the meaning has changed significantly over time. The reference in Lisboa is to the smell of dung or excrement, most likely that of animals (símang).
    bangóg the smell of dung or excrement; MA‑ to have such a smell: Mabangóg iyán símang nin áyam The dog excrement smells; Mabangóg iyán símang nin ikós The cat excrement smells; MA‑ or MAG‑ to grow worse (such a smell); (PAG‑) ‑AN to exude such a smell; to emanate from a particular place (such a smell); ‑IMIN‑ Minangóg na doy kamó You really smell of excrement [MDL]

    símang animal feces, excrement; MA‑ or MAG‑ to defecate (animals) [MDL]

This section looks at some of the more undiscussed areas of personal hygiene; what was the protocol of going to the toilet to defecate or urinate and what was said about the inadvertent passing of wind.
(i) Defecating
Where did the early Bikolanos go to relieve themselves? There were any number of options. Houses had a hole in the floor (lawá) through which residents could urinate or defecate. It is not clear from the entry in Lisboa exactly when this hole would have been used. With the availability of other options for relieving oneself, in the scrub or thickets found behind houses or at the edge of town (líbod), or even the river, it is possible that it would have been used at night when one might have been afraid to leave the confines of the house, or at times when one was ill. Dampier mentions that for homes in the area of Mindanao he visited, such a hole was used by the ill, with others using the river to relieve themselves. [20]
    lawá a hole in the floor of houses through which one urinates or defecates; Daˈí na naghaháliˈ sa lawá si kuyán That person won't leave the lawá (Said about s/o who is very shy and won't get up after relieving themselves) [MDL]

    líbod backyard; the open area to the rear of a house [MDL: scrub or thickets found around towns or behind houses; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to relieve o/s in such an area]
The position taken when relieving oneself would have been squatting (ukrát). More specifically, someone could find a position over a hole or latrine (líhoˈ), or perched on a log or length of bamboo (banglág). Urgency, or the simple lack or care, could result in traces of faeces being left around the hole, either of a latrine or that made in the floor of a house (salangpáˈ).
    ukrát MA‑ or MAG‑ to squat to relieve o/s (defecate); MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to squat in a particular place for this purpose; MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to place one's buttocks in such a position [MDL]

    líhoˈ MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to squat or position o/s over a hole or latrine when defecating or relieving o/s [MDL]

    banglág a log or length of bamboo which one crouches down on when going to the toilet, defecating; also ‑AN: babanglágan [MDL]

    salangpáˈ feces which remain at the edge of the hole or on the floor of a house after defecating; MA‑ to remain after defecating (feces); MA‑‑AN to be marked by feces after defecating (the rim of a latrine, the floor); MAPA‑, PA‑‑ON to leave traces of feces; MAPA‑, PA‑‑AN to leave traces of feces on the floor or on the rim of a latrine; var‑ salampáˈ [MDL]
The need to defecate was not always planned, and someone could develop cramps or a sudden urge to relieve themselves (íwis). In such cases, when it was not possible to go to a private place, or any place where facilities were provided, a person would be forced to just relieve themselves on the side of the road (abót).
    íwis MA‑ or MAG‑ to have a sudden urge to defecate; to have stomach cramps and need to defecate [MDL]

    abót (PAG‑)‑ON to be unable to go to the latrine or to a place where one is provided, and so be forced to take care of ones needs along the road [MDL]
When communicating the fact that one had to go to the toilet, the rudest expression would have been use of the actual word for faeces (udóˈ). The use of euphemisms in what must have been polite company indicates that there could have been some reluctance in being too direct in announcing ones intentions. In a rather abbreviated entry, listed separately, sadóp means 'to go into the forest'. The fuller entry is the polite expression that one has to go the toilet. The same is true with nanggílid based on the root gílid meaning 'edge' or 'perimeter'. Here the intention to go to the toilet is expressed as 'going to the side or edge'.
    udóˈ dung, excrement, feces; MAG‑ to defecate; MAKAPA‑, MAPA‑ to feel like defecating [+MDL: MA‑ or MAG‑ to defecate (the crudest expression); MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to eliminate feces when defecating]

    sadóp to go into the forest; sadóp MA‑ or MAG‑ to go to relieve o/s; to go to defecate (polite usage); ‑AN: sasadopán a place where one goes to relieve o/s [MDL]

    nanggílid MANG‑ to ease or relieve oneself; to say one has to relieve o/s; used in polite conversation to mean 'to defecate'; MANG‑, PANG‑‑AN to relieve o/s in a particular area [MDL]

    gílid edge, margin, perimeter, rim ... [+MDL: bank of a river; edge, perimeter; sa gílid nin dágat the edge of the sea, the seashore; MAPA‑ to go the edge; MAPA‑, PA‑‑ON to go to look for s/t at the edge or perimeter]

And once the act was over, what were the options for cleaning oneself? If water was handy, either in a container or from a river or the sea, then it was possible to wash (puˈpóˈ), clearing away the remaining faeces (ímil). If a cloth was available, then this could be used, or if one had gone into the forest or thickets behind the house or at the edge of town, one always had access to leaves (íwang) or a small stick (iród).
    puˈpóˈ MAG‑, ‑AN to wash the behind after defecating; MAG‑, ‑ON to wash s/t off or away when washing the behind [+MDL: pupóˈ MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to wash the behind of a child or one who is ill after they have defecated; MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to wash off feces; MANG‑ to wash o/s in this way]

    ímil feces which one washes away when cleaning the bottom after defecating [MDL]

    íwang MAG‑, ‑ON to wipe oneself after defecating; PANG‑ that which is used for wiping; toilet paper [+MDL: cloth or leaves used for wiping o/s after defecating; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to wipe s/o's behind (as that of a child); MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to wipe off feces; MANG‑ to wipe one's own behind; MANG‑, PANG‑‑ON to wipe off feces when cleaning one's behind]

    iród MA‑ or MAG‑ to clean o/s with a stick after defecating (when nothing else is available); MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to clean away feces with a stick after defecating [MDL]
Having to go to the toilet in areas which were public open spaces meant that privacy was far from guaranteed. Shyness or embarrassment could overcome someone forcing them to abandon their attempt (yong), or someone could be disturbed or startled by another person saying or doing something that makes them just unable to continue, siból in both old and modern Bikol, and súbak in modern Bikol alone.
    yong MA‑ to feel shy or embarrassed when seen defecating or urinating and be unable to continue as a result; MAKA‑ to embarrass s/o by catching them unawares when urinating or defecating [MDL]

    siból MAG‑, ‑ON to disturb or startle s/o (usually by doing or saying s/t crude); MAKA‑, MA‑ to be startled into inaction (often when urinating or defecating) [+MDL: MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑ ‑ON to startle s/o, causing them to stop what they are doing; to suddenly awaken s/o; to disturb a chicken in a nest before it has laid an egg; MA‑ to be suddenly awakened; to be startled into inaction (one who is working, a thief about to steal s/t, a chicken about to lay an egg); MAKA‑ to be startling; to create a disturbance]

    súbak MAG‑, ‑ON to startle or disturb s/o by saying s/t crude; MAKA‑, MA‑ to be startled into inaction, often when defecating or urinating
Stomach ailments that still affect people today were probably just as common in the Bikol region at the turn of the sixteenth century. Constipation (tuból), causing a person to strain when defecating (daˈgós), was a condition that clearly existed. The modern Bikol entry, igít, referring to defecating bit by bit, may also refer to constipation, although here there has been a change in meaning over time. Lisboa records this as the bowel movement of a small child.
    tuból stool; constipated; ‑ON or MA‑ to be constipated; MAKA‑ constipating [+MDL: (PAG‑)‑ON to be constipated]

    daˈgós MAG‑ to groan under a strain, often associated with the strain of defecating when constipated [+MDL: MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to push forcefully (a woman giving birth, a constipated person when defecating)

    igít MAG‑ to defecate bit by bit [MDL: bowel movement of a small child, an infant; MAG‑ defecate (a small child, infant)]
To treat constipation, Bikolanos used the leaf of a plant called túbaˈ (Croton tiglium, the croton oil plant), a plant with universal spread and a wide variety of uses. While all parts of the plant have purgative properties, the modern Bikol entry makes reference to the leaf and its stem. Lisboa refers to the fruit, which is most probably the seed.[21]
    túbaˈ plant (typ‑ possessing a leaf and its stem which may be used as a laxative, and seeds from which an oil may be extracted effective in killing or stunning fish) [+MDL: a small shrub, the fruit of which serves as a fish poison and laxative; MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to catch fish with the oil from such a plant; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to poison a section of a river with such a plant; ‑AN fish caught in such a way]
Diarrhea, of whatever form (bugrís, irís), could also have been a recurring problem. A natural treatment for this in modern Bikol is use of fruits and seeds of the tabigíˈ tree (Xylocarpus granatum), a tree of variable height to 12 metres found growing in mangrove swamps. Lisboa refers only to the high quality of the wood, but the fruit or seeds, as indicated in the modern entry, are known for the treatment of diarrhea.[22]
What must have been a severe form of diarrhea is listed by Lisboa as bulóng which he attributes to the eating of something unusual. Such diarrhea can result in extreme dehydration which can be a cause of death. It is hard to speculate further from the information provided in the entry about what the underlying cause of such diarrhea might have been.
    bugrís diarrhea, loose bowels; ‑ON describing s/o who often has diarrhea; MAG‑ to have diarrhea [+MDL: watery diarrhea; MA‑ or MAG‑ to have loose bowels]

    irís watery diarrhea; MA‑ or MAG‑ to have diarrhea [MDL]

    tabigíˈ tree (typ‑ small, the fruits and seeds of which may be used to stop diarrhea and the bark used to make an astringent; Zylocarpus granatum) [MDL: taˈbigíˈ tree (typ‑ possessing a good quality wood)]

    bulóng MA‑ to have diarrhea, sometimes resulting in death; MAKA‑ to cause such diarrhea (as a type of food which is not usually eaten) [MDL]

(ii) Passing Wind
Wind or gas (suˈdól) is produced in the stomach as part of the normal process of digestion, and when the build-up is sufficient, such wind escapes (atót). At times when one has a particularly bad stomach, expressed figuratively in the entry suknít, such escaped wind or gas could carry with it an offensive smell (batáˈ).
    suˈdól flatulence, gas, wind [+MDL: MA‑ or MAG‑ to hurt (the stomach); (PAG‑) ‑AN: to have a stomachache; I(PAG)‑ to cause one to have a stomachache]

    atót MAG‑ to break or pass wind; to fart; also MAKAPA‑, MAPA‑ [+MDL: MA‑ or MAG‑ to fart; MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to let out a sound when breaking wind; MAGKA‑ to inadvertently break wind]

    suknít MA‑ wood which is difficult to split due to having a twisted grain: Abóng suknít kainí What a difficult piece of wood this is to split (due to its twisted grain); (fig‑) Si masuknít nin buˈót na táwo si kuyán What a bad stomach (digestive system) that person has [MDL]

    batáˈ MA‑ describing a bad smell; foul, putrid, rank, stinking, having a stench; MAG‑ to develop a bad smell; to reek [+MDL: MA‑ smell of s/t rotten or dead; MA‑ or MAG‑ to grow stronger (such a smell); MA‑ to have such a smell; ‑IMIN‑: Minatáˈ na It really smells; Minatáˈ na kitá There is a real smell about us (Said in annoyance when someone has farted)]
The passing of wind is often not that silent, and a series of onomatopoetic words attempt to capture the right tone for the sound produced, from the light paritípit to the somewhat louder pagarít and the positively thunderous parák-parák.
    paritípit the sound of farting or breaking wind when defecating; also the sound made with the mouth in imitation; MA‑ or MAG‑ to make this sound (a person when defecating) [MDL]

    pagarít sound of air forced through the lips; a raspberry; also a fart; MA‑ or MAG‑ to make this sound; to break wind, fart; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to direct this sound toward s/o [MDL]

    parák-parák a booming sound such as that of thunder; MA‑ or MAG‑ to make such a sound; to have thunder and lightning; (PAG‑)‑AN to be affected by such a sound; Harí ka dihán sa pantáw; parák-parakán ka Get off the porch; you'll be struck by lightning; (fig‑) Síˈisay iyán parák-parák na? Who is making that thundering noise? (Said when one defecates with a lot of wind) [MDL]

(iii) Urinating
Urine and the act of urinating is íhiˈ, a term commonly used by both men and women. Women, however, also had another term, ásaw, which was available to them, and not to men.
    íhiˈ urine; (sl‑) piss, pee; MAG‑ to urinate; MAKAPA‑, MAPA‑ to feel like urinating; ‑AN urinal [+MDL: MA‑ or MAG‑ to urinate; (fig‑) Garó ipinaglakáw na íhiˈ iníng pagtarám mo Your speech is like taking your urine for a walk (Said when what s/o says makes no sense)]

    ásaw urine; MA‑ or MAG‑ to urinate (used only by women); both men and women use íhiˈ; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to urinate in a particular place [MDL]
Puˈsón, the term for diaphragm in modern Bikol and translated as 'stomach lining' by Lisboa, played a role in two euphemisms which were also used by women. Muˈsón was used in polite conversation to refer to urinating. The root form here is puˈsón. A second euphemism also includes puˈsón and is the figurative expression in the entry kuból.
    puˈsón diaphragm; loin; suntukón sa puˈsón to hit s/o in the diaphragm; to knock the wind out of s/o [MDL: stomach lining, tripe; ‑ON: pupuˈsónon pot-bellied]

    muˈsón MANG‑ to urinate, a term commonly used in polite conversation by women; PANG‑ urination [MDL]

    kuból MA‑ hard (water chestnuts, rice): Makuból iníng apúlid This water chestnut is hard; MA‑ or MAG‑ to become hard; (fig‑) Nakuból na iníng sakóng pamumuˈsónon Said in polite conversation by a woman who is urinating [MDL]
Puˈsón and muˈsón are related in the following way. There were particular changes which occurred to the root when the verbal infix -um- was used. One of these changes occurred when it was affixed to roots beginning with 'b' or 'p'; the 'm' of the infix became the initial consonant of the root, and the initial 'p' or 'b' consonant of root and the 'u' of the infix were lost: -um- + puˈsón → pumuˈsón muˈsón.[23]
The entry wigwíg clearly refers to men, and so may the entry tagróˈ which is a problem men might have suffered from if they had an enlarged prostate. One of the modern slang words for urinating is tiˈrís which during Lisboa's time referred to the peeing of a cat.
    wigwíg MAG‑, I‑ to shake excess water from s/t; to shake down a thermometer; to shake a pen to see if it has ink in it; to shake the penis after urinating to remove the last few drops of urine; to jiggle s/t [MDL: MANG‑, PANG‑‑AN to shake the penis to remove the remaining drops after urinating; MANG‑, PANG‑‑ON to remove the remaining drops of urine by shaking the penis]

    tagróˈ MA‑ or MAG‑ to have difficulty urinating, the urine coming out in drops [MDL]

    tiˈrís (sl‑) MAG‑ to urinate; to piss, pee (humans) [MDL: tirís MA‑ or MAG‑ to urinate (a cat); MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to urinate on s/t]
Clearly there was a proper time and place for urinating, and it was not something to be done in front of others (tabíd). Being seen urinating in public was considered rude and disrespectful, and what are basically identical figurative expressions in the entries basáng and taruˈpák leave no doubt about this.
    tabíd MA‑, ‑AN: tabirán or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN: pagtabirán to urinate where one can be seen by others; Natabíd ka lámang dihán! Is that where you are urinating, in front of others! [MDL]

    basáng describing s/t unthought out or unplanned; impromptu, impulsive, spontaneous... [+MDL: basáng lámang describing s/t which has no value or s/t which happened without being planned ...; MA‑, -ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to do s/t without thought or consideration; to mistreat or injure s/o without reason; to be rude, disrespectful: ... Nabasáng ka lámang na imíhiˈ dihán sa dálan What a rude thing you're doing, urinating by the road; MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑to do s/t without rhyme or reason; to do s/t unexpected; MANG‑, MANG‑‑AN to do s/t in vain; to do s/t which doesn't produce the desired result; MAKA‑, IKA‑ to do s/t impulsively]

    taruˈpák senseless; rude, disrespectful; used in place of basáng ... when annoyed or angry; MA‑ to do s/t without rhyme or reason; to do s/t unexpected (and not appreciated); to do s/t rude or disrespectful: Nataruˈpák ka lámang na umíhiˈ dihán sa dálan What a rude thing you are doing, urinating by the road [MDL]
With people urinating outside, and very possibly repeatedly in the same places, these areas would begin to take on a distinct and not very pleasant smell of urine. The milder smell was referred to as pangsóˈ and the stronger as paˈrát, the term appearing without the glottal stop during Lisboa's time.
    pangsóˈ the smell of urine; not as strong as paˈrát; MA‑ to smell of urine; MA‑‑ON to smell heavily of urine [MDL]

    paˈrát MA‑ describing a strong smell of urine; MAG‑ to develop this smell [+MDL: parát MA‑ strong smell of old urine, stronger than pangsóˈ; ‑IMIN‑: Minarát na The urine really smells]
And what about spitting? There is little said about this in the recorded documents, but it must have been something which occurred throughout the day given the prevalence of chewing betel nut. The simple reference to spitting is lútab, but clearly spitting in certain places was out of bounds and would lead to the angry expression ludáˈ.
    lútab spit; MA‑ or MAG‑ to spit; MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to spit s/t out; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑ ‑AN to spit on or at s/t [MDL]

    ludáˈ spit; to spit (said when annoyed or angry, used in place of lútab): Kíˈisay namán iníng ludáˈ digdí? Whose spit is this here? [MDL]

The head louse, Pediculus capitis, is a small (2.5-3.5 mm), blood-sucking insect which has only one host, humans.[24] The claws on each of its six legs allow it to hold firmly onto the strands of hair. It is also capable of moving quickly across the scalp. The mature and immature lice, referred to as nymphs, feed on the blood drawn from the surface of the scalp.
Each louse can lay up to eight eggs a day, referred to as nits, enabling it to produce a substantial number of eggs during the span of its life, generally one month. The eggs are attached firmly to the base of the hair shaft near the scalp, and grow out with the growing of the hair.
Lice may be present in the hair for quite some time before one becomes aware they are there, and awareness generally comes due to the irritation caused by the their blood-sucking behaviour. The scalp becomes itchy and the person begins to scratch. Visually both the lice and their eggs attached to the hair can be seen when the hair is closely examined.[25]
The hair louse in Bikol is kúto, a term which is shared not only among the central Philippines languages, but closely cognate forms are found throughout the Austronesian language family.[26]
The immature lice, the nymphs, those which have recently hatched, are kuyumád in Bikol and recognisable cognate forms are also found in a number of the other central Philippine languages; Kapampangan, kumad, [27] Hiligaynon, kuyumar,[28] and Cebuano, kuyamak.[29] Modern Tagalog has a listing identical to that of Bikol, kuyumád,[30] although this term does not appear in Noceda.
Luˈsá are the nits or eggs of a louse in Bikol. Tagalog has the cognate form, lisá in addition to an unrelated form, kupi [31] and Kapampangan the same form showing metaheisis, lias.[32] The cognate form in Waray, Cebuano and Hiligaynon is lusa.[33]
    kúto hair louse; ... MAGHING‑, HING‑‑ON to remove lice; MAGHING‑, HING‑ ‑AN to delouse s/o [+MDL: (PAG‑)‑ON to be covered with head lice (a person); MAHING‑, HING‑ ‑ON to remove head lice; MAHING‑, HING‑‑AN to delouse s/o; kútong áyam dog flea; kútong ikós cat flea]

    kuyumád tiny, young lice; ‑ON one having such lice; ‑ON or MA‑ to have such lice [+MDL]

    luˈsá nit, the egg of a louse; ‑ON: luˈsáhon describing s/o with nits; ‑ON or MA‑ to have nits [+MDL: MA‑ one with nits]
There are also other references to the various stages in the life cycle of the louse. In Kapampangan kulisap refers to lice larger than the nymph stage [34] and in Tagalog the same term refers either to small lice or a large infestation of lice.[35] Kulísap in modern Bikol refers only to dandruff, a reference not found in the Lisboa where the term is dakí, a term shared by Waray and Cebuano.[36].
    kulísap dandruff, small scales of dead skin which form on the scalp, often caused by excessive secretion of the sebaceous glands; IGWÁ or MAY / ‑ON or MA‑ to have dandruff

    dakí dandruff; ‑ON or MA‑ ‑ON a person with dandruff [MDL]
The head is not the only place on the human affected by lice. Those found on the body or in ones clothes have a distinct term, túma in Bikol, a form shared with the other central Philippine languages.[37]
    túma clothes lice, body lice; (PAG‑)‑ON to be infested with such lice (the body, clothes); MAHING‑, HING‑‑ON or MAGHING‑, PAGHING‑‑ON or MANGHING‑, PANGHING‑‑ON to search for such lice; MAHING‑, HING‑‑AN or MAGHING‑, PAGHING‑‑AN or MANGHING‑, PANGHING‑‑AN to search one's body, clothes for lice [MDL]
In addition to the itch created by the biting behaviour of lice, it is also possible to feel them crawling across the skin or scalp (kumáy-kumáy).
    kumáy-kumáy MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to creep or crawl across the skin (a large number of insects, such as lice); ... (fig‑) Kumáy-kumáy na iníng nababatáyan ko What I'm stepping on is running all over the place (Said when the bottom of one's feet tickle); MANG‑ to move in all directions; to run wild (insects over the skin): Nangumáy-kumáy na iníng kúto ko The lice on my head are running wild [MDL]
Knowing that one has lice leads inevitably to a search to find, remove and kill them. This can involve looking for lice in ones own hair, but more commonly, in the hair of others (siksík). The slow search involves the parting of the hair (sukáy) and then the removal of any lice that are found with the fingers (húgot).
    siksík MAG‑, ‑ON to feel for lice, fleas, sand in hair, fur or feathers; MAG‑, ‑AN to search for these in one's hair, fur or feathers of a particular person, animal or bird [+MDL: MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN or MANG‑, PANG‑‑AN to look for lice in the hair, or in the hair of others]

    sukáy MAG‑ to part the hair, usually by using the fingers; MAG‑, ‑ON to search for s/t on the scalp by parting the hair [+MDL: MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to part or separate s/t, as grass with the hands, a stick; to part the hair with the hands to look for lice; MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑ ‑ON to look for s/t in the grass; to look for lice in the hair; (fig‑) Tará nakasukáy ka You have met your match; Tará nasukayán ka na kaiyán nin si pagrírong mo You have been caught out by your lie]

    húgot MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to remove or pick things out with the fingers (as lice from the hair, grains of rice from the spike or head); MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to remove lice from the hair or grains from a spike [MDL]
A more thorough search for lice in the hair can be made with a reed or small piece of bamboo (sarík). The lice, once found and removed, are then crushed with a fingernail (tadós).
    sarík a piece of bamboo or a reed used for finding and killing head lice; MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to use a reed for this purpose; MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to look for head lice with such a reed; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to search through a person's hair for lice with such a reed [MDL]

    tadós MAG‑, ‑ON to crush s/t with a fingernail [MDL: MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to crush lice with a fingernail; MA‑, ‑AN: tadsán or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN: pagtadsán to crush lice against s/t; (fig‑) Si makuríng kabaˈsógan ni kuyán, katadsán na nin túma an tulák That person is so full, body lice can be crushed against his stomach]
Lice could also be removed by use of a fine-toothed comb which in modern Bikol is súrod. While Lisboa refers to this as simply a comb, it is likely that it also served the purpose of removing lice. Cognate forms with this specific meaning are found in most of the other central Philippine languages: Tagalog suyod [38] or the older form, suyor,[39] Cebuano sulod,[40] Hiligaynon sulor,[41] and Waray, surod.[42]
    súrod a small-toothed comb used for removing lice; MAG‑, ‑ON to remove lice with such a comb [MDL: comb; MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to comb the hair]
There was, however, no guarantee that combing would succeed in removing all of the lice. Some may have still remained on the scalp (kupkóp), and others still firmly attached to the strands of hair (libgáw). The process of searching, removing and killing lice would have been repeated periodically, ending only when every individual in the community was free of infestation, an unlikely prospect.
    kupkóp MA‑ or MAG‑ to cling to the scalp when the hair is combed (lice); to hug the sandy bottom of the sea (a skate or ray fish when speared or harpooned) [MDL]

    libgáw lice which remain in the hair after cleaning [MDL]

This section examines a number of issues which relate to the breath, teeth, mouth and lips. Included is not only a discussion of hygiene, but also a discussion of some of the conditions affecting these areas of the body.
(i) Bad Breath
Bad breath (áhaw) can have any number of origins, the sinuses, throat, stomach, esophagus and lungs, for example, but in the vast majority of cases the origin is bacteria in the mouth, located primarily at the back of the tongue (dílaˈ) or below the gumline (tatakdán nin ngípon, see ngípon)[43]. Having bad breath is usually something you have to discover for yourself, as sharing that type of information is generally considered impolite. What was considered polite at the turn of the sixteenth century in the Philippines is hard to know, but Lisboa does include one example where this information in conveyed by comparing the breath to the smell, most likely sour, given off by tubáˈ (the sap of the coconut, nípaˈ, or similar palm trees used in making vinegar or a liquor of the same name) when collected from bamboo containers attached to coconut or nipaˈ palms (haˈgós, see Chapter 2, 'Food ,' Section 1(ii)).
    áhaw MA‑ to have bad breath; MA‑ or MAG‑ to develop a bad smell (the breath) [MDL]

    dílaˈ tongue; MAG‑, ‑AN to lick s/t; MAG‑, ‑ON to lick s/t off [+MDL: MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to lick s/t; MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to lick s/t off; to lap s/t up with the tongue; (fig‑) Uyá sa puró kan dílaˈ It's there on the tip of my tongue; diláˈ-dílaˈ MA‑ or MAG‑ to flick the tongue back and forth (like a snake or lizard)]

    ngípon tooth, teeth; ‑ON: ngingipónon describing s/o with large or prominent teeth; MAGKA‑ to teethe; tutukdán nin ngípon gums; sockets in the upper and lower jaw into which the teeth fit; ... [+MDL: tatakdán nin ngípon or tutudkán kan ngípon sockets in the upper or lower jaw into which the teeth fit]

    haˈgós MAG‑, ‑ON to collect tubáˈ; MAG‑, ‑AN to collect tubáˈ from a particular palm; MAG‑, I‑ to use a particular container for collecting tubáˈ [+MDL: hagós MA‑, ‑ON to collect tubáˈ; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to collect tubáˈ that has run from a particular palm; MANG‑, PANG‑‑ON to steal tubáˈ from the place where it collects; to collect the tubáˈ (the owner); (fig‑) Garó na ing hahagosán iníng hangáw mo Your breath smells like tubáˈ when it is collected (Said to s/o with bad breath)]
One way of sweetening the breath mentioned in a report of 1621 was to chew búyoˈ, the leaf which is mixed with the areca nut, búnga, and lime (also see Section 6(iii)). These leaves are also said to prevent tooth decay.[44] The aromatic scent of these leaves is attributed to the existence of organic compounds referred to as phenols, related to alcohols, in addition to the presence of eugenol, a clove-oil type compound. As for the prevention of tooth decay, the betel leaf is also said to contain fluoride, and it is this which may have helped to prevent carries or cavities.[45]
    búyoˈ vine (typ‑ Piper betle, possessing a leaf used as part of the mixture of betel nut and lime called mamáˈ); ‑AN a place where this vine grows [+MDL]

(ii) The Teeth
Whatever precautions were taken, carries did occur and needed to be attended to. Children could have rotting teeth, rubrób, a term which in modern Bikol refers to the decaying teeth of adults as well, or the teeth of adults could rot at the base, gúˈod. Additionally, a tooth could get knocked out, or fall out, an occurrence affecting both the young, with the loss of baby teeth, and the old (típoˈ). Rotting teeth would at some point be accompanied by a toothache and while we might assume that there would be any number of plant extracts capable of relieving the pain, I have not been able to find any references in Lisboa. A 1650 citation for Mindoro, however, does mention that the spine or barb at the tail of a stingray, removed when the fish is still alive, and rubbed against the teeth would bring relief.[46]
    rubrób decaying or rotting teeth; ‑ON one possessing such teeth; MAG‑ to decay or rot (the teeth) [MDL: a child with decaying or rotting teeth; decaying or rotting teeth; MA‑ or MAG‑ to decay or rot (the teeth of children)]

    gúˈod rotten at the base (posts in the ground, teeth); MA‑ to rot at the base; MA‑‑AN: maguˈóran to have rotten teeth (a person); to have one's posts rot at the base (an owner); (fig‑) Anó iníng garó ka na ing gúˈod What is this; it's like you are a rotting post (Said when approaching s/o who remains seated) [MDL]

    típoˈ MAG‑, ‑ON to knock out a tooth or teeth; MAKA‑, MA‑ to get a tooth knocked out; MA‑ ‑AN to lose a tooth; IKA‑ to cause a tooth to fall out [+MDL: MANG‑ to lose one's teeth (one who is old, or one who is young when losing their baby teeth): Naninípoˈ na iníng ákiˈ This child is losing her baby teeth]
During the regular course of eating particles of food would inevitably get caught between the teeth (tingá, galhóˈ) and due to their annoying presence, they would have to be removed. General terms for a toothpick can be derived from each of these terms, as can be seen in the entries below, but the material these were made of was most likely a sliver of wood or bamboo (sipák).
    tingá particles of food caught between the teeth; MAKA‑ to get stuck between the teeth (particles of food); MAGHING‑, HING‑‑ON to remove such particles from between the teeth; MAGHING‑, HING‑‑AN to clean the teeth of food; MAGHING‑, IHING‑ to use a toothpick to clean the teeth [+MDL: HING‑ hiningá toothpick; MAHING‑, HING‑‑ON or MAGHING‑, PAGHING‑‑ON to remove bits of food from between the teeth; MAHING‑, HING‑‑AN or MAGHING‑ PAGHING‑ ‑AN to clean the teeth in this way; Garó na nagtingáng kutíng It is as if you have a kitten caught between your teeth (Said when a child is restless and won't stop moving about); Aanhón ko iníng garó na ing tingá What am I going to do with this which is like the food caught between the teeth? (Said to show a lack of generosity on the part of s/o who has given you s/t)]

    galhóˈ food which gets caught between the teeth; (PAG‑)‑ON or (PAG‑)‑AN to be dirty with particles of food (the teeth); I(PAG)‑ to be caught between the teeth (particles of food); MANGHING‑, PANGHING‑‑ON to remove particles of food from between the teeth; MANGHING‑, PANGHING‑‑AN to clean the teeth of particles of food; MANGHING‑, IPANGHING‑ to use s/t for the removal of particles of food (such as a toothpick); HING‑: higalhóˈ toothpick [MDL]

    sipák MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to split off a tiny piece of wood or bamboo (as for use as a toothpick); MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to split off such a sliver from s/t; (fig‑) sipák na buˈót nin táwo disobedient; a person who does not do what he or she is told [MDL]
The teeth of most Bikolanos were not white. They were traditionally dyed black or red and further embellished with an inlay or peg of gold.[47] Additionally, the repeated chewing of betel nut would redden the teeth as well as the mouth and lips.(see Chapter 8, 'Jewellery and Body Ornamentation,' Section 2).
Ordinary cleaning would be done with a brush made from hog's bristles, kikhíˈ, an entry which also has reference to the removal of a reddish discolouration from between the teeth, no doubt caused by the chewing of betel nut. The teeth would be brushed to remove any particles of food, and rubbed to remove any unwanted stains (hínis, hishís). Teeth which were very black would need to be scoured (lítik).
    kikhíˈ brush (typ‑ fine, made from hog's bristles, used to add red ochre dye (sulpóˈ) to gold); also used for cleaning the teeth; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to burnish gold or clean the teeth with such a brush; MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to remove reddish discoloration from between the teeth with such a brush [MDL]

    hínis MAG‑, ‑AN to brush the teeth; MAG‑, ‑ON to clean the teeth of food particles [+MDL: MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to clean the teeth; to clean weapons by rubbing off rust or dirt with an abrasive such as iron fillings; MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to remove particles of food when cleaning the teeth; to remove rust or dirt when cleaning weapons; MANG‑ to clean weapons in this way on a regular basis]

    hishís MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to clean arms, tools, the teeth; MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑ ‑ON to clean arms or tools of rust, dirt; to clean the teeth of food particles, stains [MDL]

    lítik MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to scour or clean teeth which are very black: Garó na doy lítik iyán ngípon ni kuyán That person's teeth look like they need cleaning (Said when one's teeth are very black) [MDL]

(iii) The Mouth and Lips
Individuals could also develop health problems with the mouth (ngúsoˈ) and lips. In modern Bikol, ngábil refers to both the upper and lower lips, although the distinction found in old Bikol is also maintained, where ngábil can refer to just the lower lip when in comparison to ngímot which is the upper lip.
    ngúsoˈ mouth; MA‑ talkative; ‑ON: ngungusóˈon describing s/o with a large mouth [+MDL: MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to reproach or admonish s/o; also: to gossip or tell tales to s/o]

    ngábil lips; lower lip [+MDL]

    ngímot upper lip [+MDL: ‑ON: ngingimóton one with a prominent upper lip]
The most serious condition affecting the lips is the congenital deformity referred to popularly as a harelip (bungíˈ, siwáng). A harelip, or more properly, a cleft lip, forms during the very early stages of development of the foetus when the tissues of the upper lip do not properly fuse. The opening formed can extend from the lip to the right or left nostril, or to both nostrils. In the modern age this deformity would be corrected by surgery starting when the infant was between one and three months old. This type of treatment would not have been available in the sixteenth century Philippines, and the child would most likely have experienced both feeding and speech difficulties depending on the severity of the condition.[48]
    bungíˈ harelip, a congenital fissure or pair of fissures in the upper lip; deformed, dented, disfigured, misshapen; MAG‑, ‑ON to contort or distort s/t; to deform, disfigure or mar s/t; to chip, dent s/t; MAKA‑, MA‑ to get disfigured, marred [MDL reference to bungíˈ for the meaning 'harelip' is made only in the entry for the synonym, siwáng, where it is said to be the more common form; there is no independent headword entry]

    siwáng describing a person with a harelip or one with the front teeth missing; MAKA‑, MA‑‑AN to have a harelip or be missing one's front teeth [MDL]
Blisters which form only in the mouth, pangáw, could have been the result of any number of causes and it is impossible to know if the reference is specific to just one cause, or more general. Such blisters can arise from physical factors, such as brushing the teeth too vigorously or inadvertently biting the cheek. The eating of hot foods can also cause blistering, as well as the eating of specific foods, and certain vitamin deficiencies or iron deficiency can also lead to blistering.[49] The entry may refer as well to canker sores which also form in the mouth, although these would not generally be described as blisters.[50]
    pangáw blisters that form inside the mouth; MA‑ or MAG‑ to form (blisters); (PAG‑)‑ON to have such blisters (a person); (PAG‑)‑AN to have such blisters (the mouth) [MDL]
Sores which form around the mouth, or on the upper lip beneath the nose (kirí) are very probably cold sores. These are due to the virus herpes simplex and, once infected the person carries the virus in the body and can expect periodic flare-ups throughout their lives. The sores can take from a few days to several weeks to heal. The association with citrus, however, cannot be explained, especially since it is only the smell which is referred to. The eating of citrus fruits can cause canker sores in certain individuals, but these form in the mouth and not on the lips.[51]
    kirí a sore which forms on the upper lip, beneath the nose or around the mouth (said to come about from having smelled citrus fruits); MA‑ to develop (this sore); the have such sores (a person); MA‑‑AN to be affected by such sores (the lip, mouth) [MDL]

This section looks not only at the care of the eyes and ears, but of some of the problems which might affect them, either occurring by accident, or due to congenital abnormalities.
(i) The Ears
Cleaning the ears (talínga) of wax would have formed part of the ritual of personal hygiene. Earwax (tulí) forms naturally in the ear canal, its presence serving to help lubricate the canal and protect the ear by forming a barrier against insects, water and bacteria. Earwax, however, can build up in the canal and, in addition to causing discomfort, can compact and press against the eardrum affecting the hearing.[52] Such earwax would have to be removed.
    talínga ear [+MDL: ‑ON: tatalingáhon describing one with prominent ears]

    tulí ear wax; MAGHING‑, HING‑‑ON to clean wax from the ears; MAGHING‑, HING‑‑AN to clean the ears of wax; PANGHING‑ cotton buds, Q-tips; anything used in cleaning wax from the ears [+MDL: MAHING‑, HING‑‑ON or MAGHING‑, PAGHING‑‑ON to clean wax from the ears; MAHING‑, HING‑‑AN or MAGHING‑, PAGHING‑‑AN to clean the ears of wax; (fig‑) Nakuˈán na kitá nin tulí The wax has been removed from our ears (Said when one hears a loud noise nearby)]
To remove excess or compacted earwax Bikolanos used a small stick (kulkóg). Identical forms can be found in Waray and Cebuano, and the likely cognate form, kikig, in Tagalog .[53] Care would have to be taken when cleaning the ears in this way for if the hand was accidentally knocked the stick could end up perforating the eardrum (tingóg). Once the eardrum is ruptured not only is there a hearing loss, the middle ear also becomes exposed to infection from the outside. A ruptured eardrum will usually heal on its own in a few weeks time depending of the severity of the perforation. Surgery, a repair option in the modern world, would not have been available in the sixteenth century Philippines.[54]
    kulkóg a small stick used for cleaning the ears; also HING‑: hingulkóg; MANG‑, PANG‑‑ON or MAHING‑, HING‑‑ON or MAGHING‑, PAGHING‑‑ON to clean the ears of wax; to remove wax from the ears; MANG‑, PANG‑‑AN or MAHING‑, HING‑‑AN or MAGHING‑, PAGHING‑ ‑AN to clean s/o's ears; (fig‑) Pangulkóg kamó pakaráy or Panhingulkóg kamó pakaraháy Listen carefully or Pay attention (Said when annoyed or angry) [MDL]

    tingóg MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to puncture an eardrum (one who is cleaning his ears with a small stick who gets his arm accidentally knocked); to hurt the ears in this way; also MAKA‑, MA‑ [MDL]
Whether or not the middle ear has become exposed to bacteria due to rupture of the eardrum, there is still the possibility of infection forming in this highly confined part of the body. Infection which spreads to the cells of the mastoid bone, located behind the ear, and having spaces within it to allow the middle ear to drain, could lead to the formation of an abscess (bulbóg).[55] As this infection, referred to as mastoiditis, is most prevalent in infants and children up to the age of three and Lisboa makes no mention of children in his definition, there is no way of knowing if this is the precise condition Lisboa is referring to.
    bulbóg an abscess in the ear; MAG‑ to develop (such an abscess); ‑ON describing s/o with such an abscess; IGWÁ or MAY to have an abscess; ‑ON or MA‑ to get or suffer from such an abscess [+MDL: MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to exude pus (the ear)
Hearing could also fail and a person end up becoming deaf (bungóg). Deafness could be congenital, or it could come about with age or exposure to an overly loud noise. One could also simply be hard of hearing. The Lisboa entry, patíng, is interesting for it appears to refer to a number of conditions; being partially deaf, which could mean loss of hearing in both ears, or deaf in one ear only, and to a condition where one has trouble keeping their balance.
Benign positional vertigo is a condition which has a number of symptoms, among them dizziness and loss of balance. Fluid in the tubes of the inner ear serve to tell the brain the exact position of the body. When small bits of calcium break off from the bone and float in the tube, the message sent to the brain is confused resulting in a spinning sensation and loss of balance. This may be the condition referred to in the Lisboa entry.[56]
    bungóg deaf; hard of hearing; MAG‑ to grow progressively deaf; MAG‑, ‑ON to deafen s/o; MAKA‑ deafening; MA‑ to become deaf; MA‑‑AN to be stunned by a deafening noise; PAGKA‑ deafness; bungóg-búngog MAG‑‑AN to feign deafness ... [+MDL: MA‑, ‑AN: bunggán or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN: pagbunggán to make s/o deaf; PANG‑‑AN: pamunggán to be left stunned after a loud noise or a blow; KA‑‑AN: kabunggán deafness; Hiˈbóg na iníng kabunggán mo You are very deaf; Álo pa doy; nabunggán na kitá What a noise; we'll go deaf

    patíng somewhat deaf, hard of hearing; deaf in one ear; also: s/o who has trouble keeping their balance; MA‑ to be hard of hearing; ‑ON: patíng-patingón one who is partially deaf [MDL]
As communication with those who were deaf or had severe hearing loss would have to take place in ordinary village interaction, inhabitants were generally left with two options, either to speak up (or be reminded to do so, as can be seen in one of the examples for the entry namaˈtá), or develop a set of signs or gestures (palbá). How formalised the system of signs was, and whether it was regular enough to allow communication between different sets of people, cannot be determined from the entry, but it is likely there was an intermingling of local and universal gestures which came to be used in repetitive interaction.
    namaˈtá expression with a number of contextual meanings, among them: can't you see that, you can't be sure that; ... Namaˈtá malúsong si kuyán; pagtataramán mo pa? Can't you see that person is annoyed, and still you say things to provoke him; Namaˈtá bungóg, linuluwáy mo an pagtarám Can't you see the person is deaf, and yet you speak in a low voice [MDL]

    palbá sign language, the signs or gestures used when speaking to the deaf; also: to speak or write using code; MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑ ‑ON to speak with signs, gestures or images; to write using shorthand or symbols; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to gesture or speak in this way to s/o; MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to form signs or make gestures with the hand [MDL]

(ii) The Eyes
The eyes (matá) have ways of protecting themselves. Tears are produced from the tear glands located above each eye. This salty liquid runs down over the eye and is distributed over the surface by the action of blinking, serving to lubricate the eye while removing any dust or dirt. The tears then drain away into the nasal cavity.[57]
    matá eye; ‑ON or MA‑ to get hit in the eye; MAG‑ to wake up; to awaken, arouse; nagmamatá conscious (not unconscious); MAPAG‑ to be awakened; MAGPA‑, PA‑‑ON to wake s/o up; MAKA‑, ‑ON to look down on s/o; to be patronizing toward s/o; kaputíhan nin matá the whites of the eyes [+MDL: MA‑, ‑AN to add eyes to an image or statue; MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to put the eyes into place; Magmatá ka or Pagmatá Get up, Awake; MAKAPAG‑ to be able to open the eyes; Namatá ka May your eyes be smashed (Said as a curse)]
In Bikol the general word for tear is lúhaˈ, a term which also covers the emotion of crying. A second term is mugháˈ which has no emotional connotation. Muháˈ-muháˈ expresses the feeling one has when dust is in the eye, or it is irritated by the presence of smoke, and púling is the actual dirt or dust which is present.
    lúhaˈ a tear; MAG‑ to tear (the eyes); to cry; also MAKAPA‑, MAPA‑; PAGKA‑ tearing, crying [+MDL: MA‑ or MAG‑ to cry; to tear (the eyes): Naglúhaˈ na doy akó kainíng asó My eyes are really tearing because of this smoke; PAG‑ crying; MAHING‑‑AN to drown in one's tears; to bawl one's eyes out; MAKAHI‑ to cause the eyes to tear; to make s/o cry]

    mugháˈ MAG‑ to have eyes which are tearing; IPAG‑ to cause the eyes to tear; Nagmugháˈ akó kainíng asó My eyes are tearing because of the smoke [MDL]

    muháˈ-muháˈ MA‑ or MAG‑ to feel as if s/t such as dirt, dust, water or smoke has gotten into or near the eyes, and show this by shaking the head, blinking or rubbing the eyes with the hand to clean MAG‑, ‑ON to throw dirt, dust in s/o's eye; MAKA‑ to fall into the eye (dirt, dust, cinders); MA‑ t them; I(PAG)‑ to affect the eyes in this way (dust, water, smoke) [MDL]

    púling to have s/t caught in the eye [+MDL: MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON / MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to throw dirt in the eyes; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to introduce dirt, dust into the eye; MA‑‑AN to have s/t fall into the eyes; (fig‑) Aanhón ko iníng garó na ing púling? What am I going to do with the thing that is like dust in the eye? (Said when one is given s/t very small); Kadaˈí mo napupúling kaiyán, pinaggáyo na an saímong túgang Something insignificant happens to you, and you treat your family like that (Implying: very badly)]
The eyes also produce a discharge of mucous over the course of the day which serves to protect the eye by capturing any potentially harmful particles that have found their way to its surface. This thin film of mucous and any particles it may contain is then washed off the eye by the tears spread by the process of blinking. A mucous discharge (mútaˈ) forms in the corner of the eye when there is a lack of blinking, something which primarily occurs when we are asleep and the eyes are closed. If there is a relatively high number of particles captured by the mucous and a sufficient amount of moisture from tears, then the discharge is sticky (baringkás). If there is less moisture, it is dry and crusty.[58]
    mútaˈ mucus which collects in the corner of the eye; ‑ON describing s/o with mucus in the corner of the eye; MAG‑ to have such mucus; MAGHING‑, HING‑‑ON to remove such mucus; MAGHING‑, HING‑‑AN to remove mucus from s/o's eyes [+MDL: Nagmútaˈ ka na You have a lot of mucus in the corner of your eye; MAHING‑, HING‑‑ON or MAGHING‑, PAGHING‑‑ON to remove mucus from the eye; MAHING‑, HING‑ ‑AN or MAGHING‑, PAGHING‑‑AN to clean the eye of mucus; (fig‑) Aanhón ko iníng garó na iníng mútaˈ? What am I going to do with this that is like the mucus in the corner of the eye (Said when one is offered s/t very small); Pahimútaˈ daw taˈ ngáning makaísi ka nin maraháy kang gáwiˈ Clean the mucus from your eyes so that you will able to see your good deeds]

    baringkás sticky, mucus-like substance exuded from the eye [MDL]
There are also a number of disorders which can affect the eye. A sty, kulátoy, resembles a pimple or small boil, which forms, generally, on the outside of the eyelid, although it can also form on the inside as well. It is a discomforting condition which usually clears up on its own in a few days time.[59]
    kulátoy sty (in the eye); IGWÁ or MAY / ‑ON or MA‑ to have a sty [+MDL]
The inflamation which affects the eyes causing them to feel sore and producing a discharge (tagumatá) is most likely conjunctivitis. This is a term also used in modern Bikol and appears to be a compound of tagóm 'heavy' and matá 'eye': tagóm + matátagóm + matátagumatá. Bikol has no geminate consonant clusters, hence the loss of 'm'. The change from 'o' to 'u' in non-final position is simply a spelling convention. There are, however, other symptoms of conjunctivitis which are not mentioned in the entry, such as the reddening of the eyes and the feeling of grittiness on its surface.[60]
    tagumatá an inflammation affecting the eyes, causing them to become sore and producing a discharge which may cause the eyelids to stick together, possibly conjunctivitis; ‑ON or MA‑ to suffer from such an affliction [+MDL: (PAG‑)‑ON to suffer from such an inflammation; MAKA‑ to cause such an inflammation]
Lisboa has also identified a condition which causes the eyelashes to fall out, múyiˈ, which may possibly be the modern blepharitis. This is a chronic condition involving the oil glands at the base of the eyelid which cease to function normally. This is the area from which the eyelashes grow. The eyelids become inflamed and itchy with the subsequent loss of the lashes.[61]
    múyiˈ disease of the eyes, causing the eyelashes to fall out; (PAG‑)‑ON to suffer from such a disease; ‑ON: muyíˈ on one with such a disease [MDL]
Cataracts (bulóg) is the condition whereby the lens of the eye, located behind the iris and pupil, becomes cloudy, thereby restricting the light which can pass through it to the retina. Clarity of vision is gradually reduced until a person experiences difficulty in reading, identifying colours and recognising faces. This is commonly a problem of aging, although its severity can be worsened by environmental factors, particularly long exposure to ultraviolet light. Lisboa's entry, butíng, appears to be a more minor form of cataracts, or cataracts in their initial stage of development.[62]
    bulóg film over the eye; cataract; MA‑ or MAG‑ to develop cataracts (a person); (PAG‑)‑AN: (pag)bulgán to be covered by such a film (the eye); MAKA‑ to cause cataracts; ‑AN: an bulgán a person with cataracts [MDL]

    butíng thin film over the eye [MDL]
The bulging of the eyes (butlóg) may be due to an overactive thyroid. In more extreme cases such hyperthyroidism may result in the condition known as Graves' disease. This is an autoimmune disease in which the body attacks the muscles and fatty tissue at the sides and back of eye leading to inflammation, eventually causing the eyes to be pushed forward.[63]
    butlóg describing s/o with bulging eyes, such as s/o with a thyroid condition; MAG‑ to bulge (the eyes) [+MDL: MA‑ or MAG‑ to bulge (the eyes) due to some accident or illness]
Lisboa also mentions that this type of condition can arise due to an accident and, by implication, injury. A severe blow to the eye can cause inflamation to the eye socket, or even cause the eye to become dislodged from the socket. The eye will then appear to bulge.[64]
Lisboa has a number of entries dealing with trauma to the eyes, having them poked or, more extremely, gouged out. Sulát, is one such entry, as are the related entries hulwát and luwát.
There are enough entry pairs in the Vocabulario, many of them still used in modern Bikol, which provide evidence for the existence of a fossilised prefix of the form hu- for which a unified meaning is particularly hard to determine. It can be seen clearly in the pair of entries presented above where, after affixation, the unstressed vowel in the root is deleted resulting in a form following the dominant disyllabic pattern of the language: hu- + luwáthuluwáthulwát.
    sulát MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to poke s/o in the eye; MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to poke s/o in the eye with s/t; MA‑ to get poked in the eye; Si makuríng pagkasulát ko, ilagá akóng mabútaˈ Because of a terrible poke in the eye, I almost went blind [MDL]

    hulwát MAG‑ to bulge (eyes); MAG‑, ‑ON to poke or gouge out the eyes; MAKA‑, MA‑ to get one's eyes poked out [MDL: MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to poke out the eyes; to remove a stopper or plug; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to remove a stopper or plug from a container; to poke out s/o's eyes]

    luwát MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to gouge out the eyes; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to gouge out s/o's eyes [MDL]
In a predominately rural culture where the produce of the farm would be supplemented by animals hunted in the forest, someone with particularly good vision (sína) would have an advantage. There were, unfortunately, also those who developed problems with their eyesight. Certain individuals experienced a loss of vision in general (búˈaw), and others developed such a loss only at night (mamanók). The reference to night blindness is to the vision of a chicken, manók, which is also the reference in modern Bikol to eyes that stare somewhat cross-eyed.
    sína MA‑ sharp-sighted [MDL]

    búˈaw MA‑ to have failing eyesight; to be going blind; KA‑: Kabúˈaw kainí, daˈí ka na nakakakítaˈ kaiyán How blind you must be not to see that [MDL]

    mamanók‑ON describing s/o who is night-blind or one who has poor night vision; ‑ON to be night-blind [+MDL: (PAG‑)‑ON to be unable to see at night (and so be like fowl)]

    manók chicken, fowl; ‑ON: manokón an matá describing eyes that stare somewhat cross-eyed [+MDL: MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to give a chicken in tribute; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to pay such a tribute to s/o; KA‑‑AN: kamanokán a great number of chickens]
Whether due to a congenital condition, or a problem which subsequently developed, there were also individuals who were blind, búta. Modern Bikol also has the term buldíng describing those who are blinded in one eye only but this is not mentioned in Lisboa. Individuals who were blind, but had their eyes open were described by the term hárap. The 1865 edition of the Vocabulario changed this definition to 'shortsighted' or 'nearsighted', but this is not the definition which has been carried into the modern language.
    búta blind; MAG‑, ‑ON to blind s/o; MAKA‑ to cause blindness; MA‑ to become blind; PAGKA‑ blindness; KA‑‑AN blindness; butá-búta MAG‑ ‑AN to feign blindness [+MDL: MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to blind s/o]

    buldíng describing s/o blind in one eye; MAG‑, ‑ON to blind s/o in one eye; MAKA‑, MA‑ to be blinded in one eye

    hárap describing someone blind, but with the eyes open; MAKA‑, MA‑ to become blind in this way [+MDL] [MDL 1865: nearsighted, shortsighted]

The hands and arms (kamót, takyág) and legs and feet (bitís), the most used and exposed parts of the body, were susceptible to a number of disorders and injuries which could severely restrict movement and impede the execution of ordinary tasks.[65]
    kamót hand; ... MAG‑, ‑ON to handle s/t; MAKA‑, MA‑‑AN: makamtán to acquire, get or possess s/t: An saímong hinahágad an makakamtán mo What you are asking for is what you'll get [+MDL: MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to make s/t with the hands; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to run the hands over s/t (such as an image); (fig‑) PAG‑‑AN: Pagkinamtán kitá Let's go our own ways and earn our own livelihood (Said when a husband and wife or relatives argue)]

    takyág arm, sleeve; MAG‑, ‑AN to place a sleeve on an item of clothing [+MDL: MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to place an arm on a statue or figure; to place a sleeve on clothing]

    bitís foot; MAG‑ to walk barefoot; ...[+MDL: feet of a person, an animal, a bench or chair; MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to make s/t with feet (like a bench); MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to place feet on s/t (like a bench, a table); MAHING‑‑AN to have one's legs begin to give way: Nahimitisán na akó pagapód-apód saímo My legs have almost given way walking around calling you]

(i) Disability
Of the problems which affected the hands, karumkóm describes what must have been a severe case of arthritis in which use of the hands was extremely restricted.
    karumkóm hands which are crippled or gnarled (those which cannot be opened, nor the fingers, extended) [MDL]
Related to arthritis is gout, titíbak, a severe inflamation which primarily affects the feet, most commonly the big toe, although it can also affect the wrists and fingers of the hand. Its cause is due either to the over-production of uric acid in the blood or the inability of the body to eliminate the normal production of such acid. This leads to the formation of uric acid crystals which accumulate in the joints.[66]
The cognate form, tibak, is found in Hiligaynon and Waray.[67] The non-reduplicated form in Bikol, tibák, with final stress and a meaning referring to unevenly woven cloth or twisted rope, appears to be unrelated.
    titíbak gout, a disease resulting from a disturbance of the metabolism, characterized by an excess of uric acid in the blood and deposits of uric acid salts in the tissues around the joints, especially of the feet, causing swelling and severe pain; (PAG‑)‑ON: (pag)titibákon to suffer from gout; MAKA‑ to cause such an affliction [MDL]
Gout is a debilitating condition and treatment at the turn of the sixteenth century in the Philippines would most likely have involved rest until the levels of uric acid salts in the blood were reduced or returned to normal and the inflamation subsided. A compress made from the fleshy leaves of the squill or sea onion, kapnó, capable of reducing swellings, was wrapped in the wild grass, bambán, and applied to areas of swelling or inflamation. It may have been used in such circumstances.[68]
    kapnó squill, the sea onion (genus Drimia) possessing fleshy leaves which are used to reduce swellings when placed on the affected part of the body; the leaves are wrapped with the wild grass called bambán to hold them in place [MDL]

    bambán wild grass (typ‑ Schizostachyum bamban, used in making baskets and the framework of straw hats); MANG‑, PANG‑‑ON to collect such wild grass from the forest [+MDL]
The inability to extend an arm or leg (lukón) may have arisen due to severely strained or improperly developed muscles or tendons, in this instance resulting in what appears to be permanent disability. A more temporary occurrence of this problem would have been a transitory muscle cramp (kulátid).
    lukón referring to an arm or a leg that is unnaturally short, or that cannot be properly extended; MA‑ or MAG‑ to have such an arm or leg; (PAG‑)‑ON to be short or not fully extended (an arm or leg) [MDL]

    kulátid muscle cramp (such as that which one feels when unable to extend a limb due to tensing of the muscle); also refers to the tensing of muscles in the neck and throat of s/o very ill, and the straining associated with defecating or urinating when experiencing some difficulty; MA‑ or MAG‑ to be cramped (a muscle); (PAG‑) ‑AN to have a muscle cramp (a person) [MDL]
Lukón also referred to limbs which were unusually short and which may have been the result of a congenital abnormality or disease. A disease such as osteomyelitis, an infection of the bone to which children are particularly susceptible, is one possible cause,[69] as is the congenital abnormality, hemiatrophy, in which a part of the body fails to develop properly.[70]
The shortness of one leg compared to the other could also be commented on by drawing comparisons to other objects which were unequal in length, even though the intention was to have them paired and equal. (binhít, kunhós).
    binhít describing s/t with one side longer than another; MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to make use of s/t like this; to make s/t in this way; Binhít na lumakáw si kuyán That person has a limp (probably with one leg shorter than the other) [MDL]

    kunhós too short (so as not to reach a desired length or not be able to form a matching pair); MA‑ or MAG‑ to be too short; to have one leg shorter than the other; MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to shorten one thing but not the other (resulting in things of unequal length or things that can no longer be a matching pair); MAPA‑ to have s/t cut too short ... [MDL]
Hemiatrophy may have also resulted in a development where one leg was thinner than the other (bigík). This could have also been the result of a disease such as polio, a virus which attacks the nervous system. The information found in Lisboa's entries is general, and it is only possible to speculate on what might have been the exact causes of the problems described.
    bigík runt, referring to small animals or fowl [+MDL: referring to an animal born last in a litter or brood and remaining smaller than others in the litter; also referring to a person with one leg thinner than the other; MA‑ to remain stunted in growth due to being born last in a litter or brood]
Being paralysed (bulíd), crippled (pílay) or deformed (biyadhíˈ) for whatever reason would have made it difficult or impossible for someone to participate fully in many of the activities required in a predominantly agrarian society. Labour would have been required not only for the annual cycles of planting and harvesting, but would have also been necessary for the crewing of boats used in fishing, as well as for protecting local territory from raiding parties originating from both within the region and without. Full participation in those tasks, as well as care of the crippled, would have fallen to others.
How these disabled states were arrived at is not made clear by Lisboa, and it is doubtful that a modern lexicographer would have mentioned the causes either. Clearly those who spent their lives tending fields, building houses and boats, raising livestock and engaging in what often appeared to be periods of intense conflict could have easily sustained injuries at some time in their lives leading to an inability to have complete use of their arms and legs.
    biyadhíˈ crippled, lame; deformed; MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to cripple or maim s/o or an animal; MA‑ to become crippled, maimed; var‑ biyad-díˈ [MDL]

    bulíd MA‑ to be paralyzed or deformed to the extent that one is unable to get up from bed or move about; (fig‑) Bulíd-bulíd ka na Said when s/o tosses and turns in bed or rushes about [MDL]

    pílay crippled, disabled, lame, maimed; a cripple; MAG‑, ‑ON to cripple, disable or maim s/o; MA‑ to get crippled, maimed; to go lame; MA‑‑AN to suffer an infirmity; MAKA‑ to cause s/o to become crippled, lame [+MDL: MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to make s/o lame; to cripple s/o; piláy-pílay MAG‑ to feign lameness]

(ii) Skin Ailments
The hands and feet also suffered from a number of skin ailments, many of which also affect other parts of the body. Perhaps the most common of these was the fungus infection athlete's foot, alipóng, which, if left untreated, could serve as an entry to the body of the streptococcal bacteria which normally live on the skin. Untreated cuts and bruises could also lead to the same types of infections, the most serious of which was erysipelas, amutól.
Erysipelas is a disease of the upper layers of the skin closely related to cellulitis which affects the lower layers. The infected area becomes red and swollen and feels hot to the touch. More systemic effects are fever and chills. In the modern world where the disease is relatively rare, sufferers would be treated with penicillin. For the Philippines at the turn of the sixteenth century, this was not an option, and recovery would only come after a period of rest with the leg raised as long as possible to reduce the swelling and relieve the pain.[71] If erysipelas remained untreated, it could lead to the death of healthy tissue and the subsequent loss of fingers or toes, mutól. Encarnacion in his Cebuano dictionary even defines amumutol as a type of leprosy.[72]
    alipóng athlete's foot, a contagious skin infection caused by a fungus, generally affecting the feet and causing itching, blisters, cracking and scaling; ‑ON or MA‑, IGWÁ or MAY to have athlete's foot; ‑AN to be affected by such a fungus (a particular part of the body); MAKA‑ to cause athlete's foot [+MDL: (PAG‑)‑ON to have athlete's foot

    amutól erysipelas, an acute disease of the skin and subcutaneous tissue caused by a streptococcus and marked by spreading inflammation; affects the hands and feet and may lead to loss of fingers and toes; MAKA‑ to cause such a disease; (PAG‑)‑ON: to suffer from erysipelas; ‑ON: amutlón one suffering from erysipelas [MDL]

    mutól MA‑ to lose one's toes and fingers (a person suffering from the disease erysipelas); MAKA‑ to cause such an illness; also see putól [MDL]
Both of the Bikol words amutól and mutól are clearly related and derived from the verb putól 'to cut'. This can be explained as follows. The infix -um- in modern Bikol is an alternate command affix. There is evidence in the Lisboa Vocabulario, however, that this infix was far more widely used and verbs to which it was infixed could be inflected for the full set of tenses.
There were particular changes which occurred to the root when -um- was used. One of these changes occurred when it was affixed to roots beginning with 'b' or 'p' (see Section 2(ii) for an explanation): -um- + putól → pumutólmutól.
As for the noun amutól 'erysipelas', there is also some evidence that a prefix of the form aN-, fossilised even during Lisboa's time, could be affixed to roots commonly serving as verbs to produce nouns which in some way incorporated the central meaning of the root. In this case, it was a disease which could lead to the loss or severing of fingers or toes: aN- + putólamputólamutól.[73] The linguistic processes at work here are assimilation and deletion.
    putól MAG‑, ‑ON to cut s/t; to amputate, dismember or sever s/t ... [+MDL: MA‑, ‑ON to cut the end off s/t; MA‑, I‑ to give the part that has been cut to s/o; MA‑, ‑AN to give s/o the cut part; MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to cut s/t into segments; to divide s/t up; to each take one's share or portion of s/t what has been divided; MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN: pagputlán to cut things from s/t; to segment s/t; KA‑ a cut piece, section; kaputól sa púsod brothers or sisters with the same mother; (fig‑) Nagpuputól na kitá kainíng paghilíng ni kuyán We are being severed by that person's look (Meaning: That person has not taken his eyes off us)]
The hands and feet could also be affected by other types of conditions. One of these was the appearance of white patches, bakás, a condition possibly related to vitiligo which causes depigmentation of the skin at the extremities of the body, in particular, but not exclusively, on the hands and feet.[74] Vitiligo is considered to be primarily an autoimmune disease affecting individuals who are genetically predisposed, although the onset may be triggered by environmental factors such as an injury or prolonged sun exposure, or psychological factors such as stress.[75]
The central meaning of the word, bakás, itself is probably the more general 'trace', 'vestige' or 'marking' which it caries in Tagalog and Kapampangan,[76] in cognate form in Malay, bekas,[77] and in Bikol where the homonym refers to the marking left by the high tide or the high water mark of a river.
    bakás white patches appearing on the hands and feet; (PAG‑)‑AN to have such patches (a person); also bayaksán [MDL]
There were other skin diseases which affected not only the hands and feet, but other areas of the body as well. Pánaw (Tinea versicolor) was, and remains, the most common of these conditions. It occurs most widely in hot, humid climates and is caused by a fungus infection brought about when a type of yeast occurring naturally on the skin begins to grow out of control. The patches which appear on the skin are caused by an acidic bleaching from the growth of increasing numbers of yeast. It is not contagious and cannot be caught from physical contact with another sufferer.[78]
    pánaw Tinea versicolor, Tinea flava (typ‑ fungal skin disease characterized by de-pigmented patches of skin); ‑ON to have tinea versicolor; ‑ON: panáwon one with such a disease [+MDL: (PAG‑)‑ON to have such a skin disease]
Unlike pánaw, buˈní, ringworm, is contagious and can be caught not only by contact with someone carrying the infection, but also by contact with items the person has used, such as clothes, towels and bed linen. This is also a fungus infection and, in spite of the popular name, has nothing to do with parasitic worms. The fungus feeds on keratin, the protein found in the outer layer of skin, the hair and nails. The infection begins with a small patch of red, inflamed skin which gradually spreads outward to form a small circle.[79]
In the modern world, such an infection is treated effectively by the application of antifungal creams or the ingestion of antifungal tablets. Early Bikolanos would have had to rely on a natural remedy, and one of these was application of the sap of the paˈítan (Lunasia amara) a forest plant growing to three metres whose leaves, bark and seeds also have other medicinal uses.[80]
The 1865 edition of the Lisboa also identifies another plant useful in treating ringworm. This entry is not found in the 1754 edition, and the description in the entry does not appear to be fully accurate. Sources refer to pangíˈ not as a plant possessing a number of smaller off-shoots, as described, but as a large forest tree to 25 metres growing, on Luzon, in the provinces of Camarines and Sorsogon. Any number of parts of the tree have medicinal properties, in particular the seeds and leaves, but there is no specific mention of the treatment of ringworm.[81]
    buˈní ringworm, a number of contagious skin diseases caused by related fungi, characterized by itchy, round, scaly patches on the skin; herpes, a viral disease causing eruptions of the skin or mucus membranes; ‑ON describing one suffering from ringworm; IGWÁ or MAY to have ringworm; ‑ON or MA‑ to contract or suffer from ringworm [+MDL: (PAG‑)‑ON to have ringworm]

    paˈítan plant (typ‑ Lunasia amara, the sap of which is used to treat ringworm) [MDL]

    pangíˈ plant (typ‑ producing a number of smaller off-shoots, possessing a bean-like seed used in treating ringworm) [MDL 1865]
The skin infection referred to as scabies (duldól) is caused by the tiny mite, Sacoptes scabiei, which burrows under the skin, leaving noticeable tracks and causing an allergic reaction resulting in acute itching. Scabies is highly contagious and is most commonly transmitted by contact with the skin of another infected person.[82] Lisboa lists no natural remedies for scabies.
    duldól scabies, a contagious skin disease caused by a mite and accompanied by intense itching; ‑ON describing s/o suffering from scabies; IGWÁ or MAY to have scabies; ‑ON or MA‑ to contract or suffer from scabies; MAKA‑ to cause scabies [+MDL: (PAG‑)‑ON to suffer from scabies]

(iii) Calluses and Blisters
The palms of the hands and the soles of the feet, develop calluses over time as the body seeks to protect what was originally thinner and more delicate skin by a gradual thickening. Repeated friction or pressure over a long period of time will usually lead to the formation of calluses. A more extreme form of rubbing or friction which occurs on a single occasion over a short period of time tends to lead to blisters rather than the formation of calluses.[83] There has been some change over time in the terms referring to blisters and calluses in Bikol.
A callus in modern Bikol is kubál which in old Bikol referred only to the skin on the palms of the hands and soles of the feet. Skin on the rest of the body was kublít in old Bikol, whereas it refers to all areas of skin in the modern language. As for a callus in old Bikol, the term was lapák a term which in modern Bikol means 'blister'. Old Bikol has lútok for a blister or a pimple.
    kubál a callus; IGWÁ or MAY to have a callus; ‑AN or MA‑‑AN to have a callus (a part of the body) [MDL: the skin on the palms of the hand and soles of the feet; the skin on the rest the body is called kublít]

    kublít skin, scalp [MDL: skin everywhere on the body except the soles of the feet and the palms of the hands which is called kubál; after the skin is removed from an animal it is called ánit]

    lapák a blister; IGWÁ or MAY / ‑AN or MA‑‑AN to have a blister; MAG‑ to develop a blister (the foot, hand); MAKA‑ to cause a blister to form [MDL: a callus on the hands or feet; (PAG‑)‑AN to have a callus (a person, a part of the body; MAKA‑ to cause a callus to form; ‑AN: lapakan s/o with a callus]

    lútok blister or pimple which has not yet burst [MDL]
Bikolanos were barefoot. There are no references to shoes in the Lisboa Vocabulario, and just one reference to sandals, lángan, which were worn on the hunt to protect the feet from thorns. There is also a sense in Lisboa's entry that this foot covering was more temporary than permanent and was fashioned once to cover the sole of the foot, and then discarded. This means that the time spent around the house, or walking to various locations in the village and beyond, or working long hours in the rice fields was done barefoot.
The hands, too, whether it was the hands of a farmer, smithy, carpenter, fisherman or those of any other person carrying out the myriad tasks required for day to day living, would toughen. Over the months and years the bottoms of the feet and palms of the hands would develop hard, thick calluses which served as protection, that is, until they began to split.
    langán sandals; MAG‑ to wear sandals [+MDL: lángan sandals (typ‑ worn when on a hunt to protect the feet from thorns); MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑ ‑AN to cover s/t in order to protect it; to protect s/t with a covering; MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to use s/t as an outer covering for protection; PAG‑ protection; and by extension: to protect, save: Si Jesucrísto, Kagurangnán ta, nagadán lángan satúyaˈ Jesus Christ, our Lord, died for us]
There are a number of references to the painful condition, panlabót, which comes about when calluses on the feet and hands break open. The root of panlabót is labót which means 'hole' and encompasses the full set of words related to it such as 'aperture' and 'cavity'. Pang- is a prefix which is most likely from the set of general verbal affixes. Cognates of the form lubot exist in Waray, Hiligaynon and Cebuano,[84] although only in Waray is reference made to the same painful condition described for Bikol. For Hiligaynon and Cebuano lubot is a callus, either just on the feet for Hiligaynon, or on both the hands and feet for Cebuano.
    panlabót ulcerations or calluses which split open on the sole of the foot or palm of the hand; (PAG‑)‑ON to have such calluses; ‑ON: panlabóton one with such calluses [MDL]

    labót aperture, cavity, hole, pit; mesh (referring to the holes); IGWÁ or MAY to have a hole; MAG‑ to open out into a hole; MAG‑, ‑ON or MANG‑, PANG‑‑ON to make a hole; MAG‑, ‑AN or MANG‑, PANG‑‑AN to make a hole in s/t; to bore; to punch (as a ticket by a bus conductor); MAKA‑, MA‑ to get a hole (as 'be accidentally torn') [+MDL: MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to make a hole in s/t; KA‑‑AN a hole]
A great deal of discomfort was felt when walking or working with such a condition (kingkíng) and this could possibly be identified by the lifting of the foot as soon as it touched the ground resulting in a type of limp (kikílay).
    kingkíng used to describe the severity of sores or cuts on one's hands or feet which cause a great deal of discomfort; MAG‑ to experience discomfort from such sores (a person): Nagkingkíng na akó kainíng sakóng panlabót I am crippled by the sores on my hands (or feet) [MDL]

    kikílay MA‑ or MAG‑ to limp in such a way that one foot is immediately lifted from the ground as if there were some wound or injury to the sole; MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to move the foot in this way [MDL]
Panlabót was not a condition which could be ignored since its presence interfered with everyday or seasonal tasks which had to be performed. Bikolanos had a number of treatments which could be attempted. One of these was the application of a mixture of rust and lemon juice, hása, which was also used to treat boils. Another involved the burning of rice straw, the smoke of which could also relieve circulatory conditions referred to as chilblains. The third treatment used parts of the taro-like plant called tahíg.
Tahíg is the plant Homalomena philippinens found growing along lowland forest streams. Both the rhizomes and the leaves of the plant are used for medicinal purposes; the rhizomes made into a lineament and rubbed on the body to relieve pain, and the leaves placed in some form on open wounds to aid in healing. It is most likely that the leaves would have been used in the treatment of panlabót.[85]
    hása a medicine made from rust mixed with lemon juice, used to treat boils, other pussy swellings and ulcerations on the sole of the foot called panlabót; MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑ ‑ON to treat a swelling with this medicine; MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to use such a medicine [MDL]

    pató rice straw which is burned, the smoke being used to treat the condition panlabót which results from the splitting of calluses on the hands and feet; also used to treat circulatory conditions resulting in inflamation of the fingers or toes; MA‑ or MAG‑ to burn and smoke (such straw); MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to burn such straw; (PAG‑)‑AN to be exposed to such smoke (the hands, feet) [MDL]

    tahíg plant (typ‑ like taro, used for treating ulcerations on the soles of the feet called panlabót [MDL]
The area between the fingers could also develop uncomfortable blisters or sores (sariˈsí). Lisboa refers to one of these conditions with the term panlabót, leading to an interpretation of splitting of the skin which also occurs with calluses.
    sariˈsí blisters or sores found between the fingers [MDL]
As a preventative to the irritation and itchiness which might occur on the hands and feet when in extended contact with the water of the rice fields, moistened betel nut could be rubbed into the skin. It is probably the tannic acid found in the kernel of the nut which was the active ingredient in the application where it acts as a type of astringent.[86]
    búnga areca palm and nut; betel nut (typ‑ Areca catechu) [+MDL: MA‑ or MAG‑ to add pieces of betel nut to the leaf called búyoˈ, the main ingredients in the mixture with lime called mamáˈ; also: to rub moistened betel nut on the hands and feet to prevent the skin from becoming itchy and irritated when in long contact with the water of rice fields]
The nails, whether on the fingers or toes, were referred to by just one term, kukó, with further detail reserved for the place from where the nail grew, kukukowán (kukó with the addition of the locative suffix ‑AN), and the growth of the nails, hugák-hugák, both terms no longer current in modern Bikol. In modern Bikol as well, kukó has been generalised to refer to the claws of animals as well as birds, while during Lisboa's times these had a specific reference, kukód.
    kukó fingernail, toenail; kukó nin gamgám talon; kukó nin háyop claws of an animal; MAGHING‑, HING‑‑ON to clean the nails [MDL: nails of humans; claws of dogs and cats, but not other animals which are called kukód]

    kukukowán the place on the finger where the nail is located; (fig‑) Garó na pupukpók sa kukukowán It's like hitting yourself in the place where the fingernail should be (Said when one goes to do s/t but arrives without the necessary equipment, and as a result accomplishes nothing) [MDL]

    hugák-hugák the growth of the fingernails or toenails [MDL]

    kukód the nails or claws of animals such as the water buffalo, pig [MDL]
As it was common to walk barefoot, dirt or soil would inevitably become caught in the toenails, and when this became compacted, it would cause pain or discomfort (búsong). Reference to the cleaning of the nails is made using the same root as nail, kukó, but the cutting of the nails had a specific term, pálas which is still used in the modern language.
    búsong dirt or soil which gets caught beneath one's toenails, causing discomfort when it becomes compacted; (PAG‑)‑ON to have such dirt beneath one's toenails [MDL]

    pálas MAG‑, ‑ON to cut the nails; MAG‑, ‑AN to cut s/o's nails [+MDL: MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑ ‑ON to cut the nails; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑ ‑AN to cut s/o's nails]

Abscesses, boils and ulcers are related conditions. In the discussion which follows an attempt is made to distinguish among these ailments, as well as identify the relevant terms included by Lisboa is his Vocabulario.
An abscess is a collection of pus which builds up within the body's tissues, generally resulting from an infection, most commonly that caused by staphylococcus bacteria. In the case of a boil (pigsá), also a type of abscess, it is the hair follicle which becomes infected. A sac which forms below the skin of the infected area gradually fills with an accumulation of pus and dead tissue, expanding and causing increasing pain and redness. As this accumulation increases, the mass becomes quite hard, kulábot (kurábot in modern Bikol). Bikolanos also believed that the hardness of the boil could be caused by treatment with particular herbs (baˈóg). Such infections may eventually resolve themselves, with the boil bursting open on its own (tadák) exuding pus and blood (hayháy) or the boil may need to be opened by lancing (tadók), allowing it to drain.[87]
    pigsá a boil; IGWÁ or MAY / ‑ON or MA‑ to have a boil; MAG‑ to develop (a boil); ‑AN a scar from a boil; MA‑‑AN to get a scar from a boil [+MDL: MA‑ or MAG‑ to develop (a boil); (PAG‑) ‑AN to have a boil (a person); Pinagpinghán pakaraháy nin pigsá iníng páˈa ko I have boils on either side of my thigh]

    kulábot the hardened pus that forms in an abscess or boil; the root of an abscess or boil; var‑ kurábot [MDL]

    baˈóg hard, referring to a boil or abscess one has tried to treat with various herbs; also taro which has been stored a long time after being harvested; MA‑ to grow hard (an abscess, taro) [MDL]

    tadák MA‑ or MAG‑ to open or burst (a boil); MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to lance a boil; to open an abscess; Nagtadák na iníng pigsá This boil is ready to open; (fig‑) Nakatadák na si buˈót na maráˈot ni kuyán That person's bad character is about to be reveale d [MDL]

    hayháy MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to exude pus or blood (a wound, abscess, boil) [MDL]

    tabók MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to lance a boil; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to lance s/o's boil [MDL]
One of the traditional treatments for boils used in Bikol involves use of the flowers of the anunúngkot (Urena lobata, caesar weed).[88] Lisboa makes no mention of this use of the plant, simply describing it, but modern reference to the crushed flowers mixed with salt used as a treatment for boils can be found elsewhere.[89]
    anunúngkot plant (typ‑ possessing flowers used in the treating of boils; Urena lobata, caesar weed); var‑ anugkót [+MDL: anunungkót plant (typ- possessing a sour fruit and small, round burrs which stick to the clothes, like the cadillo in Spain; var- anunúkot)]
Abscesses are closed, with pus and dead cells collecting under the skin. It is possible to remove the accumulating pus by squeezing the area (híris), although pus may again form if there is an underlying infection.
    híris MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to squeeze a sore or wound to remove pus, blood or other matter; to milk an animal; MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to remove s/t from a wound by squeezing [MDL]
The continued existence of an abscess is a sign of ongoing infection which may spread causing swelling to an entire affected area (pamílay), frequently an arm or a leg. Abscesses which remain untreated, or do not heal on their own, may break open or ulcerate (buswáng).
Pamílay comprises the instrumental prefix pang‑ and the root piláy 'lame, crippled' (see Section 6(i)), giving the underlying interpretation 'that which causes lameness', indicating, perhaps, the severity of ailment: pang‑ + piláypamílay. The assimilation of the final consonant of the prefix and the loss of the initial consonant of the root are to be expected, although the change of stress from final to penultimate position cannot be explained.
    pamílay swellings (as of a limb) which occur when one has an abscess; (PAG‑)‑ON to suffer from such swellings (a person) [MDL]

    buswáng describing an abscess about to open or ulcerate; MA‑ or MAG‑ to develop in this way (an abscess); (PAG‑)‑AN an area of the body, or a person, with such developing abscesses [MDL]
Ulcers are open skin lesions accompanied by decomposing tissue, something which does not occur with abscesses. The transition from abscesses to ulcer is slow, with an initial stage of reddened skin becoming more swollen leading to some blistering. Round holes begin to form surrounded by red and swollen tissue which is painful to the touch (sápil). As the affected areas of skin begin to die, the ulcer may move deeper into to the fat layers under the skin (ukˈók). Ulcers take a long time to heal, particularly in the case of ongoing infection. An ulcer may weep or ooze pus (nuˈnóˈ, dánog), and give off the unpleasant smell of decomposing tissue (anghól, see Section 1).[90] Existing ulcers would have to be kept clean, and this could be done by washing to remove pus and other accumulated matter (dangás).
    sápil MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to touch a wound, sore or ulcer, causing pain; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to touch s/o's wound, sore; MAKA‑, MA‑ to accidentally brush up against or touch a wound, sore; MAKA‑, MA‑‑AN to accidentally brush up against s/o's wound, sore, ulcer [MDL]

    nuˈnóˈ MAG‑ to run (the nose); Nagnunuˈnóˈ si siˈpón mo Your nose is running (lit: Your cold is running) [MDL: nunóˈ MA‑ or MAG‑ to weep, ooze (a sore, wound, ulcer); (PAG‑)‑AN to have such a wound, ulcer (a person); I(PAG)‑ to be exuded from a wound, ulcer (as pus)]

    dánog liquid which flows from a sore, ulcer or wound; MA‑ or MAG‑ to flow (such liquid); (PAG‑)‑AN to exude such a liquid (a sore, ulcer wound) [MDL]

    ukˈók ingrown; pulled in: ukˈók na kukó an ingrown toenail; MAG‑ to grow inward; to pull in the head or neck (as a chicken pulls in its neck) [MDL: MA‑ or MAG‑ to grow deeper (a hole, sore, wound); to sink deeper (a person, animal); MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to bore s/t out; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to burrow or bore into s/t (as a worm into wood); to sink deeper into s/t]

    dangás MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to clean old sores, wounds or ulcers; MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to clean pus or other material from old sores, wounds or ulcers; MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to wash old wounds with s/t (as water) [MDL]
The general term Lisboa has for an abscess or ulcer appears to be lukát. Butí is defined as bubas which gives the general meanings of inflamation and swelling, and allows for more specific interpretations such as tumors or abscesses. The first published edition of the dictionary in 1754 adds the meaning 'venereal disease' to the Spanish-Bikol section. In modern Bikol, liptók is an 'abscess', but for Lisboa, the blisters described which form on the skin and in the mouth appear to be more associated with measles (see Section 11).
    lukát sore, ulcer, pustules (typ‑) [MDL]

    butí abscesses, tumors, pustules; ‑ON describing one with tumors, pustules; (PAG‑)‑ON to have tumors; the Spanish-Bikol section of the 1754 dictionary adds the meaning: venereal disease, syphilis [MDL]

    liptók abscess, sore; IGWÁ or MAY to have an abscess; MAG‑ to develop (the abscess); ‑AN to have an abscess (a person) [MDL: blisters which appear on the skin and in the mouth when one has a fever; MA‑ or MAG‑ to develop (such blisters); (PAG‑)‑AN to have such (a person)]
Without antibiotics to treat entrenched infections, a person would have suffered with ulcers for extended periods of time, and may also have had repeated and multiple occurrences. There would have been individuals with large, open sores found on various parts of the body (tabaghák), as well as those who were so covered in sores they could barely move (rurí), a condition so severe that it was probably due to a systemic illness. The appearance of body-wide sores called for some explanation and unclean food was seen as a possible cause (luság). Food deemed to be harmful was also blamed for ulcers that reopened after they had healed (tibón).
    tabaghák large, open sores or ulcers found on various parts of the body; (PAG‑)‑ON or MA‑ to suffer from such an affliction; MAKA‑ to cause such an affliction; ‑ON: tabaghákon such sores; one suffering from such sores; MA‑: matatabaghák to have the potential to cause such sores; var‑ kabaghák [MDL]

    ruríˈ describing s/o covered with sores or ulcers; MA‑ to suffer with one's body so covered with sores that one is unable to move; MA‑‑AN to be covered with sores (one's body); MAKA‑ to afflict s/o in this way (sores) [MDL]

    luság old sores; also: sores which develop on the body due to unclean food which one has eaten; MA‑ or MAG‑ to develop (the sores); (PAG‑)‑AN to have such sores (a person or a part of the body); MAKA‑ to cause such sores (unclean food); (fig‑) Naluság namán si gáwiˈ mong maráˈot Your bad habits have again reappeared [MDL]

    tibón MA‑ or MAG‑ to reopen (ulcers or wounds that have almost healed due to having eaten s/t harmful); I(PAG)‑ to cause such wounds to reopen; (PAG‑)‑AN to have one's ulcers, wounds reopen (a person); to break out again in ulcers, rashes; (fig‑) Natibón bagá an saíyang gáwing maráˈot His bad ways have returned or He has fallen back on his bad ways [MDL]
In an attempt to treat open sores and wounds, a plaster of cloth or leaves (haklóp) or herbs (dapóg) would be placed on the area.
    haklóp plaster of leaves or cloth used to cover a sore or wound; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to cover a wound with such a plaster; MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to use leaves or cloth to cover a wound [MDL]

    dapóg MAG‑, ‑ON to place a plaster of leaves or herbs on a sore or wound; MAG‑, ‑AN to place such a plaster on a part of the body; dapóg na dáhon a plaster of leaves placed on the body to relieve pain, fever [+MDL: MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑ ‑AN to place a plaster of herbs on a part of the body; MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to treat a sore or wound with a plaster of herbs]
Of the leaves used in such treatment, Lisboa includes those of the climbing plant, rúnas (Smilax bracteata).[91] It is also likely that it was the leaves of the manaba tree (Premna cumingiana, wooly-leaved firebrand teak) which were used for treatment. Even though the leaves are not specifically mentioned by Lisboa, it is appears to be the only part of the tree used medicinally.[92]
    rúna s plant (typ‑ climbing like ivy, the leaves of which are used to treat sores, and the roots used as an antidote against the harmful effects of other herbs) [MDL]

    manaba tree (typ‑ used in the treatment of sores) [MDL]
There are other parts of trees and plants from which medical preparations were also made. The inside of the bark of the andaramóy tree could be scraped for use in a plaster for treating abscesses, the sap of the díta tree (Alstonia scholaris, white cheesewood,) was used to aid in the healing of sores and wounds,[93] as were the roots of the climbing vine, tublíˈ (Derris ellliptica, poison vine).[94]
    andaramóy tree (typ‑ possessing a bark, the inside of which is used as a plaster for treating abscesses) [MDL]

    díta tree (typ‑ possessing a sap said to aid in the healing of sores and wounds; Alstonia scholaris) [+MDL: ditá]

    tublíˈ a climbing vine (typ‑ possessing roots which produce a substance useful in treating sores or wounds, or in poisoning fish; Derris elliptica) [+MDL: MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to kill fish with the extract from this plant's roots; MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to use this root for treating sores, poisoning fish; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to poison an area of water with this root]

The Bikol region at the turn of the sixteenth century was not a peaceful place (see Chapter 1, 'War and Conflict,'). The continual raiding of neighbouring communities as well as external raids in the search for wealth and slaves meant that conflict was an inevitable outcome of indeterminate periods of peace.[95] Wounds from lances, knives and arrows would have been inflicted on the combatants with varying degrees of severity and these would have had to be treated and healed if the person were to survive. Added to this were the unavoidable accidents experienced by farmers working with their tools in the field, blacksmiths at the forge, and by those in charge of running the household and caring for the animals.
Wounds (lúgad) were referred to by their severity. They could be superficial, just grazing the skin and removing very little flesh (lukdáp), shallow and wide or long (ugíhap), or deep and penetrating, such as that caused by a weapon such as a knife or arow (ratóm).
    lúgad a wound; MAG‑, ‑AN to wound or injure s/o; MAKA‑, MA‑‑AN to get wounded, injured [+MDL: MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to wound s/o; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to wound a particular part of the body; MA‑ to become wounded; MA‑‑AN to develop a wound or sore (the body); MAKA‑ to cause a wound; KA‑‑AN: kalugádan a wound; salimpápaw na kalugádan a superficial wound; KA‑‑AN + ‑NON: kalugadánon or ‑ON: lugádon the wounded]

    lukdáp MA‑ or MAG‑ to have a superficial wound; MAKA‑, MA‑ to wound s/o superficially, removing only a small amount of flesh or skin; MAKA‑, MA‑‑AN to wound a particular part of the body in this way [MDL]

    ugíhap a sore or wound (typ‑ shallow and wide or long); MA‑ or MAG‑ to widen or lengthen (such a wound); (PAG‑)‑AN to have such a sore or wound (a person) [MDL]

    ratóm MA‑ to be deep (a wound); MAKA‑ to inflict a deep, penetrating wound (weapons); MA‑‑AN to be deeply wounded (a person) [MDL]
With wounds created by an arrow or lance, the barbed head would have to be removed, and the wound would have to be enlarged to allow this to happen. Hihíˈ is specific in this reference, and hurát very possibly refers to a similar circumstance.
    hihíˈ MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to enlarge a wound in order to remove a lance or harpoon [MDL]

    hurát MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to open or enlarge a wound with the hands; to stretch out a cloth; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to open or enlarge s/o's wound; MA‑ to be distended, stretched [MDL]
In modern wound management, wounds are measured to see the progress of healing, to determine if they are growing smaller or increasing in size (naknák) as would be the case if they became ulcerated (bukadkád). The only measurement mentioned in Lisboa is to the depth of a wound (sinák), and this was done most likely to assess how it might be treated.
    naknák MA‑ or MAG‑ to grow larger (a wound); (PAG‑)‑AN to have one's wound grow larger (a person); I(PAG)‑ to cause a wound to enlarge; (fig‑) Harí papagnaknaká an buˈót mong maráˈot Don't become worse than you are now [MDL]

    bukadkád MAG‑ to become ulcerated (a wound): Nagbukadkád na doy iníng kalugádan mo Your wound is really ulcerated [MDL]

    sinák MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to sound a body of water; to look for the deepest parts of a river or the sea; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to find the deepest part in a particular area of river or the sea; MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to probe with s/t attempting to find the deepest part, or to find out if s/t is deep; also: MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑ ‑ON to probe a wound to see if it is deep: Sinaká daw iyán kalugádan kon harárom Probe that wound to see if it is deep [MDL]
For wounds that bled profusely (burangráng), the bleeding would have to be stopped (puˈót), and then followed by the application of a bandage or plaster (pulpól, takpól). Regarding the treatment of wounds, Lisboa records a belief, which he indicates was no longer current at his time of writing, in which it was forbidden to enter the house where a wounded person was being cared for (siból). He gives no further explanation as to why this action was important, although it must be assumed that it was for the protection of the injured individual. The explanation in early Bikol society may very well have been to keep evil spirits at bay, although as a consequence of this belief the lack of visitors would have led to a cleaner environment and less chance of infection.
    burangráng MAG‑ to bleed (used when a wound bleeds profusely): Nagburangráng na iyán kalugádan ni kuyán That person's wound is really bleeding [MDL]

    puˈót MAG‑, ‑ON to stifle, smother or choke s/o; MAKA‑, MA‑ to be choked or smothered [MDL: MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to stop the flow of blood or tears; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to stem the flow of blood from a wound; to dry the eyes; MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to apply s/t to stem the flow of blood; MAKA‑, MA‑ to stop flowing (blood); to dry (one's tears); to stop crying]

    pulpól plaster, bandage; covering placed on a cut or wound; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to place a plaster on a cut or wound; to bandage s/t; MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to use s/t as a plaster or bandage; (fig‑) Kapulpól mo doy! How deaf you are (Meaning: Your ears must be covered with a plaster) [MDL]

    takpó l a patch; a bandage; MAG‑, ‑AN to patch s/t; to patch s/t up; to bandage s/t [+MDL: also: a cover, lid, plug, stopper; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to plug or cover a hole; to cover a wound with a bandage]

    siból (arc‑) an ancient belief that it is forbidden to enter a house where a wounded person is being treated [MDL]
Infection was indeed a cause for concern. Deep, penetrating wounds which did not bleed could still harbour bacteria which would bring about infection (luˈob). Open wounds would have to be kept dry for exposure to water could also bring about inflamation (suríp). A severe infection was compared to the effect of a poisonous snake bite (rára) which was capable of causing intense pain (kulóg). This last entry has been broadened in modern Bikol to include all kinds of pain, but for Lisboa the entry referred to severe pain associated with snake bites or insect bites which later became infected.
    lúˈob MA‑ or MAG‑ to become infected (wounds which do not bleed); (PAG‑)‑AN to have such wounds become infected (a person) [MDL]

    suríp infected, inflamed (a wound); MAKA‑, MA‑ to become infected, inflamed [+MDL: MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to enter a wound, causing it to become inflamed (water)]

    rará MA‑ poisonous; MAG‑ to become infected with poison (a wound); ‑AN to be poisoned (a person); MAGPA‑, PA‑‑ON to make poison from s/t [+MDL: rára MA‑ inflamed, infected; poisonous, venomous; MA‑ or MAG‑ to become inflamed infected, septic (a wound); (PAG‑)‑AN to have an infected wound (a person); mararáng hálas a poisonous snake; Abóng raráng hálas idtó; daˈí máyoˈ na pabulóng That's a very poisonous snake; there is no antidote]

    kulóg ache, pain, pang; ... MA‑ achy, aching, painful, sore; MAG‑ to ache, hurt, pain; MAG‑, ‑AN to harm s/o; to cause s/o pain; MA‑‑AN to feel pain; to be hurt or achy; to feel sore [MDL: MA‑ or MAG‑ to feel intense pain (such as that from the bite of venomous snake, or other bites which become infected); ‑ON to become infected and painful (bites); ‑AN to pain (a particular part of the body)]
To relieve pain, a poultice formed from the crushed leaves of the adgáw tree (Premna odorata, fragrant premna), a small tree to 8 metres growing at low altitudes throughout the Philippines, could be applied to the affected area. An extract obtained from the crushed leaves was also useful in the cleaning of wounds, although this use is not mentioned by Lisboa.[96]
    adgáw tree (typ‑ medicinal, possessing leaves which may be heated and placed as a poultice on an affected part of the body) [+MDL]
Survival after receiving a wound would depend on its severity and the type of treatment available. While survival was the desirable outcome (hábol), it was by no means guaranteed. Entries in Lisboa clearly show that the occurrencee of a sudden illness was seen as a direct consequence of the wounding (nanayóp), either due to its seriousness (raˈró) or the onset of infection (daldál).
    hábol MA‑ to survive a wounding; to not die after being wounded [MDL]

    nanayóp a sudden illness or fever caused by a wound, abscess or ulcer; MA‑ or MAG‑ to bring about such an illness (a wound); (PAG‑)‑AN or MA‑‑AN to suffer such a bout of illness or fever (a person) [MDL]

    raˈró MA‑ or MAG‑ to be taken suddenly ill (due to a serious wound); also used as a curse: Naraˈró kang iyán I hope you die from that [MDL]

    daldál (PAG‑)‑ON to suddenly fall ill (one who is wounded, due to the wounds becoming infected); MAKA‑ to cause such illness (an infection) [MDL]
As long as some form of treatment was available (also see Section 12), the chances of surviving a serious wound were greatly increased. Being wounded in an isolated place where help was unattainable could have dire consequences, resulting even in death (tunás).
    tunás referring to a person, animal or bird that is wounded or hurt and dies alone in an isolated place; MA‑, MA‑‑AN to die and decompose in an isolated area (a body, carcass); MAKA‑ to cause a body to decompose; (fig‑) Nagkatunás na lámang iníng pagharóngan mo Your house is rotting away from under you (Implying that you wait too long before doing s/t) [MDL]
Wounds, as with all cuts and sores, would gradually close as they heal (hípot) and scar over (pílaˈ). Where wounds were not properly cleaned and still retained some foreign matter within them, the healing would be superficial (rápoˈ), leading eventually to them having to be reopened or reopening themselves as the body extruded the foreign matter.
    hípot descriptive of the healing of a cut or wound; MA‑ or MAG‑ to heal (a sore, wound); to close (the hole formed when piercing the ears) [MDL]

    pílaˈ a scar; MAG‑ to scab over (a wound); MA‑ to heal, knit, mend (a wound); MA‑‑AN to get a scar (a person); MAGPA‑, PA‑‑ON to aid the healing process; ‑AN: piniláˈan a scar [+MDL: MA‑ or MAG‑ to heal (a wound, leaving a scar); (PAG‑)‑AN to have a scar (a person or a part of the body]

    rápoˈ MA‑ or MAG‑ to superficially heal (a wound, a fracture); (PAG‑)‑AN to have a wound heal superficially (still retaining foreign matter within it); to have a fracture superficially heal (a person) [MDL]

Medicines (bulóng) were generally derived from a wide variety of trees and plants, using the roots, flowers, stems, leaves and bark in various combinations to relieve pain, reduce inflamation and in general, aid in overall healing. At times, and with luck, a single medicine may have been sufficient to bring about a cure (bugtóng). Conversely, a number of medications administered simultaneously may have interacted negatively and due to their incompatibility, caused a deterioration in the patient's condition, resulting even in death (sánga).
    bulóng medicine; daˈíng bulóng incurable; MAG‑, ‑ON to treat s/o medically; MAKA‑, MA‑ to be cured; PARA‑ physician, anyone who administers medicine; may be interpreted by some as derogatory [+MDL: MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑ ‑ON to treat s/o with medicine; MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to administer a particular medicine]

    bugtóng PA- medicines which, without any addition or admixture, are sufficient to bring about a cure; Pamugtóng na bulóng iní This medicine alone is enough to bring about a cure [MDL]

    sánga MAGKA‑ to be incompatible (the medicines prescribed by different doctors, resulting in a deterioration in the patient's condition or death); PAGKA‑‑AN to be treated in this way (a patient); IPAGKA‑ to cause such a deterioration or death (incompatible medicines) [MDL]
What appears to be an early form of vaccination can be seen in two related entries. Bulítan is a mixture of various poisonous substances. This is administered to a person at the tip of a needle-like piece of iron which just pricks the skin and serves to protect the individual from various types of poison, including snake bites (tawák). Although this is described as a charm, what is happening is individuals are being subjected to small quantities of various poisons in the hope that they will gradually build up a tolerance when exposed to a greater amount.
    bulítan (arc‑) poison (typ‑ concocted from a mixture of various poisonous substances) [MDL]

    tawák a charm which protects s/o from poison, or a poisonous snake bite; the charm is effected by pricking the person with an mixture of poisons called bulítan; MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑ ‑ON to treat s/o with an anti-venom in this way; MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to use this charm to protect s/o [MDL]
There were general antidotes (tambál) which were sourced, no doubt, from a variety of different substances and effective for particular afflictions. There were also a number of specific plant parts which were used, such as the stalk of the madbád, which was administered when someone was bitten by a snake or suffered from a stomach ailment, and the roots of the kalúnggay tree (Moringa oleifera, drumstick tree) which were said to be effective in reversing the effects of poison.[97] Those who had eaten the blowfish or puffer fish called butíti could be saved by eating the fruit of the bukábok. I have found no further information about madbád, and while bukabók can be identified as Scaevola lobelia which does grow along the seashore and produces a fruit with medicinal properties, it bears no resemblance to reed grasses.[98]
    tambál antidote; MAG‑, ‑ON to treat s/o with an antidote; ‑AN one proficient in such treatment [+MDL: MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to treat s/o with an antidote]

    kalúnggay drumstick tree (typ‑ tree containing edible leaves and long, thin, edible seed pods; Moringa oleifera) [+MDL: kalúngay tree (typ‑ possessing high, delicate branches, and roots which are used as an antidote for poison; many line the streets of Quipayó and are referred to as 'from Ternate')]

    madbád plant stalk (typ‑ bitter, serving as an anti-venom for snake bite and as treatment for stomachaches) [MDL]

    bukábok plant (typ‑ similar to reed grasses, possessing a fruit which serves as an antidote when one has eaten the blowfish called butíti) [MDL]
Lisboa also included various other plant substances said to have curative properties, sometimes mentioning these in general, and sometimes with the specific ailment they were used to treat. The tanglón (Quisqualis indica, yesterday, today and tomorrow),[99] a woody, climbing shrub reaching a height of eight metres, is described as producing a fruit which is capable of killing intestinal worms, something which is borne out by modern reference. The leaves of the castor oil plant, tangán-tangán (Ricinus communis),[100] are used fresh to cure or relieve a headache, and the delicate plant called agpá, for which I can find no further information, can be used as an aphrodisiac by both men an women.
    tanglón shrub (typ‑ with painful thorns and a fruit which, when eaten, may kill intestinal worms) [MDL]

    tangán-tangán castor oil plant (typ‑ Ricinus communis) [+MDL: the leaves are used as a treatment or cure for a headache]

    agpá plant (typ‑ delicate, eaten by men and women as an aphrodisiac); var‑ agpó [MDL]
In modern Bikol the grass baˈgángan has a root from which a tonic for nursing mothers can be derived. Lisboa has an entry for the plant baró-bagángan which is simply referred to as medicinal. These are clearly the same plant.
What appears to be the prefix baró- in Lisboa's entry is formed by a process which, when applied to verbs, shows what might be called mitigating action: an action which is not quite as deliberate as it would be if the affix were not used. Here, although we are dealing with nouns, not verbs, the meaning is similar: we have something that is similar to, though not quite identical to the unaffixed root.
There is another difference as well. The affix is normally formed by reduplication of the first consonant and vowel of the root into which is affixed the plural infix, an 'r' followed by a copy of the first vowel of the root, The prefix then should be bara-, but it is baro-, something which is true not only for this entry, but all of the other entries of this form as well. Why this is happening is not clear, although it may represent a type of dissimilation.
That still leaves us with trying to determine exactly what plant is being referred to. In Cebuano there is a plant, bagang (Phragmites vulgaris),[101] which is an erect grass to 3.5 metres widely distributed throughout the Philippines. The roots and leaves are used for a large number of purposes, although specific use for nursing mothers is not mentioned. As for the addition of the -an suffix this is quite commonly used to show location, and in Bikol the original interpretation may have been 'an area of bágang grass'.
    baró-bagángan plant (typ‑ medicinal) [MDL]

    baˈgángan grass (typ‑ the roots of which may be processed into a tonic for nursing mothers)
Another plant used to treat women was the panangtáng, which served as an aid in childbirth (see Chapter 5, 'Childhood,' Section 3). The root here must be tangtáng or tantáng with predictable changes when an affix of the form pang- is used, but I have been unable to identify this plant further.
    panangtáng plant (typ‑ used by midwives to treat women, serving as an aid in childbirth) [MDL]
Lisboa also includes a number other plants which have general healing properties. This includes the vine payawán; the scarlet sage, lakád búlan, (Blumea balsamifera),[102] whose leaves are used in the treatment of various ailments from headaches and fevers to wounds, although nothing specific is mentioned by Lisboa; lalantataˈón which Lisboa translates into Spanish as yerba mora 'mulberry', but gives no more information about how this was used in medical treatment; and langkáwas, (Alpinia galanga, galangal),[103] the well-known plant of the ginger family whose roots are widely used for seasoning. Again, Lisboa makes no specific mention as to how he roots were used.
    payawán plant (typ‑ growing like ivy, climbing up trunks and hanging down from the branches of trees, very bitter to the taste; used for treating various ailments [MDL]

    lakád búlan scarlet sage (typ‑ medicinal plant) [+MDL]

    lalantataˈón mulberry (typ‑ plant, medicinal); syn‑ lalagpakón [MDL]

    langkáwas galangal (typ‑ plant in the ginger family, possessing roots used as a seasoning; Alpinia galanga) [+MDL: the roots are also medicinal]

There are only two implements which are mentioned by Lisboa; the syringe (singpít), which is now used for giving enemas and during Lisboa's time was used to administer medicine, and the cupping glass.
    sungpít syringe used for the giving of enemas; MAG‑, ‑ON to give s/o an enema [MDL: syringe, used for administering medicine; MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to give s/o medicine with a syringe; MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to administer medicine with a syringe]
Therapy using the cupping glass goes back millennia. Its purpose was to draw blood to an area of the body which hurt to relieve pain and bring about healing. Additionally, it was believed to also aid in the treatment of more systemic problems, such as fatigue, or persistent headaches, and, in modern terms, high blood pressure.[104]
The two implements used for cupping during Lisboa's time were the small glass imported from China, pinagatpát, and the tandók which was made from horn. This last term is found with the identical meaning in Kapampangan,[105] in Tagalog where it is described as made from bamboo or horn [106] and in Waray where reference is to a cupping glass, a drinking glass, or a glass bell all used for the same medicinal purpose. The entry for Waray, as well, is extensive, describing not only the composition of the cupping glass, but its full application and use.[107] The word, tandók, itself is most likely a borrowing from Malay where it does mean 'horn'.[108] This meaning was clearly extended to other objects serving the same function in Tagalog and Waray. While tandók is still a term available for use in modern Bikol, the Spanish loan, realised as bintúsaˈ, is far more common, not only in Bikol, but throughout much of the Philippines.
    pinagatpát small glass imported from China, serving as a cupping glass (the small glass placed on the body for the purpose of drawing blood to areas that hurt in order to speed healing) [MDL]

    tandók a cupping glass made from a horn [+MDL: MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to remove blood with a tandók; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to bleed s/o with a tandók; Pagpinghán mo an pagtandók mo sakóˈ Place a cupping glass on either side of me]
For the cupping glass to work, it must be able to draw blood to the area of the body where it is placed. To do this, a lower air pressure must be achieved inside the glass than without. Lisboa describes this as sucking the air out of the cupping glass (usóp), but he gives no detail as to how this is achieved. This detail is explained in the Waray entry, and is general wherever a cupping glass is used. The lower pressure is achieved by heating the inside of the glass with a small flame which is made by burning a bit of straw or a fragment of cloth. The flame is then extinguished and the opening of the glass covered by a leaf or segment of cloth to preserve the partial vacuum (haklóp, tutób). The Waray entry also indicates that a horn, generally that of a water buffalo, was also used for cupping. With a horn the vacuum was formed by sucking air out through a small hole made at the top.
The cupping glass is then placed over the part of the body to be treated (súkob) and left there for as long as the treatment requires. In modern cupping techniques, this would be about 10 minutes. There is generally more than one cupping glass used at a time, and if this is done to excess, the patient may begin to feel some negative effects (taˈgán). The process is repeated as necessary to bring about relief or a cure.
    usóp MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to suck out air from a cupping glass so that it adheres better to the body [MDL]

    haklóp MAG‑, ‑AN to cover a frame (as of a kite, lantern); to stretch s/t on a frame [MDL: a small leaf used for covering the top of a cupping glass to keep the air from entering; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to cover the end of a cupping glass with such a leaf; MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to use a leaf for this purpose]

    tutób a covering; a book cover; MAG‑, ‑ON to cover an opening (as the mouth of a jar, glass); MAG‑, ‑AN to cover s/t (as a book, a container); MAG‑, I‑ to use s/t as a covering [+MDL: leaves or cloth used to cover a container or the end of a cupping glass; MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to cover the mouth of a container with leaves, a piece of cloth]

    súkob MAG‑, ‑ON to tightly embrace s/o; to entirely cover s/o; MAKI‑, PAKI‑‑AN to share a place of shelter with s/o; to take shelter with s/o (as under an umbrella, in a shed, under a blanket) [+MDL: MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to throw the arms around s/o to restrain them (to keep them from fleeing, causing damage); to place a cupping glass over a wound, swelling; MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to put a cupping glass into place]

    taˈgán MA‑ or MAG‑ to list to one side (a boat that is being unloaded); (fig‑) Timinaˈgán si payó ko na tinandokán akó I feel light-headed with all of these cupping glasses on me [MDL]
When the treatment is finished, the cupping glass is removed, or becomes detached on its own when the internal and external pressures are equalised (bungkál, tangtáng). Round patches in the shape of the cupping glass remain on the skin, along with a lump or swelling where the skin had been drawn up into the glass (úmong).
    bungkal MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to remove a cupping glass; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to remove a cupping glass from s/o; MA‑ to become detached (a cupping glass) [MDL]

    tangtáng MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to remove a cupping glass; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to remove a cupping glass from a person's body; MA‑ to become dislodged (a cupping glass); to fall out (a knife from its sheath); MA‑, MA‑‑AN to become dislodged from a person's body, a sheath (a knife) [MDL]

    úmong lump or swelling which remains after a cupping glass is removed, or which forms after one has received a blow; MA‑ or MAG‑ to form (such a lump or swelling); (PAG‑)‑AN to have such a swelling (a person, a part of the body) [MDL]
Cupping may also be used for the purpose of bleeding (tábad), believed in Western tradition to remove unwanted humours or toxins from the body. Similar beliefs would no doubt have existed in early Bikol society, associated with the drawing out of particular evil spirits, although this is not made explicit by Lisboa. An incision would be made with a knife (kaldít) producing a specific sound described as sagisíˈ. In modern practice, the vacuum created when a cupping glass is used for bleeding is not as strong as that for regular cupping, and the glass is left in place for a shorter period of time, approximately three minutes.
    tábad MAPAKA‑, PAKA‑‑AN: pakatabáran to bleed s/o for medical reasons using a cupping glass made of horn; MAPAKA‑, PAKA‑‑ON to remove blood in this way until it stops flowing [MDL]

    kaldít MAG-, ‑AN to make an incision for the purpose of drawing blood [+MDL: MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to make an incision in the skin before applying a cupping glass]

    sagisíˈ sound when one gets cut with a knife, or when cutting the skin for bleeding s/o with a cupping glass; MA‑ or MAG‑ to make such a sound [MDL]
When the process is finished, the cupping glass would be cleaned by washing it in the river (hawháw), or by striking it to remove the accumulated, and possibly, coagulated blood (takták).
    hawháw MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to wash a horn used as a cupping glass (see tandók) in the river; to wash a skull in the river after it has been disinterred; also applicable to other items [MDL]

    takták MAG‑, ‑ON to tap or rap s/t; to dislodge s/t by tapping or rapping; MAG‑, ‑AN to tap or rap a particular part or section [MDL: MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to strike the head of a fish on a plate to remove the brains, or the bones of animals to remove the marrow; to strike a cupping glass to remove the blood; MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to remove brains, marrow or blood in this way]

While the goal of maintaining good health (hintóng) would have been admirable, nevertheless, throughout the lives of the early Bikolanos there would have been periods of illness (hílang), sometimes short and at other times extended, ranging from minor episodes of simply feeling indisposed (haból), to suffering lengthy bouts or recurrences of chronic conditions (laygáy).
    hintóng healthy; MA‑ or MAG‑ to maintain or retain good health; Hintóng pa an háwak ni kuyán That person is still healthy [MDL]

    hílang ailment, disease, illness, malady, sickness; IGWÁ or MAY to be sick; an may hílang the sick, invalids; MAG‑ to ail; to be sick or ill; hílang sa payó mental illness [+MDL: Anón (Anó an) hílang ni kuyán? or Guráˈno an hílang ki kuyán?What ailment is that person suffering from?; MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to suffer from a particular disease; KA‑‑AN sickness, ailment; MAKA‑ to cause sickness or ill health; MA‑ or MA‑‑ON: mahílang na táwo or mahilángon na táwo one who is ill]

    haból (PAG‑)‑ON to be indisposed, ill; to feel under the weather; MAKA‑ to bring about such a feeling; ‑ON ill, under the weather [MDL]

    laygáy (PAG‑)‑ON to suffer from a chronic ailment or illness; I(PAG)‑ to have a particular chronic illness; MAKA‑ to cause or bring about a chronic illness [MDL]
Illness could come about suddenly as we have seen with those resulting from infected wounds (see Section 8). There were other physical causes as well, such as a bone fracture or rupture, or the swelling of the feet, something which was no doubt symptomatic of a more serious, underlying cause (lubát). General exhaustion or over-work, or the result of having been severely beaten could also cause someone to fall seriously ill (túbag). A sudden death (túlos) could come about from a heart attack or severe stroke, or could just be the unexpected outcome of one who was ill and not expected to die (see Section 12).
    lubát a sudden bout of illness accompanied by fever which overcomes one with particular types of ailments (such as a rupture, fracture, swollen feet); MA‑ or MAG‑ to bring about the onset of such an illness (a fracture, rupture); (PAG‑)‑AN to suffer from such an illness (a person) [MDL]

    túbag MA‑ or MAG‑ to fall sick, ill (from exhaustion, excessive work or after being beaten) [MDL]

    túlos MA‑ to suddenly die; MA‑‑AN to have s/o or s/t suddenly die on you; PAGKA‑ a sudden death; Natúlos ka May you suddenly die (Said as a curse) [MDL]
Infectious diseases posed their own problems with their ability to spread from person to person (ulákit). Such infections could be fairly localised, remaining in one household or one community (hagúroˈ) or they could spread to other towns or an entire region, dámat (the same term found in Waray and Cebuano).[109] At their worst, such epidemics could wipe out entire communities (sapóˈ).
    ulákit MAG‑, ‑AN to contaminate, infect or pollute s/t; MAKA‑ catching (as a cold); contagious, infectious; MA‑‑AN to catch a cold or other disease; to contract a disease; to get infected, contaminated, polluted; DAˈÍ MA‑‑AN immune; MANG‑ to communicate or transmit a disease; to contaminate what one comes into contact with [+MDL: MAKA‑ to be infectious, contaminating, MA‑‑AN to be infected or contaminated; IKA‑ to carry a particular infection or contamination]

    hagúroˈ describing a situation where many sick people are found in one place; MANG‑ to be gathered or found in one place (the sick): Nanhagúroˈ na sa kuyán na saróˈ kahárong Everyone is sick in those people's house [MDL]

    dámat plague, pestilence, epidemic; MAG‑ or MAKA‑ to cause an epidemic, plague; (PAG‑) ‑ON or MA‑ to die in an epidemic; (PAG‑)‑AN or MA‑‑AN to be affected by an epidemic, plague (a town, region); PAGKA‑ a plague, epidemic [MDL]

    sapóˈ MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to completely annihilate one's enemies; to kill all of one's enemies; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to wipe out a whole community; MA‑ to be completely wiped out, killed or annihilated (by war, disease, famine); to die (a whole community) [MDL]
Some of these epidemics were recorded, primarily by members of the religious orders who were resident in the Philippines at the time. Not all of these epidemics could be identified, such as one in Manila in 1628 in which those infected had just 12 hours to live. The contagion was blamed on the arrival of outsiders to the city, black slaves from India to be sold, or on a possible contamination of fish, but a proper cause was never identified in spite of the performance of a number of autopsies.[110]
Loarca also describes a situation in Panay in 1582-83 where people were affected by 'itch and buboes', something which was blamed on the arrival of immigrants from the island of Bohol. 'Buboes', a translation of the Spanish bubas, is generally rendered as 'bubonic plague', although this appears to be frequently incorrect as the illnesses to which it was applied usually were far less severe and the question of mortality rarely mentioned. In the case of Panay, as well, transmission of the unknown disease was blamed on person to person contact, something which usually does not occur with bubonic plague (although it is possible with pneumonic plague).[111]
Augustinian priests also recorded an influenza epidemic in 1688 centered on the province of Pampanga which had continued from the previous year and was so severe and affected such a great proportion of the population that fields remained untilled or unharvested and people were seen rarely in the streets.[112]
By far the most commonly reported epidemic was smallpox. One such epidemic was recorded by Chirino in Balayan, Batangas sometime between 1601 and 1604,[113] and another in Catbalogan, Samar around 1627.[114] The Dominicans recorded outbreaks around 1640 in the province of Nueva Segovia, centred on the Cagayan Valley, as well as in Pangasinan.[115] The Augustinian Recollects also recorded an epidemic in the area of the Cagayan Valley in 1677.[116]
The modern term for smallpox in Bikol is burútong, a term also found in Tagalog and Kapampangan.[117] Lisboa, however, defines this simply as 'pimples on the face'. For smallpox he has pukóˈ, which is also given this meaning in Waray.[118] In Cebuano the term is defined as 'bubas', a general term, as mentioned previously, translated into English as 'buboes' and having a wide variety of interpretations. If we look at John Wolff's dictionary of modern Cebuano we find the definition 'yaws', a contagious bacterial disease of the skin causing open lesions and ulcers.[119] This is not smallpox. For Cebuano and Hiligaynon the term given for smallpox is buti.[120]
    burútong smallpox, an acute, highly infectious disease caused by a virus and initially characterized by chills, high fever, headache and backache with subsequent widespread eruption of pimples which eventually blister, produce pus and form pockmarks; IGWÁ or MAY to have smallpox; ‑ON or MA‑ to suffer from smallpox [+MDL: pimples on the face; (PAG‑)‑ON to appear (such pimples); ‑ON: burutóngon one with a lot of pimples]

    pukóˈ smallpox; ‑ON or MA‑ to have smallpox; to have pock marks [+MDL: (PAG‑)‑ON to have smallpox; Makurí si pagpukó sakó I'm very ill with smallpox; mapiláng pukóˈ scarred with pock marks]
That brings us to chicken pox. It is probable, that without being named as a separate disease, this was seen as a mild form of smallpox. Proof that it was a distinct disease did not come until the British physician William Heberden was able to show this definitively in 1767.[121] As a result, it is not surprising that specific reference to chicken pox is not found in the early Philippine dictionaries.
In modern Bikol, chicken pox is utós, a term which does not appear in Lisboa. In Hiligaynon, the second term defined as smallpox (viruelas) is hanga which is most likely a misheard or misrepresented form of hangga.[122] If we look at Cebuano, we find what is most likely the same term, hangga, but here we get an extended definition: 'a skin eruption, somewhat between smallpox and measles, regularly affecting children; can be dangerous if not treated promptly with the proper medicines and the person not diligently cared for'.[123] John Wolff in his modern Cebuano dictionary defines that as 'chicken pox'.[124] Lisboa also has the term hanggá which he defines simply as 'a pox (or smallpox), viruelas, which is fatal'. Chicken pox is not usually fatal, and so the Bikol term would not readily be associated with this disease. However, given the existence of the same term in Hiligaynon and Cebuano, and the extended definition in Cebuano indicating it can be dangerous if not properly treated, we are probably dealing with the same illness. When the skin eruptions accompanying these infections become pussy, they are referred to as hubóg.
    utós chicken pox, an acute viral disease usually of young children, characterized by skin eruptions and a mild fever; ‑ON or MA‑ to have or suffer from chicken pox

    hanggá pox (typ‑ fatal); (PAG‑)‑ON to be sick with such a pox [MDL]

    hubóg to become pussy (pock marks associated with chicken pox (utós), smallpox (pukóˈ, burútong), or other pox-like infections (hanggá) [MDL]
The other childhood diseases which would no doubt make their way through the community, sometimes in endemic proportions once one child had become infected, were mumps (bayukóˈ) and measles (tipdás). Associated with measles may have been the blisters which appeared on the skin and in the mouth with the accompanying fever (liptók, see Section 7). Tipdas is the common term found throughout the central Philippine languages, except for Kapampangan which has tikdás[125] (also see Chapter 5, 'Childhood,' Section 12).
    bayukóˈ mumps, an acute, contagious disease of the salivary glands, caused by a virus; ‑ON: bayukóˈon describing a person with mumps; ‑ON or MA‑ to get or suffer from mumps [+MDL: (PAG‑)‑ON to suffer from mumps]

    tipdás measles, an acute contagious disease, usually occurring in childhood, caused by a virus and characterized by a high fever, the eruption of small red spots, and inflammation of the mucus membranes of the nose and throat; ‑ON one with measles; ‑ON or MA‑ to have or suffer from measles [+MDL: (PAG‑)‑ON to have or suffer from measles]
There are two other diseases for which very little information was provided and, therefore, remain almost impossible to identify. One of these, laláso, is characterised by pustules which appear first on one part of the body, burst and then spread. This could refer to a unique disease, or a stage in a disease such as smallpox or chicken pox. There is even less information provided for the disease karámaˈ which is described simply as 'rare and unknown'.
    lalásoˈ disease (typ‑ characterized by pustules which appear first on one part of the body, then burst and quickly spread); (PAG‑)‑ON to suffer from this disease [MDL]

    karámaˈ disease (typ‑ rare, unknown); (PAG‑)‑ON to suffer from such a disease; I(PAG)‑ to cause such a disease [MDL]
Of the other serious illnesses which affected Bikolanos of 400 years ago, leprosy would have to be considered one of the most severe. This is a disease caused by the bacterium, Mycobacterium leprae, genetically related to the bacterium causing tuberculosis, which, while not highly contagious, is transmitted from individual to individual, it is believed, through contact with droplets secreted from the nose. Children are particularly susceptible as the longer and more intimate the contact, the greater the chance of infection. The disease has a long incubation period with people showing symptoms only five to 20 years after infection.
The bacterium affects the skin and the nerves at the periphery of the body which tend to be the cooler areas. These include, in particular, the hands and feet, the nose, eyes and earlobes resulting in the greatest disfigurement to these parts. The collapse of the nose, the dropping of the earlobes, and the shortening of the toes and fingers are generally brought about by secondary disease resulting in cartilage being reabsorbed into the body, or damage due to the loss of feeling caused by the leprosy bacterium.
It was only in the 1980s that a sustainable, effective treatment was found to treat leprosy, a multi-drug therapy with treatment lasting for up to a year. A sufferer becomes non-contagious after just a few weeks of treatment, obviating the need for long-term isolation in a hospital or dedicated leper colony. Many of the early colonies remain open only to serve those residents whose disfigurement is so great that they prefer to remain among people who have suffered a similar fate.[126]
The entry for leprosy found in Lisboa is kagihíˈ, a term which has disappeared from the modern language to be replaced by the Spanish loan, lépra. A second entry in the Vocabulario, bulát, may very well refer to another form of leprosy, and it is interesting that in his definition Lisboa appears to recognise the closeness between certain forms of leprosy and tuberculosis which, only centuries later, were shown to be genetically related. The central Philippine languages have, confusingly, numerous terms attributed to diseases which may or may not be forms of leprosy, but obviously have similar characteristics to the disease. These headword entries are included in the endnotes for those wishing to pursue the matter further.[127]
    kagikhíˈ leprosy, a chronic, infectious disease caused by a bacillus and ranging in severity from noncontagious and spontaneously remitting forms, to contagious, malignant forms with progressive paralysis, ulceration, gangrene and mutilation; (PAG‑)‑ON to suffer from leprosy; ‑ON: kagikhíˈon a leper [MDL]

    bulát disease (typ‑ similar to leprosy or tuberculosis); (PAG‑)‑ON to suffer from such an illness; an bulatón referring to s/o with such an illness [MDL]
There are entries in Lisboa which, without being identified as such, show what must have been the visual effects of leprosy, in particular the collapse of the cartilage of the nose (píngos, táhas) resulting in nasal speech (punód). These entries do not refer exclusively to leprosy, in particular those which include deformities to the mouth, but any condition which may bring about such an appearance, such as a harelip (see Section 4(iii)).
    píngos describing s/o with part of their nostril and mouth eaten away; MA‑ to suffer from this deformity; MAKA‑ to cause such a deformity [MDL]

    táhas urn or earthenware jar having no projecting rim; also: a person with no nose or mouth, more properly called píngos [MDL]

    punód stuffed or clogged (the nose); congested (as from a cold); MAG‑ to become stuffed up or congested (a person); MA‑ to become stuffed up or clogged (the nose) [+MDL: nasal (in the way of speaking); MA‑ or MAG‑ to become nasal (a person); to have one's nose eaten away and as a result speak nasally; MA‑ to be eaten away, resulting in nasal speech (the nose)]

Any illness will run its course leading, ultimately, to recovery or death. In this section we will look at the general effects of illness and then go on to look first at a situation where the condition of the patient deteriorates, and following that, where care and treatment have a more satisfactory outcome leading to recovery.
There are any number of signs which might indicate that someone is ill, the most obvious being verbal exclamations such as áha, agóy or haláˈ-halaˈuˈoy to register a degree of discomfort or pain, or the less welcome grumbling about how unwell one feels (híriˈ-híriˈ).
    áha interjection uttered by one who is ill; the low moan of one who is ill [MDL]

    agóy exclamation used when one feels tired or ill; MA‑ or MAG‑ to exclaim by saying agóy [MDL]

    haláˈ-halaˈuˈoy expression of pain [MDL]

    híriˈ-híriˈ MA‑ or MAG‑ to grumble or complain about the pain one feels, as by saying haláˈ-halaˈuˈoy; Híriˈ-híriˈ na You really complain a lot [MDL]
Deeper and more pervasive pain can also be expressed (halatíhot), in addition to visual aspects which no observer can miss, such as being doubled over in pain, whether it be due to some general condition (aríˈad) or to a stomach ailment (híwid).
    halatíhot MA‑ or MAG‑ to penetrate to one's bones (cold); to rack the body (pain); (PAG‑)‑AN to feel chilled to the bone; to be racked with pain (a person) [MDL]

    aríˈad MAG‑ to double over in pain; Nagaríˈad na si kuyán That person is doubled over in pain [MDL]

    híwid MA‑ or MAG‑ to be doubled over in pain due to stomach cramps; to writhe in pain due to the pain of a stomachache; Híwid-híwid na kan daghán si kuyán That person is really doubled over from stomach pains [MDL]
Illness also leads to weakness (pároy-pároy) or excessive tiredness (nganáˈ), and disturbed patterns of sleep (ilás), as well other physical symptoms such as the loss of hair (rúgon). As has been the case with entries in previous sections, symptoms which cannot be related to known factors may be blamed on the consumption of bad food or particular types of food, and that is one of the reasons given here for the loss of hair.
    pároy-pároy weak with hunger or illness: Pároy-pároy na lámang akó kainíng pagkagútom ko I'm just weak with hunger [MDL]

    nganáˈ too much, excessive; overdone, inordinate [+MDL: ngánaˈ...; MA‑ to be extreme, excessive; MA‑‑AN to be overdone; to have too much of s/t; to feel the extremes or excesses of s/t: nanganganáˈan nin hílang to be overly tired from one's illness; ...]

    ilás MAKA‑, MA‑ to dream about s/t seen or done earlier in the day and react when sleeping by laughing, shouting, crying; to be unable to sleep due to things running through one's mind: Sa anó ka nailás? What did you dream about? or What was disturbing your sleep? [+MDL: PAG‑ ‑ON to be kept awake by what one imagines, or by pain or illness; MAKA‑ to keep one awake (one's imagination, pain, illness); MA‑ to be kept awake]

    rúgon MAG‑ to fall or shed (the hair of humans, the fur of animals) due to infirmity or illness [+MDL: MA‑ or MAG‑ to fall (the hair of humans); to shed (the fur of animals) from illness or the consumption of bad food; I(PAG)‑ to cause this affliction (a particular food); (PAG‑) ‑AN to suffer from this affliction (a person)]
By far the greatest sign of illness is fever (duso) which can lead to overwhelming feelings of discomfort and distress (harabáhab, harasáhas). High fevers can also produce feelings of disorientation (the figurative meaning in the entry bírik), and in more extreme cases, delirium (lisáng, rámi).
    duso fever; PAG‑‑ON to have a fever [MDL]

    harabáhab the feeling of great distress or discomfort accompanying a fever-producing illness or drunkenness; MA‑ or MAG‑ to have a high fever; (PAG‑)‑AN to feel the effects of a fever or drunkenness [MDL]

    harasáhas MA‑ warm and humid; muggy, sultry; MAG‑ to become sultry; KA‑‑AN humidity [MDL: the feeling of great distress or discomfort accompanying a fever-producing illness or drunkenness; MA‑ or MAG‑ to have a high fever; (PAG‑)‑AN to feel the effects of a fever or drunkenness]

    bírik back to front, ... [+MDL: MA‑ or MAG‑ to turn o/s around; MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to turn s/t around; ...; (fig‑) Garó na pinagbírik an hinilíngan It is as if what I see is turned around (Said when one is drunk or suffering from a high fever) ...]

    lisáng delirium; MA‑ to be delirious; (fig‑) Lisáng doy saindó You are very unsettled (doing things that just don't make sense); Kalisáng mong táwo, daˈí ka nakakakítaˈ kaiyán na yáˈon sa atubángan mo You must be delirious not to see what is right there in front of you [MDL]

    rámi delirium; (PAG‑)‑ON or MA‑ to be delirious (due to illness); MAKA‑ to cause delirium; to make one delirious (a fever, another illness) [MDL]
As an illness grows worse (ludlód, úwaˈ), a person in fear of dying becomes more distressed (hiwás), travelling from place to place in search of treatment. This search might include contacting particular people or analysing particular substances in an attempt to find the right combination of elements to bring about a cure (liswág).
    ludlód MA‑ or MAG‑ to grow worse; to become more grave (an illness); to deteriorate (a condition); (PAG‑)‑AN to grow worse; to deteriorate (a person); (fig‑) Nagluludlód iníng pagkalulóng mo You grow more and more stupid; Ludlód na matúrog si kuyán That person sleeps like the dead; Kaludlód sa túbig kainíng káhoy This piece of wood sinks like a stone [MDL]

    úwaˈ MA‑ or MAG‑ to grow worse (an illness); to increase (the benefits of s/t); to grow better; (PAG‑)‑AN to be increasingly debilitated by one's illness (a person); I(PAG)‑ to increase by a particular amount or degree [MDL]

    hiwás MAG‑ to be worried, distressed, tormented desperate (one who is dying); MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to travel from place to place in search of a cure for one's terminal illness; MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to search for a cure by traveling from place to place [MDL]

    liswág MA‑, ‑AN or MAPA‑, PA‑‑AN or MAGPA‑, PAGPA‑‑AN to look for a remedy or cure (in a particular place, from a particular person or by analyzing a particular substance); MA‑, I‑ or MAPA‑, IPA‑ or MAGPA‑, IPAGPA to look for a cure or remedy for a particular ailment; (fig‑) Daˈí na kitáng liniliswagán na ibáng úlay We have nothing more to say to each other [MDL]
When care and treatment fail and no remedy can be found, further signs begin to appear that a person is near death. One of these is the appearance of froth or blood issuing from the mouth (buráˈ). At times like this the family and friends will generally gather to keep vigil over the person (himuráˈot).
The entry himuráˈot is based on the root ráˈot which encompasses the negative meanings ranging from bad to unfavourable. Preceding this root is a series of two prefixes. The first of these is hing-, which, while not entirely fossilised, is limited in its use to bases which are known to take it, and rarely applied creatively to new bases.[128] Its use on a root is to show transition, moving toward the state shown by the meaning of the root.
The second prefix, pu-, which we have seen before in entries such as puraˈmós (see Section 1), is fossilised and its independent meaning is difficult to determine. The final form is arrived at through the processes of assimilation and deletion: hing- + pu- + ráˈothimuráˈot
    buráˈ froth, foam or blood issuing from the mouth of the dead or seriously ill; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to shout or yell at s/o (those who are dying); MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to shout s/t out; PAGKA‑ shouting, yelling: Anó an pagkaburáˈ mo dihán? What are you yelling about there? (Said as an insult, indicating that the person who is shouting is like a dying person foaming at the mouth) [MDL]

    himuráˈot MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to keep vigil over one who is about to die; to watch over one who is near death [MDL]
As breathing becomes more laboured, it may appear that the person's breath is being snatched away, giving rise to the figurative meaning in the entry ágaw. Eventually death will come (gádan) and for most of the person's friends, relatives and carers, this will be a sad occasion. This, however, may not be universally true, as a particularly irksome individual, may not be missed at all (uyám).
    ágaw ... MAG‑, ‑ON to snatch s/t ... [+MDL: MAG‑ to grab things away from one another; MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑ ‑ON to snatch s/t; to grab s/t away; to save s/o from danger; ... (fig‑) MAG‑ to take advantage of a particular occasion: Agáwa iníng línaw Take advantage of the good weather; nagarágaw an giginhawáhon to be unable to catch one's breath; Nagarágaw na an giginhawáhon kainíng naghihílang This sick person is drawing his last breath;... ]

    gadán corpse, the deceased; gadán na dead; ... MA‑ to die, pass away, perish; to succumb; MA‑‑AN to be bereaved; to have a death in the family; KA‑‑AN death, demise; PAGKA‑ the death of, the killing of [+MDL: MA‑, ‑ON to kill s/o; MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to kill an animal; Nagadán idtóng ákiˈ ko, daˈíng síring si buˈót ko I have never felt so bad as after the death of my child; ... MAKA‑: makakagadán or makagagadan deadly, fatal; MA‑ ‑ON: magagadánon mortal; MA‑: magadán may I die, on my life; an oath taken where one utters these words; MAMA‑, MAMA‑‑AN or MAGMA‑, PAGMA‑‑AN to take such an oath]

    uyám MA‑ annoying, bothersome, irksome; ... [+MDL: MA‑ or MAG‑ to become annoyed; MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to annoy s/o; MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to annoy s/o about s/t; MA‑‑ON vexed, irritated; Iyó pang nakauyám idtóng si kuyán And that is it for the irritating ways of that person (Said when one dies shortly after falling ill, indicating that he will not be missed by the doctors who treated him or those who served him)]

The general term for care in modern Bikol is mangnó, a term which does not appear in Lisboa. The two terms which do appear in Lisboa and are still used in modern Bikol, although with slightly altered meanings, are átom and atáman, the latter of which is also found in Waray and Cebuano where reference is to carrying out an assigned duty or task quickly and efficiently.[129] Atóm, using the final stress indicated by Lisboa, was most probably the historical root for the longer form atáman.
    mangnó MAG‑, ‑ON to care for s/o; to look after or provide for s/o; to nurse or nurture s/o

    átom MA‑ conscientious; MAG‑, ‑AN to concentrate on s/t; (fig‑) PARA‑ a nosey person, a busybody; atóm-atóm ‑ON a busybody [MDL: atóm MA‑ careful, vigilant; MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑ ‑ON / MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to take care of s/o; to look after s/o or s/t; MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to offer particular help or care; MAKA‑, MA‑‑AN: maatmán to be able to take care of s/o or s/t; Daˈí na akó nakakaatóm kainíng pagkasasawayón mo I am no longer able to have an influence on your mischievous behavior; PAG‑ care]

    atáman referring to s/o in the care of another; s/o who is adopted or is a foster child; a servant, pet; MAG‑, ‑ON to adopt s/o; to care for s/o; to nurse, nurture or support s/o; to foster a child; KAG‑: kagatáman nin amáˈ foster father; kagatáman nin ináˈ foster mother [MDL: MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to concern o/s with s/t; to take an interest in s/t; to attend to or look after s/o; MANG‑, PANG‑‑ON to take care of s/o; to show concern toward s/o or s/t; PAG‑ or PANG‑ care, attention, concern]
The kind of help which was offered was obviously commensurate with what was needed. If physical support was required, this may have taken the form of placing the arm across a person's shoulder to help them stand or walk (akbáy).
    akbáy MAG‑, ‑AN or MA+KA‑ to place the arm across or have the arm around s/o's shoulder; MAG‑‑AN to place the arms across one another's shoulders; MAG‑ to place the arms around each others shoulders (two people) KA‑ the person you put your arm around [+MDL: MAG‑ to be arm in arm; to have the arms across one another's shoulders; MA-, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑ ‑ON to give s/o a hand; to support the weak or ill by placing an arm around their shoulder]
Massage was a common treatment to relieve pain (hílot, dápon) focusing on the area of the body which ached. The more general term, hílot also referred to the massage given to a woman to relieve pain during childbirth.
    hílot MAG‑, ‑ON to massage s/o; PARA‑ masseur, masseuse [+MDL: MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to massage a particular part of the body to relieve pain; to treat a woman during childbirth with massage (a midwife); MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to treat an ache, pain or dislocation by massage]

    dapón MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON / MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to massage a part of the body which hurts with the hand to relieve pain [MDL]
As part of the massage, oils or liniments could also be rubbed into the skin. Reference to one of these liniments, munáy, is also found in Noceda's Tagalog dictionary [130] and exits as well in modern Bikol. Binanáw is another medicinal oil which Lisboa describes as being used in the past. While Lisboa provides no further information as to the composition of this oil, a listing in Waray for banaw indicates it was probably an infusion of medicinal roots.[131]
    múnay ointment (typ‑) [MDL: munáy liniment (typ‑ fragrant, medicinal)]

    binanáw (arc‑) oil (typ‑ medicinal, prepared for rubbing on the body) [MDL]
Two clearly related terms, hapúlas and haplás, the second of which is still used in modern Bikol, are also relevant here.
    hapúlas MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to rub s/t in (as balm, ointment); MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to rub a particular part of the body with balm, ointment [MDL]

    haplás MAG‑, I‑ to rub s/t in (as a balm, ointment); PANG‑ balm, liniment, lotion, ointment [MDL: root (typ‑ from which an oil is extracted by herbalists and rubbed into the body to cure illness); MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to treat s/o with such a root; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑ ‑AN to rub the preparation from such a root on a person or a part of the body; MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to use such a root for treating illness]
Lisboa identifies haplás as not only the action of massaging in oils, but as the name of the root from which the oil is extracted. Of the two forms, the longer, hapúlas is the more complex. Ha- is an active prefix which in modern Bikol is added to adjective roots denoting height, length and depth, although there is some evidence that in the Bikol which predates Lisboa's arrival this prefix had a wider range of meanings associated, most probably, with movement or direction.
The derivation we are after requires a definite meaning for a root of the form, púlas, which is not obtainable from within Bikol nor the other central Philippine languages: ha- + púlashaplás. A relevant meaning can be found in Malay where pulas means 'to twist', although it is impossible to know if this is the origin of the Bikol form.[132]
Care could also involve finding a place where the ill could rest and be comfortable as they recovered. One such place was a small room or alcove where a person could be sheltered from the outside air. This was the atíbong. Why such shelter was necessary is unclear for Lisboa has no other references to the harmful effects of outside air. One possible interpretation is that such a place offered protection from other types of infection current in the community to which a sick person might be particularly susceptible.
    atíbong a small room or alcove reserved for one who is ill so that they might be sheltered from the outside air; MA‑ or MAG‑ to make such a room or alcove; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to make such a room in a particular location; MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to prepare such a room or alcove for a particular person [MDL]
At times of food scarcity, feeding of the ill, along with those who were starving, was given priority (háwad). During times of plenty, when a variety of food was available, the ill were given the opportunity to choose the food they wanted (arángay), and if they were too ill to feed themselves, then others in charge of their care would feed them (tíˈog).
    háwad MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to feed the sick or those dying from hunger; MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to offer a particular food in such circumstances; MAKA‑ to offer sustenance (food), MA‑‑AN to receive such sustenance (a person); Línsa lámang an nakakaháwad samúyaˈ Only taro is keeping us alive [MDL]

    arángay MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to say what food one wants to eat (those who are sick); MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to tell s/o what food one wants to eat so they can give it you or find s/o who has it [MDL]

    tíˈog MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to place food or drink into the mouth of those who are too ill to feed themselves; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to feed an ill person in this way [MDL]
For those who were seriously ill, a noticeable sign of recovery would be stirring for the first time since the onset of the illness (mikóy). This could indicate the passing of a fever (higoˈán), or just a period of relief from pain and suffering (húbay) which may have only been temporary.
    mikóy MAG‑ to stir; to show signs of life (the ill, one who is sleeping): Daˈí na nagmimikóy; haraní sa pagkagadán She's not moving; she's close to death [MDL]

    higoˈán MA‑ or MAG‑ to pass or lessen (the chills of one who is ill); (PAG‑)‑AN to feel chills passing or becoming less frequent (one who is ill) [MDL]

    húbay (PAG‑)‑AN to feel a period of relief (a person from pain, illness); to have a period of clarity (one suffering a mental illness); to experience a break in the bad weather (a place); MA‑ or MAG‑ to clear or stop momentarily (wind, rain); to give some let-up or respite (pain, illness); húbay-húbay MA‑ to have a short break or interval [MDL]
Definite signs of recovery would be getting up from the sickbed to walk around (gisáw-gisáw) or leaving the house for the first time since falling ill (gáboy). All of these were signs that the illness was over and the person had been restored to health (úmay).
    gisáw-gisáw MA‑ or MAG‑ to get up; to begin to walk; to be up and about (the sick, having recovered from an illness); Maraháy taˈ nakapaggisáw-gisáw ka na It's good that you are able to be up and about [MDL]

    gáboy MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to go to a town or a place where one has never been or which one hasn't visited in a long time; to go out of the house for the first time after a long illness; MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑ PAG‑‑ON to go to get s/t from such a place; MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to take s/t to such a place; Daˈí pa máyoˈ akó nagáboy kaiyán banwáˈan na iyán I have still not gone to that town [MDL]

    úmay MAG‑ to heal; MAGPA‑, PA‑‑ON to heal s/t; to aid in the healing process; MA‑‑AN to get well, recover; to get over an illness; to rally [+MDL: MA‑ to be restored to health; to recover; MAKA‑, MA‑ to bring one back to health; to heal s/o; MAKA‑, IKA‑ to treat one with a particular medicine to restore them to health; MAKA‑: makauúmay a healer; PAGKA‑ recovery, healing; Makurí an pagkaúmay sakóˈ I've fully recovered]
Recovery from illness, however, was not always straightforward, and individuals would have experienced setbacks, particularly if they tried to do too much in a weakened state (gudát). Such activities could bring on a full relapse (baghát) causing the return of all the earlier symptoms that were initially experienced with the disease (súkong). To aid in the recovery from a relapse, Lisboa has identified two medicinal preparations based on plant roots, pamaghát (see baghát) and tagamtám) of which I have been unable to discover any further information.
    gudát MA‑ to have ups and downs (one recovering from an illness); to have a setback (one recovering, due to too much exertion) [MDL]

    baghát MAKA‑, MA‑ to have a relapse; PANG‑: pamaghát medicine (typ‑ consisting of a mixture of tree roots and alcohol, used to help one recover from a relapse; also given to nursing mothers) [+MDL: MANG‑, PANG‑‑ON to treat s/o who has had a relapse; to treat s/o who has recovered from an illness to keep them from relapsing; MANG‑, IPANG‑ to treat s/o with a particular medicine]

    súkong MA‑ or ‑ON to fall sick again; to again feel the effects of an earlier disease or illness; I‑ to return; to strike again (a particular illness); súkong-súkong MAG‑ to walk, falling and getting up again (one who is ill); PAG‑‑ON to be affected by an illness in this way (a person); IPAG‑ to affect a person in this way (an illness) [MDL]

    tagamtám plant (typ‑ medicinal, with roots which are used to treat s/o who has relapsed into illness) [MDL]

This section looks at other ailments which affected Bikolanos at the turn of the sixteenth century, and still continues to affect humans everywhere. These range from allergies and asthma to the common cold.
(i) Allergies and Asthma
An allergy is the response of the body's immune system to some environmental substance which would not normally cause problems for others. Allergies certainly existed in the Bikol region when Lisboa was compiling his dictionary, as evidenced by the entry, gáhang. Additionally, the description accompanying duwóng also seems to represent an allergic reaction. The meaning of a further entry, bakóˈ, is less clear, although it appears to describe a severe allergic reaction which may have resulted in what is now called anaphylactic shock.
    gáhang an itchy sensation in the mouth or on the body caused by some food which has been eaten; an allergic reaction to a particular food; MA‑ or MAG‑ to feel such a sensation; (PAG‑)‑AN to be affected by this type of itch (a person, a part of the body); to have such an allergic reaction (a person); I(PAG)‑ to cause such an itch or allergic reaction (a particular food) [MDL]

    duwóng disease (typ‑ in which one breaks out in itchy swellings or lumps over the entire body); ‑ON to have this disease (a person); (PAG‑)‑AN to break out in such swellings or lumps [MDL]

    bakóˈ disease (typ‑ arising from agitation in the flow of blood, resulting in itching which, if reaching the throat, causes the sufferer to choke); (PAG‑)‑AN to suffer from such a disease; MAKA‑ to cause such a disease [MDL]
Asthma is caused by a trigger which varies from person to person. For some it will be pollen, for others smoke, and still others allergies or emotional factors. The effect of these triggers is to cause the muscles of the air passages leading from the lungs to the nose and mouth to tighten. The passages become inflamed and produce a sticky mucous which leads to difficulty in breathing.[133]
The Bikol term for asthma, hápoˈ has not changed since Lisboa's time, although modern Bikol also uses the additional term, usól. The verbs describing the reaction of sufferers with asthma, however, have changed. The difficulty in breathing experienced by an asthma sufferer in modern Bikol is haguˈnók, a term which carried the meaning 'to moan' or 'groan' for Lisboa. For the early Bikolanos, the difficulty in breathing was expressed specifically by hágok, and more generally by hingkáb.
    hápoˈ asthma, a chronic respiratory disease accompanied by labored breathing, chest constriction and coughing often brought on by some allergic reaction; ‑ON: hapóˈon describing s/o suffering from asthma; ‑ON to suffer from asthma; MAKA‑ to bring on an attack of asthma [+MDL: (PAG‑)‑ON to suffer from asthma]

    usól asthma; ‑ON: uuslón asthmatic; ‑ON or MA‑ to have or suffer from an asthmatic attack

    haguˈnók MAG‑ to take deep breaths, as one tired or ill with asthma; to gasp due to tiredness or surprise; to wheeze; also MAKAPA‑, MAPA‑ [MDL: a groan or moan made when one falls or is knocked down; MA‑ or MAG‑ to groan, moan]

    hágok MA‑ or MAG‑ to take deep breaths, as one tired or ill with asthma; to gasp; MAKA‑ to bring about this condition [MDL]

    hingkáb MAG‑ to be exhausted by a fit of coughing; to have oneˈs strength completely sapped due to a terrible fit of coughing, or the trouble one has breathing when suffering an asthma attack: Naghingkáb na akó kainíng pagaábo ko I'm exhausted by this coughing fit [MDL]

(ii) Edema or Dropsy
Edema, or dropsy in earlier terminology, is a condition whereby fluid accumulates in the body's tissues. Generally affected are the lower extremities of the body, that is, the feet and legs. The condition is caused systemically by the weakening or failure of certain major organs of the body, in particular the heart, liver and kidneys, which results in the body retaining too much water. Having nowhere else to go, the excess liquid leaks into the spaces between the cells.[134]
Bagóˈ is the term listed by Lisboa to identify edema. This and baˈós are both used in modern Bikol. There are two further terms used by Lisboa, hubág and labóˈ-labóˈ and both may indicate a more serious form of the disease where, not just the extremities, but the face and body are affected. A weakened heart which fails to pump a sufficient flow of blood is the start of the problem. The kidneys, sensing this lack, then retain more salt and liquid in the body. Of these two terms, labóˈ-labóˈ; is found with the same meaning in Waray and Cebuano. [135]
    bagóˈ edema, dropsy; a disease characterized by excessive accumulation of fluid in the tissues ‑ON: bagóˈon describing a person with edema; ‑ON to have or suffer from dropsy; MAKA‑ to cause dropsy [+MDL: (PAG‑)‑ON to suffer from dropsy] [+MDL 1865: said to affect the aborigines of Mt. Isarog]

    baˈós edema, a disease characterized by excessive accumulation of fluid in the tissues; MAG‑ to suffer from edema

    hubág MA‑ or MAG‑ to have dropsy; to be swollen (the body); to be puffy (the face, due to illness) [MDL]

    labóˈ-labóˈ illness (typ‑ resulting in the swelling of the face and body); MA‑ or MAG‑ to swell (the face and body); (PAG‑)‑AN to suffer from this disease [MDL]

(iii) Stroke and Epilepsy
Lisboa's definition of ságib is of a disease where a person suffers a 'fatal' or 'unlucky moment' (hora menguada) leaving one suddenly lame, or unable to move an arm, or unable to properly express things due to problems moving the mouth. Clearly this is a stroke. The term has disappeared from Bikol, replaced first by a Spanish loan, and then by English.
    ságib (PAG‑)‑ON to suffer a 'fatal moment' (hora menguada), resulting in one unable to move an arm, or leaving one lame, or unable to properly speak; to have a stroke; (PAG‑)‑AN to have a particular part of the body suffer the paralysis of a stroke; I‑ to cause a stroke [MDL]
The body is controlled by electrical impulses sent out by the brain via the nerve cells. As long as these impulses remain regular, the body functions normally. An epileptic seizure occurs when this regular pattern is disrupted by bursts of electrical activity. The part of the body which is affected is dependent on which part of the brain gives rise to this irregular activity. Frequently there is a loss of consciousness which is accompanied by a set of unusual actions.[136]
The two entries in Lisboa's Vocabulario, luluˈngáw and datóng are still in use in modern Bikol. For one of the entries, however, dátong, Lisboa also attributes the unusual actions to possession by an evil spirit.
    luluˈngáw epilepsy, a nervous disorder characterized by convulsions and often accompanied by loss of consciousness; ‑ON epileptic; IGWÁ or MAY to have epilepsy; ‑ON or MA‑ to have an attack of epilepsy [+MDL: ‑ON: luluˈngáwon an epileptic]

    datóng epilepsy, a nervous disorder characterized by convulsions and often accompanied by loss of consciousness; ‑ON: dadatngón or raratngón an epileptic; ‑ON to have epilepsy [+MDL: ‑ON: s/o suffering from epilepsy; s/o possessed by an evil spirit]

(iv) Hernia and Bleeding
A hernia occurs when the muscles of the abdominal wall are weakened. Organs, such as the intestines, are pushed through this weakened section, protruding further as the split in the muscle widens and more of the organ extends through the gap, eventually forming a sac or bulge. The most common place for this weakening to occur is in the groin area, and judging from the entries in both old and modern Bikol, this is the area referred to.[137]
Bayág is the scrotum or testicles, and the verbal forms indicate the development or presence of a hernia. For Lisboa, the specific term for hernia is formed from the reduplication of the first consonant and vowel of the root, babayág. This same process is maintained in a second term, bubungáw. While this is not a term used in the modern language, the root form, búngaw, is used, meaning 'scrotum' but only when one is annoyed or angry. Interestingly, this form does not occur with a similar meaning in Lisboa.
    bayág scrotum, testicles; ‑ON: babayágon describing a person with a hernia; MA‑ or ‑ON to have a hernia or rupture; to get a hernia; to rupture oneself; MAG‑, ‑ON to hit s/o in the scrotum [+MDL: babayág a rupture or hernia; ‑ON: one suffering from a hernia; (PAG‑)‑ON to have a rupture, hernia]

    bubungáw hernia, rupture; ‑ON describing one suffering from a hernia; (fig‑) KA‑‑ON: kabubungáwon na táwo a liar [MDL]

    búngaw scrotum, said in annoyance or anger in place of bayág
Hernias can become a serious problem if not attended to. One of the consequences of neglect is strangulation where the portion of the bowel protruding through the abdominal wall is pinched off restricting its normal function. This may be one of the consequences intended by Lisboa's entry lubát (see Section 11) referring to a sudden bout of illness accompanied by fever due to, among other problems, a rupture.
There was not much that could be done for those with a hernia as the only option for repair is surgery, an option which was not available. I have found no references to implements which might have relieved the condition, something which might function like a modern truss to push the protruding organ temporarily back through the gap in the muscle wall. There are references to the visual discomfort a hernia might have caused, affecting how a sufferer might have walked (bikráng, bingkáng).
    bikráng MAG‑ to walk with legs apart; MAG‑, ‑ON to spread the legs apart when walking [+MDL: MA‑ or MAG‑ to walk with legs apart, as if there were some injury to the area of the groin (such as a hernia); MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to spread the legs apart when walking in this way; Nabikráng na Your legs are really apart when you walk]

    bingkáng MA‑ or MAG‑ to walk with the legs apart (as if one has a hernia); MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to spread the legs apart when walking [MDL]
Áwas in modern Bikol is the general term 'to hemorrhage'. For Lisboa the meaning was far more specific, referring to a problem suffered by women who bleed when they are not menstruating. It is doubtful that a specific cause could have been identified for this bleeding at the turn of the sixteenth century. In the world of modern medicine, proper examination should be able to find the cause, but it is not possible to do this from the effect, the bleeding, presented in the Lisboa entry. Some of the possible causes include hormonal changes, infection and cancer.
    áwas hemorrhage; MAKA‑, MA‑ to hemorrhage [MDL: MA‑ or MAG‑ to flow (blood from a woman due to illness and not when menstruating); (PAG‑)‑AN to suffer from this affliction; to bleed in this way (a woman); AN I(PAG)‑ the blood passed from such bleeding]

(iv) Coughs and Colds
Certainly the least serious of the illnesses discussed here is the common cold (siˈpón) and all the symptoms experienced today would have been experienced in the Bikol region at the turn of the sixteenth century, including a runny nose due to an excess of mucus (tungáy) and the need to blow the nose to clear it (sungá). The specific term applied to the runny nose of children, húdot-húdot, no doubt referred to the constant state of mucus running from the nose which would be sniffed in, but rarely wiped clean.
    siˈpón mucus in the nose; a cold; IGWÁ or MAY to have a cold; ‑ON or MA‑ to have or catch a cold [+MDL: sipón MAG‑ to be filled with mucus (the nose): Nagsipón na doy Your nose is stuffed up; ‑ON to have a cold, a runny nose]

    tungáy mucus which collects in the nose; (sl‑) snot; MAGHING‑, HING‑‑ON to remove such mucus; MAGHING‑, HING‑‑AN to remove such mucus from the nose; to pick the nose [+MDL: ‑AN: tutungáyan a nose full of mucus]

    sungá MAG‑ to blow the nose; ‑AN: susungáhan or susunghán handkerchief; nostrils [+MDL: MA‑ or MAG‑ to blow the nose; MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑to use the hand when blowing the nose]

    húdot-húdot MA‑ or MAG‑ to run (the nose of a child); to sniff in the mucus of a runny nose (a child) [MDL]
Accompanying the cold would frequently be a cough (ábo) and sore throat (káram) sometimes leading to the loss of the voice or laryngitis (piˈdás).
    ábo cough; MAG‑ to cough; MANG‑ to have a chronic cough [+MDL: abó MA‑ or MAG‑ to cough; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to cough on s/t; MAG‑ to have a cough (as when suffering from a cold)]

    káram sore throat, as when one has a cough or a cold; MA‑ or MAG‑ to be sore (the throat); (PAG‑)‑AN to have a sore throat; MA‑ sore (the throat) [MDL]

    piˈdás MA‑ to be unable to say anything; to be unable to utter a sound; to lose one's voice; to have laryngitis [MDL]
One further entry referring, not to a sore throat, but, most likely, to sores in the throat, is luˈsób. Lisboa's entry appears to make a comparison of such sores to those experienced by sufferers of scrofula which is a form of tuberculosis causing disfiguration associated with infection of glands on the outside of the neck.[138] This is not a straightforward interpretation as there are other meanings associated with the key Spanish word, lamparones. I have included the Spanish of Lisboa's entry for those who may wish to pursue other possible interpretations.
    luˈsób sores which appear in the throat which resemble the sores associated with scrofula (Unas llagas que salen en la garganta, como lamparones); MA‑ or MAG‑ to appear (such sores); (PAG‑)‑ON to have such sores (a person) [MDL]

Many of the afflictions which exist in the modern world, existed as well in the Philippines at the turn of the sixteenth century. People suffered from allergies and asthma, strokes and epilepsy, had hernias and managed from day to day with coughs and the common cold. Far worse, however, were the epidemics which spread from individuals to families, and from families to towns and entire districts, potentially devastating the entire population of an infected area. The debilitating effects of influenza were recorded, as well as what were probably outbreaks of the bubonic plague, but by far the most common and feared epidemics were of smallpox. Children's diseases such as mumps, measles and chicken pox would also have also worked their way through communities, their treatment involving rest and devoted care in a world without antibiotics. It wasn't until almost 400 years after Lisboa compiled his dictionary that a cure was found for leprosy, and his dictionary, and those of the other central Philippine languages, contain references to the disfiguring effects of this disease.
Lacking a knowledge of viruses and bacteria, a number of illness were blamed on bad food, particular types of food, or foods that were not properly cleaned. Such foods were said to cause stomach ailments (a reasonable assumption), the loss of hair and the development of sores over the entire body. Where the ill were concerned, specific precautions were taken which almost acknowledged the, as yet, urecognised existence of germs. When people were particularly at risk, they were isolated from others in the community. The reason given was to protect them from evil spirits, but the beneficial effect was to isolate them from contact with others who might possibly harbour bacteria capable of causing further infection. There may have also been a rudimentary knowledge of vaccination, for individuals were pricked with a small amount of mixed poisons in the belief that if they later were bitten by a snake or exposed to greater amounts of a poison, they would have the capacity to survive.
The medicines available to treat disease and infection were derived from plants growing in the immediate area. Leaves, roots, stems and bark could be worked into various infusions or used whole to relieve pain, reduce inflamation and slow the course of a disease. With luck a single medical preparation would lead to a cure, but combinations of incompatible medicines could have the opposite effect, resulting even in death. The primary medical implement at the time was the cupping glass, and this was used to draw blood to a particular area of the body, as well as for bleeding to relieve the body of what must have been seen as harmful toxins, although this is never explicitly stated.
People suffered with various abscess, boils and ulcers and sought ways to heal them by applying plasters of leaves or bark. Wounds which were caused by a variety of accidents, or inflicted in the course of combat would have to be treated before serious infection set in. Combat wounds would have to be enlarged to first remove the barbed head of the arrow or lance before any further treatment could be administered. Survival was never guaranteed. Systemic illness was always possible when infections spread through the body.
Skin diseases were common in the hot and humid climate of the Philippines. Some of these were caused by funguses, the effect often identifiable by white patches on the skin, others, such as scabies, by a tiny mite. Some skin diseases were further exacerbated by occupational factors such long immersion of the feet and legs in the water of the rice fields. Open lesions, such as those caused by the common athlete's foot, also gave access to the body of bacteria naturally occurring on the skin. Lice was also a recurring problem, and various mechanisms were devised to help in their removal.
Gout, arthritis, and congenital impairments of the hands and feet would have affected movement and the ability of an individual to carry out everyday tasks. Deafness and blindness would have also led to dependancy, although this is never made explicit. Just as care was offered to the ill, it would no doubt have also bee offered to those with specific needs.
Early Philippine society was clean. All the early records emphasise the importance of bathing which was a daily ritual. This took place in creeks and rivers, and was a discrete and modest process whereby much of the body remained covered until the person was submerged in water. The ears were kept clean, the wax removed by a small stick, and the teeth cleaned by dedicated brushes and food removed after eating by a small sliver of wood serving as a toothpick.
As for the toilet, early Filipinos relieved themselves where they were able, taking advantage of the forest or the shrubs surrounding a house or village. Politeness played a part in the types of terms which were used, particularly by women, and shyness could bring a person to abort an attempt if they were seen. Houses came with a hole in floor through which individuals could relieve themselves, although there is some question as to how often this was used.
Medical care has clearly changed since the turn of the sixteenth century. Some of the diseases which once plagued communities have been completely eradicated and others are now controllable by medications which had never been thought of at the time. But people still fall ill, need treatment and care, and the sympathetic assistance of the societies of which they are a part.

[1] Antonio de Morga, Sucecesos de las Islas Filipinas, 1609, in Blair and Robertson, vol. 16, pp. 78-79.

[2] Father Diego de Bobadilla, 'Relation of the Filipinas Islands by a religious who lived there for 18 years,' 1640, in Blair and Robertson, vol. 29, pp. 277-311, p. 288.

[3] 'Kabling,' Philippine Medicinal Plants (accessed 23 February 2015).

[4] de Morga, Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas, in Blair and Robertson, vol. 16, p. 93.

[5] Pedro Chirino, Relación de las Islas Filipinas, 1604, Manila: Historical Conservation Society, 1969, Chapter 10, p. 258; also in Blair and Robertson, vol. 12, p. 213.

[6]] Gaspar de San Agustin, Conquistas de las Islas Philipinas, Madrid, 1698, in Blair and Robertson, vol. 40, pp. 183-295, p. 219.

[7] William Dampier, 'Dampier in the Philippines,' from A New Voyage Round the World, London, 1697, in Blair and Robertson, vol. 38, pp. 241-86 and vol. 39, pp. 21-121; pp. 27-28.

[8] Antonio Sánchez de la Rosa, Diccionario español - bisaya para las provincias de Sámar y Leyte, 3rd edition, aumentado por Antonio Valeriano, Manila: Santos y Bermal, 1914, see digos, rigos.

[9] Alonso de Mentrida, Diccionario de la lengua Bisaya, Hiliguena, y Haraya de la Isla de Panay, Manila: La Imprenta de D. Manuel y Felix Dayot, 1841, see digo, rigo, ligo.

[10] Juan Feliz de la Encarnacion, Diccionario español- bisaya, Manila: Imprenta de los amigos del pais, á cargo de M. Sanchez, 1852, see digo, ligo.

[11] Juan José Noceda and Pedro de Sanlucar, Vocabulario de la lengua Tagala, 1753, Manila: Imprenta de Ramirez y Giraudier, Reimpreso 1860, see ligo.

[12] Malcolm W. Mintz, Malcolm W., 'The Fossilized Affixes of Bikol,' Currents in Pacific Linguistics: Papers on Austronesian Languages and Ethnolinguistics in Honor of George W. Grace, ed. by Robert Blust, Canberra: Pacific Linguistics C-117, 1991, pp. 265-291; pp. 280-281.

[[13] Sánchez de la Rosa, Sámar y Leyte, see damos.

[14] de Mentrida, Bisaya, Hiliguena, y Haraya, see damos.

[15] de la Encarnacion. Diccionario español - bisaya, see damos, hilamos.

[16] Noceda and de Sanlucar, Tagala, see damos, lamos, amos.

[17] Diego Bergaño, Vocabulario de la lengua Pampanga, en romance, 1732, Manila: Imprenta de Ramirez y Giraudier, Reimpreso 1860, see lamos.

[18] Chirino, Relación de las Islas Filipinas, Chapter 10, p. 258; also in Blair and Robertson, vol. 12, p. 213.

[19] Malcolm W. Mintz, Bikol Dictionary, Vol. I: English-Bikol Index; Vol. II: Bikol-English Dictionary (Incorporates the 17th century Marcos de Lisboa Vocabulario de la lengua Bicol), Australia: Indonesian/ Malay Texts, 2004, Introduction, Section 6.5.

[20] Dampier, 'Dampier in the Philippines,' in Blair and Robertson, vol. 38, p. 28.

[21] 'Tuba,' Philippine Medicinal Plants (accessed 23 February 2015).

[22] 'Piyagaw,' :Philippine Medicinal Plants (accessed 23 February 2015); 'Xylocarpus granatum,' The ICUN Red List of Threatened Species (accessed 23 February 2015).

[23] Mintz, Bikol Dictionary, Vol. I: English-Bikol Index; Vol. II: Bikol-English Dictionary, Introduction, Section 6.20.

[24] The discussion here is on the discovery and removal of lice from the hair on the head and from the body. Care of the hair, how it was cleaned, oiled and scented, how it was worn and decorated and how it was combed, cut or trimmed is discussed in detail in Chapter 8, 'Jewellery and Body Ornamentation,' Section 3.

[25] 'Head Lice,' Department of Medical Entymology, University of Sydney (accessed 23 February 2014).

[26] Waray, Sánchez de la Rosa, Sámar y Leyte, see coto; Hiligaynon, de Mentrida, Bisaya, Hiliguena, y Haraya, see coto; Cebuano, de la Encarnacion. Bisaya, see coto, Tagalog, Noceda and de Sanlucar, Tagala, see coto; Kapampangan, Bergaño, Pampanga, see cutu.

[27] Bergaño, Pampanga, see cumad.

[28] de Mentrida, Bisaya, Hiliguena, y Haraya, see cuyumar.

[29] de la Encarnacion. Bisaya, see cuyumac.

[30] Fr. Leo English, Tagalog - English Dictionary, 1986, Manila: Congregation of the Most Holy Redeemer, see kuyumad.

[31] Noceda and de Sanlucar, Tagala, see lisa, copi.

[32] Bergaño, Pampanga, see lias.

[33] Sánchez de la Rosa, Sámar y Leyte, see lusa; de la Encarnacion. Bisaya, see lusa; de Mentrida, Bisaya, Hiliguena, y Haraya, see lusa.

[34] Bergaño, Pampanga, see culisap.

[35] Noceda and de Sanlucar, Tagala, see colisap.

[36] Sánchez de la Rosa, Sámar y Leyte, see daqui; de la Encarnacion. Bisaya, see daqui.

[37] Waray, Sánchez de la Rosa, Sámar y Leyte, see toma; Hiligaynon, de Mentrida, Bisaya, Hiliguena, y Haraya, see tuma; Cebuano, John U. Wolff, A Dictionary of Cebuano Visayan, Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines, 1971, see tuma; Tagalog, Noceda and de Sanlucar, Tagala, see toma; Kapampangan, Bergaño, Pampanga, see tuma.

[38] English, Tagalog-English Dictionary, see suyod.

[39] Noceda and de Sanlucar, Tagala, see suyor.

[40] Wolff, A Dictionary of Cebuano Visayan, see sulod.

[41] de Mentrida, Bisaya, Hiliguena, y Haraya, see sulor.

[42] Sánchez de la Rosa, Sámar y Leyte, see sorud.

[43] 'Halitosis,' Wikipedia, English, n.d. (accessed 23 February 2015).

[44] Hernando de los Rios, Coronel, 'Memorial y relacion para su magestad,' Madrid, 1621, in Blair and Robertson, vol. 19, pp 183-298; p. 284.

[45] ] Dawn F. Rooney, 'Betel Chewing in Southeast Asia,' The Dawn F. Rooney Cultural Archive - Southeast Asia, accessed 23 February 2015.

[46] Domingo Fernandez Navarrete, OP., 'Manila and the Philippines about 1650 (concluded),' from his Tratados Historicos, Madrid, 1676, in Blair and Robertson, vol. 38, pp. 17-71, p. 31.

[47] See Chapter 8, 'Jewellery and Body Ornamentation,' Section 2.

[48] 'Cleft Lip and Palate,' Medical Dictionary - The Free (accessed 25 January 2015); 'Cleft Lip and Palate,' Wikipedia, English, n.d. (accessed 25 January 2015).

[49] 'Blisters in the Mouth,' New Health Guide (accessed 25 January 2015).

[50] 'Canker Sores,' (accessed 25 January 2015).

[51] 'Cold Sores,' WebMD (accessed 25 January 2015); 'Herpes Simplex,' Wikipedia, English, n.d., (accessed 25 January 2015).

[52] 'Earwax,' Wikipedia, English, n.d. (accessed 25 January 2015).

[53] Sánchez de la Rosa, Sámar y Leyte, see colcog; de la Encarnacion. Bisaya, see colcog; Noceda and de Sanlucar, Tagala, see qiqig.

[54] 'Ruptured Eardrum,' Mayo Clinic: Diseases and Conditions (accessed 25 January 2015).

[55] 'Ear Abscess - Mastoiditis,' Formula Medical Group: Head and Neck (accessed 10 March 2015); 'Mastoiditis,' WebMed, Ear Infection Health Center (accessed 10 March 2015).

[56] 'Benign Positional Vertigo,' Medline Plus (accessed 10 March 2015).

[57] 'The Tear Apparatus,' Aviva - Medical Encyclopedia: Function (accessed 10 March 2015).

[58] 'Eye Discharge (Sleep in your Eyes),' All About Vision (accessed 10 March 2015).

[59] 'Sty,' Mayo Clinic - Diseases and Conditions (accessed 10 March 2015).

[60] 'Pink Eye (Conjunctivitis),' Mayo Clinic - Diseases and Conditions (accessed 10 March 2015).

[61] 'Blepharitis,' Mayo Clinic - Diseases and Conditions (accessed, 12 March 2015).

[62] 'Cataract,' Wikipedia, English, n.d. (accessed 12 March 2015).

[63] 'Exophthalmos (Bulging eyes),' NHS Choices (accessed 12 March 2015).

[64] 'Eye Injury,' Eye Health (accessed 12 March 2015).

[65] While Bikol has a specific word for arm, it does not have one for leg. It is common to use bitís to refer generally to both 'feet' and 'legs', although there are specific terms for various parts of the leg, such as 'calf', 'shin', 'knee' and 'thigh'.

[66] 'Gout,' Wikipedia, English, n.d. (accessed 21 November 2014); 'Gout,' Mayo Clinic - Diseases and Conditions (accessed 21 November 2014).

[67] de Mentrida, Bisaya, Hiliguena, y Haraya, see tibac; Sánchez de la Rosa, Sámar y Leyte, see tibac.

[68] Lisboa identifies kapnó as 'cebolla albarrana' and it is this identification which has been used to arrive at the English equivalents: 'Dirimia maritima,' Wikipedia, English n.d. (accessed 22 November 2014); The grass bambán is identifiable on the Kew Botanical Gardens online data base as: 'Schizostachyum bamban,' Kew Botanical Gardens (accessed 21 November 2014).

[69] 'Osteomyelitis,' The Merck Manual: Home Edition (accessed 21 November 2014).

[70] 'Leg length,' , Morgan Stanley Childrens Hospital of New York: Division of Pediatric Orthopaedics - Common Disorders (accessed 21 November 2014).

[71] 'Erysipelas,' Healthline (accessed 26 November 2014).

[72] de la Encarnacion, Bisaya, see amomotol.

[73] Mintz, 'The Fossilized Affixes of Bikol,' pp. 268-269.

[74] 'Vitiligo,' Wikipedia, English, n.d. (accessed, 26 November 2014).

[75] Ethel Tur, ed., Environmental Factors on Skin Diseases, Basel: Karger Medical and Scientific Publishers: 'Current Problems in Dermatology,' vol. 35, P. Itin, ed., 2007, pp. 78-102; genetic predisposition, p. 78, injury, p. 79, sun exposure, p. 81, psychological factors p. 86.

[76] Noceda and de Sanlucar, Tagala, see bacas; Bergaño, Pampanga, see bacas.

[77] Kamus Dewan, see bekas.

[78] 'Tinea versicolor,' Wikipedia, English, n.d. (accessed 12 December 2014); 'Tinea Versicolor,' WebMD (accessed 12 December 2014).

[79] 'Dermatophytosis,' Wikipedia, English, n.d. (accessed 12 December 2014); 'Ringworm (Tinea Corporis),' (accessed 12 December 2014).

[80] 'Lunas,' Philippine Medicinal Plants (accessed 12 December 2014).

[81] 'Pangium edule,' Philippine Medicinal Plants (accessed 12 December 2014).

[82] 'Scabies,' Wikipedia, English, n.d. (accessed 12 March 2015).

[83] 'Callus,' Wikipedia, English, n.d. (accessed 12 March 2015).

[84] Sánchez de la Rosa, Sámar y Leyte, see lubot; de Mentrida, Bisaya, Hiliguena, y Haraya, see lubot; de la Encarnacion, Bisaya, see lobot.

[85] 'Payau,' Philippine Medicinal Plants (accessed 19 March 2015).

[86] 'Bunga,' Philippine Medical Plants (accessed 19 March 2015).

[87] 'Abscess,' Wikipedia, English, n.d. (accessed 19 March 2015); 'Boil,' Wikipedia, English, n.d. (accessed 19 March 2015).

[88] 'Dalupang,' Philippine Medicinal Plants (accessed 19 March 2015).

[89] 'Caesar Weed Sampler,' Eat the Weeds (accessed 19 March 2015).

[90] 'Ulcer (Dermatology),' Wikipedia, English, n.d. (accessed 19 March 2015).

[91] Elmer Drew Merrill, A Review of the Identifications of the Species Described in Blanco's Flora de Filipinas, Manila: Bureau of Public Printing, 1905, p. 87, see Similax pseudochina.

[92] 'Magilik,' Philippine Medicinal Plants (accessed 19 March 2015).

[93] 'Dita,' Philippine Medicinal Plants (accessed 19 March 2015); Merrill, A Review of the Identifications of the Species Described in Blanco's Flora de Filipinas, p. 59, see Echitea scholaris.

[94] 'Tubli,' Philippine Medicinal Plants (accessed 19 March 2015); Merrill, A Review of the Identifications of the Species Described in Blanco's Flora de Filipinas, p. 40, see references for Derris.

[95] See Chapter 1, 'War and Conflict.'

[96] 'Agdau,' Philippine Medicinal Plants (accessed 19 March 2015).

[97] 'Malungay,' Philippine Medicinal Plants (accessed 19 March 2015).

[98] 'Boto,' Philippine Medicinal Plants (accessed 19 March 2015); Merrill, A Review of the Identifications of the Species Described in Blanco's Flora de Filipinas, p. 56, see Scaevola lobelia.

[99] 'Niog-niogan,' Philippine Medicinal Plants (accessed 19 March 2015).

[100] 'Tangan-tangan,' Philippine Medicinal Plants (accessed 19 March 2015).

[101] 'Tambo,' Philippine Medicinal Plants (accessed 19 March 2015).

[102] 'Sambong,' Philippine Medicinal Plants (accessed 19 March 2015); Merrill, A Review of the Identifications of the Species Described in Blanco's Flora de Filipinas, p. 55, see Conyza balsamifera, 'lacad bulan.'

[103] 'Langkawas na Pula,' Philippine Medicinal Plants (accessed 19 March 2015).

[104] 'Cupping Theory,' WebMD (accessed 26 March 2015).

[105] Bergaño, Pampanga, see tanduc.

[106] Noceda and de Sanlucar, Tagala, see tandoc.

[100] Sánchez de la Rosa, Sámar y Leyte, see tanduc.

[108] R. O. Winstedt, Unabridged Malay-English Dictionary, Singapore: Kelly & Walsh Ltd, n.d., see tandok.

[109] Sánchez de la Rosa, Sámar y Leyte, see damat; de la Encarnacion. Bisaya, see damat.

[110] Pedro Murillo Velarda, 'Jesuit missions in the seventeenth century,' Manila, 1749, in Blair and Robertson, vol. 44, pp. 27-119; p. 47-48.

[111] Miguel de Loarca, Relación de las Islas Filipinas, 1582, in Blair and Robertson, vol. 5, pp. 34-187; p. 67.

[112] Casimiro Diaz, OSA, 'The Augustinians in the Philippines,' 1670-1694, Manila, 1718 (from his Conquistas), in Blair and Robertson, vol. 42, pp. 117-312; p. 268.

[113] Chirino, Relación de las Islas Filipinas, 1604, in Blair and Robertson, vol. 12, p. 208.

[114] Relation of 1626 (Unsigned and undated), ca. 1627, in Blair and Robertson, vol. 22, pp. 130-45; p. 133.

[115] Diego Aduarte, 'Historia de la provincia del Sancto Rosario de la orden de predicadores,' 1640, in Blair and Robertson, vol. 30, pp. 115-322, p. 309; and vol. 31, pp. 23-300 (continued), p. 156.

[116] Recollect Missions in the Philippines, 1661-1712, in Blair and Robertson, vol. 41, pp. 57-272; Chapter 7, 'The Year 1677,' pp. 146-157; p.156.

[117] Noceda and de Sanlucar, Tagala, see bolotong; Bergaño, Pampanga, see bulutong.

[118] Sánchez de la Rosa, Sámar y Leyte, see poco.

[119] Wolff, A Dictionary of Cebuano Visayan, see puku.

[120] de Mentrida, Bisaya, Hiliguena, y Haraya, see buti; de la Encarnacion. Bisaya, see buti.

[121] 'Chicken Pox,' The Medical Symptoms Database (accessed 26 March 2015).

[122] de Mentrida, Bisaya, Hiliguena, y Haraya, see hanga.

[123] de la Encarnacion, Bisaya, see hángga.

[124] Wolff, A Dictionary of Cebuano Visayan, see hangga.

[125] Sánchez de la Rosa, Sámar y Leyte, see tipdas, de Mentrida, Bisaya, Hiliguena, y Haraya, see tipdas, Wolff, A Dictionary of Cebuano Visayan, see tipdas, Noceda and de Sanlucar, Tagala, see tipdas, Bergaño, Pampanga, see ticdas.

[126] 'Leprosy (Hansens's Disease),', (accessed 26 March 2015); 'Leprosy,' Wikipedia, English, n.d. (accessed 26 March 2015).

[127] Sánchez de la Rosa, Sámar y Leyte, see caragna, good; de Mentrida, Bisaya, Hiliguena, y Haraya, see caguirguir; de la Encarnacion, Bisaya, see amomotol, balahac, coayap, caguidguid, casamdan, copil; Noceda and de Sanlucar, Tagala, see bocaocao, borog, buti, cagos, cati, catin putacti, hila, pangati, potos; Bergaño, Pampanga, see gatal.

[128] Mintz, Bikol Dictionary, Vol. I: English-Bikol Index; Vol. II: Bikol-English Dictionary, Introduction, Section 6.6.

[129] Sánchez de la Rosa, Sámar y Leyte, see ataman; de la Encarnacion, Bisaya, see ataman.

[130] Noceda and de Sanlucar, Tagala, see monay.

[131] Sánchez de la Rosa, Sámar y Leyte, see banao.

[132] Winstedt, Unabridged Malay-English Dictionary, see pulas; Kamus Dewan, Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka, 1994, see pulas.

[133] 'Asthma,' Better Health Channel (accessed 26 March 2015).

[134] 'Oedema,' WebMD: Heart Disease Guide (assessed 26 March 2015).

[135] Sánchez de la Rosa, Sámar y Leyte, see labo labo; de la Encarnacion. Bisaya, see labo labo.

[136] 'Epilepsy,' Better Health Channel (accessed 31 March 2015).

[137] 'Hernias,' Better Health Channel (accessed 31 March 2015).

[138] 'Scrofula,' Medscape (accessed 31 March 2015).



Published with the support of Gender and Cultural Studies, School of Culture, History and Language, College of Asia and the Pacific, The Australian National University.
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