Intersections: Gender and Sexuality in Asia and the Pacific
Monograph 1: The Philippines at the Turn of the Sixteenth Century
Malcolm W. Mintz
STATUS AND SOCIAL CONFLICT
This chapter begins by looking at class and social structure, and ends by examining some of the traits which led to social conflict. The opening section examines the ruling classes, looking at the leaders of what were essentially small village groupings of often related families. The next section deals with other members of what were the upper classes and how they managed to obtain and keep their status. Following on from this is a discussion of some of the Malay-derived titles which were common in the Tagalog speaking areas around Manila, and concluding the section is a detailled examination of death and burial practices among the elite.
Section 2 is a short discussion of the class of freemen, those who were neither leaders nor slaves, and Section 3 a more detailled discussion of slaves, their treatment, opinions, and the possibilities of freeing themselves from servitude. In Section 4 is an examination of poverty, and in Section 5 some of the relationships pertaining between the powerful and powerless are discussed.
The final section brings together various topics which together fall under the heading of social conflict. To begin with is a discussion of irony and sarcasm, the interpersonal play on words which can both amuse and hurt. A section on arguments follows, discussed along with the reasons such situations occur. Debates is the next section, seen perhaps as a more sophisticated way of arguing, followed by the terms of provocation which could bring about such interpersonal friction.
The sections which end the chapter deal with reprimands and blame, aimed not only at the guilty, but the innocent alike; annoyance and offence and how it was felt and conveyed; anger, a more extreme form of annoyance, and finally challenges and threats and the kinds of warnings which might precede the onset of more violent behaviour.
Early accounts of the social structure of the Philippines indicate that there was not one person who ruled over a large area of land or a large number of people What was found were smaller social groups located in one town or several, comprising people who came to owe their allegiance and labour to the head of a particular family, a family which was able to maintain a reasonable level of wealth and influence. This headman or chief was referred to as dátoˈ.
The term dátoˈ was first found recorded in the seventh century inscription, the Telaga Batu (Well Stone). This dates from the Srivijayan Empire, centered near the town of Palembang in Sumatra and spreading to encompass the major part of that island, as well as Java and the Malay peninsula. It is likely that the term entered the Philippines with the movement of peoples from these areas to the north. Other titles in use in Manila at the time of arrival of the Spanish are clearly more modern borrowings from Malay. (see Section 1(iii)).
Dátoˈ was not the only term applied to the leader of a community. Púnoˈ referred to such a person, not only in Bikol, but also in Tagalog and the Visayan languages under consideration here.
matandáˈ a wise, old ruler; ‑ON to be recognized as being a good ruler; MA‑, ‑ON to elect, appoint or nominate s/o as ruler based on the ability to govern; MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to rule or govern over a people, lands [MDL]
tandáˈ MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to look after s/o; to take responsibility for s/o; MAPA‑, PA‑‑ON to have s/o take responsibility for s/o; to have s/o testify to s/t or bear witness to s/t; MAPA‑, PA‑‑AN to have s/o testify; MAPA‑, IPA‑ to take an oath; to swear to s/t; MA: matandáng táwo a wise old man; an experienced ruler [MDL]
datóng MAG‑ to arrive [+MDL: Baˈgóng datóng gíkan sa Manila Newly arrived from Manila; MA‑, ‑AN: datngán or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN: pagdatngán to arrive at a particular place; to find s/t upon arrival; MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to come by a particular mode of transport; to bring s/t on arrival; ‑AN: dadatngán entry to a town; headman of a town who has passed through an entryway; KA‑‑AN: kadatngán place of arrival, destination: Índa kon saˈín an kadadatngán I don't know where I'll end up; (fig‑) MA‑ to come to pass (s/t prophesied)]
tuhón MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to complete work as requested; to carry out the task one was asked to do; to do what one is told to do; MAPA‑, PA‑‑ON to tell s/o to do s/t; MAPA‑, IPA‑ to give the responsibility to do s/t to s/o else; MAPA‑, PA‑‑AN to leave s/t up to s/o else to complete; to leave s/o the responsibility to do s/t; ‑AN / ‑ON + ‑NON: turunhánon or turunhónon one who is obeyed due to fear, respect or other considerations [MDL]
The family of the dátoˈ, his relatives and descendants, male and female, while not having the right to rule, were, none-the-less, all considered part of the village elite and shown due respect. The term used to refer to and address these rich and influential members of the community was ginoˈó, an entry found in all of the dictionaries of the central Philippine languages. For Tagalog, Noceda goes on to explain that the term ginoˈo should properly refer only to women, and the affixed form, maginoˈo, only to men, but in reality maginoˈo applied to both men and women.
Sanchez's translation of Corinthians Chapter 7 Verse 22, 'For he who was a slave when he was called by the Lord is the Lord's freedman; conversely, he who was a free man when he was called is Christ's slave, also adds further verbal elements to the title ginoˈo; ... kay akun ka ginoo, akun ka gintubo. A close translation of this is: 'It is because of me that you have been made a noble, and it will be because of me you are made a slave'. Gintubo (see Section 3) is clearly analysable into a root of the form tubo and a verbal prefix of the form gi(N)-. What then of ginoˈo? Do we have a root here of a form such as toˈo carrying the meanings of 'truth' or 'belief' across most of the central Philippine languages and a verbal prefix of the form gi(N)-? This may be interesting, but at this stage cannot be proven.
There was no clear system in place in early Philippine society for appointing or electing individuals to the positions of power which came with high degrees of honour and respect (hiyangtáˈ), although where a number of individuals presented themselves for consideration a choice would obviously have to be made. Influence was obtained by individual accomplishment and perseverance and could be achieved through any number of endeavours; through success in farming or business, skill in woodworking or metalworking, or more nefarious means that allowed one to build relationships of power whether honestly or dishonestly. Fame (bantóg) brought one followers who came to rely on the support of those in power (handíg) and who, through emulation, hoped to raise their status (alabáˈab). Underlying all of this was the accumulation and consolidation of wealth (yáman), for as long as leaders remained rich, their power internally within the community remained strong.
bantóg ‑AN distinguished, famous, eminent, great, illustrious, notable, renowned, well-known; a celebrity; MÁGIN ‑AN: mágin bantógan to become famous; MAG‑, I‑ to make s/o famous; to make s/t known; to promote or spread the news about s/t; to publicize; KA‑‑AN fame, grandeur, greatness, majesty [+MDL: MA‑ famous, known in distant parts; MA‑ to become famous; MA‑‑AN to hear of s/o's fame; to hear about one who has become famous]
handíg MAG‑ to recline, lean back; MAG‑, I‑ to lean s/t back; MAG‑, ‑AN to recline or lean on s/t [MDL: MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to put a ladder or steps into place; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to lean a ladder against s/t; MAPA‑, IPA‑ to have a ladder put into place; (fig‑) Naísog ka rugáring taˈ igwá kang hinahandigán You act brave because you have powerful people to rely on]
alabáˈab MAKA‑, MA‑ to achieve or attain the eminence, merit or superior status of another person; to fill s/o's shoes; Makakaalabáˈab ka sakúyaˈ? Can you reach my level of achievement? [MDL]
yáman MA‑ affluent, rich, wealthy, well-off, well-to-do; MAG‑ to become rich; MAGPA‑, PA‑‑ON to enrich s/o; to endow s/t; KA‑‑AN riches, wealth; affluence [+MDL: MA‑ propertied, landowning; owning many jewels; MA‑ or MAG‑ to grow wealthy, rich; to acquire land, jewels; DAˈÍ MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to do s/t with little care, consideration or forethought: Daˈí nagyayáman si kuyán sa pagtarám kon sa pagtuklós That person is imprudent in what she says and what she does; diˈ yáman of little value or consequence: Anóng laˈóg kaiyán? - Diˈ yáman What's inside that? - Nothing much]
angkáˈ MAPA‑, PA‑‑ON or MAGPA‑, PAGPA‑‑ON to ask for a lot in exchange for s/t sold; to ask for a high a price for the things one sells (hoping to be regarded with more respect in the community); to ask for a large dowry for one's daughter; MAPA‑, PA‑‑AN or MAG‑, PAGPA‑‑AN to offer things for sale at a high price to s/o; to ask for a large dowry from the prospective bridegroom's family; MAPA‑, IPA‑ or MAGPA‑, IPAGPA‑ to ask for a particular high price or a large number of goods [MDL]
lambóng an ankle-length tunic or robe; MA‑ to wear such a garment; near Quipayó the term used is yambóng [MDL]
gáding ivory; bracelets worn on the arm from the wrist to the elbow by the upper classes of society; MAG‑ to wear such bracelets; MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to place such bracelets on s/o's arm [MALAY] [MDL]
uybá strands of hair attached to daggers carried by those of high status in the village; may also be attached to other items [MDL]
hiragós MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to cook food; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to cook food in a pot or other utensil; maghiró-hiragós to cook a lot of food; to be busy cooking; to go through the actions of cooking (said in jest); (fig-) Hiragós an ísog kainí, daˈí lugód akóng nagaátom saíya His is a cooked bravery, so I wont pay any attention to him (Meaning: His arrogance is worth nothing if I don't pay any attention to him); Hiragós kang magpalabát-labát You think far too much of yourself; Hiragós na magparabuˈót kainíng daˈí nagdadagamdám The one who is to govern us has no knowledge of what he is doing (lit: We have a cooked leader who doesn't know what he is doing) [MDL]
unák MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to use or consume s/t gradually; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑ ‑AN to consume s/t gradually from a larger amount, or from the stores of a particular person; MA‑ to be consumed or diminished little by little; to slip through one's fingers; to dribble away; to be frittered away or squandered (one's wealth); MA‑‑AN to have one's food or other items diminished little by little (a person) [MDL]
tiptíp MAKA‑, MA‑ to spend all of one's money, wealth; to use up all of one's financial resources; MA‑‑AN to be left with no money; to be left destitute [MDL]
após butt (as of a cigarette); stump (as of a candle); hot coals of a fire; MA‑ to burn down to a butt, stump, hot coals [+MDL: MAKA‑, MA‑ to burn s/t down to a butt, stump, coals (a fire); (fig‑) to dwindle to nothing; Naapós na bága an pagkaginoˈó niyá His estate is like burnt out coals (Meaning: It has dwindled to nothing)]
pidóˈ abject, mean, low; MA‑ or MAG‑ to fall from a position of power or respect; to lose status; to become impoverished; MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to treat s/o with no respect; to deprecate s/o; MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to treat s/o in a particular demeaning way reflecting their loss of status or wealth [MDL]
mákot MAG‑, ‑AN to set s/t on fire; MAKA‑, MA‑ ‑AN to catch fire [+MDL: MA‑ or MAG‑ to burn; to catch fire; (fig‑) Nagmamákot namán an pagharóng-hárong na kuyán Their house (family) is again in ascendancy (after being down and out)
In all of the major central Philippine languages there is reference to a king (hádiˈ), although it is doubtful that such a term was applied to rulers of locally governed areas. It has been generally assumed that the term was a borrowing from Malay with its origin in Sanskrit, although there is a mismatch in meaning both with Malay, where hari means 'day' and with the original Sanskrit where the primary meaning is the colour 'yellow' or 'green', although references to the Hindu gods are possible.
Hádiˈ is probably a borrowing from Malay, but the form which has been borrowed is most likely adi defined by Winstedt as 'superior or exalted, especially in titles' and attributed to the Sanskrit form ādi  where the basic meaning is 'commencement, beginning' or 'prime'. The form is also found in old Javanese where it does mean king and is used in a number of traditional titles such as adipati and adiraja.
Turning now to Tagalog, the title tuan was given to those of high status in the community. This was a title given to those below the rank of of ginoˈo which was reserved for the leader and his family. Clearly, tuan is a borrowing from Malay, now widely used as a title of respect, but carrying a stronger connotation of 'lord' or 'master' in earlier references.
A further title applying to those of status was gat for men and dayan for women which Noceda translates as the equivalent of the Spanish don and doña. Gat is no doubt a shortened form of the Malay title megat which originally applied to the offspring of a child born to a princess married to a commoner. The title is most commonly associated with the sultanates of Perak and Kedah, although it was also given to the second Sultan of Malacca. Winstedt attributes the origin of this title to Sanskrit, but I have not yet found a reasonable Sanskrit reference. The Kapampangan bagat may be a related term. This refers to a gift which is given to the a guest who is a member of the ruling class. The guest is referred to as bagatan, or, literally, 'one given such a gift'. Dayan, from the Malay dayang, has less of a royal connotation. It refers to a maid, or maiden, and may also refer, in a relevant context, to the female attendant of a princess in the royal court. One further title applied to the male ruling class in Tagalog is lakan. This is most likely a borrowing which originates from the Javanese where raka means 'lord'.
In addition to the control of land and accumulated wealth, the dátoˈ and his attendant family were also in possession of a significant number of slaves (see Section 3). The absolute dominance of the dátoˈ over this particular group of people can not be made more clear than during the rituals accompanying death.
The early accounts written by observers in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries generally included descriptions of burial rituals which bore great similarities from one region to another. Burials of the leaders of the community, the dátoˈ, involved significant degrees of family oriented ritual and veneration.
Bodies of the dead were washed and then perfumed with various of the tree resins available in the surrounding forests. These were then wrapped in cloth, the type of cloth and the amount used to shroud the body commensurate with the status of deceased (sápot ).
búyoˈ vine (typ‑ Piper beetle, possessing a leaf used as part of the mixture of betel nut and lime called mamáˈ); ‑AN a place where this vine grows [+MDL]
Plasencia, describing the customs of the Tagalogs, mentions a different approach to burial. Here the body, after being mourned for four days, was placed on a boat which served as the deceased's coffin. This was then placed under the porch of a house and left there to decay. Colin also mentions a similar situation on the island of Bohol, and a corresponding reference is also found in the Boxer Codex.
This now brings us to Bikol. During the burial of the leaders of the community (lubóng), the coffin was also left in the residence of the deceased (biráy). What is interesting about this term is its corresponding meaning in the other central Philippine languages. In Tagalog it is described as a small boat. In Waray, Cebuano, Hiligaynon and Kapampangan it is a large boat, with Encarnacion for Cebuano and Mentrida for Hiligaynon drawing comparisons to the barángay, the boat which once brought settlers to the Philippines from the Malay world to the south. The term was subsequently applied to those familial groups arriving by boat and the small communities they lived in.
biráy the house or residence of a leading member of the community which serves as a place of confinement after death; the house with the coffin and body is then left to decay or collapse; MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to confine the dead in such a way; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑ ‑AN to confine the dead to such a house; MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to use a house for such a purpose; (fig‑) Nagsulóm na iníng biráy This house is very dark (Said when annoyed or angry) [MDL]
barángay boat (typ‑ medium size, larger than a binítang) [MDL]
Another box containing the finest clothing of the deceased was placed near the coffin, and also located nearby were dishes of food left for the deceased on their journey. Near the coffin of men were left their weapons of warfare, and around those of women the objects of their labour, such as looms. Where the body of the deceased was interred in a boat or boat-like coffin, food was also added to the boat to simulate the supplies that would be needed on a raiding journey. In place of food supplies, Plasencia describes a variation for the Tagalogs where male and female pairs of animals which could be consumed as food were positioned where rowers would normally sit at the oars to propel the boat forward. The welfare of the animals was left to the attendance of slaves.
There was great fear that the body of the deceased would be interfered with by evil spirits. A coffin, for example, which had burst open was attributed to the touch of such evil spirits. To prevent this from happening, fires would be lit around the house where the coffin was kept and armed guards would stand vigil for a number of nights. In the Boxer Codex it is mentioned that bamboo torches would be lit daily for more than two months  and the coffin guarded continuously for up to three or four years. For Bikol this guard was one of the deceased's slaves (dáyo). The same term was used in Waray, Cebuano and Hiligaynon.
aswáng supernatural creature; a devil or witch said to eat human flesh; ‑ON or MA‑ to be bewitched, enchanted or put under a spell [+MDL: MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to bewitch s/o; to call s/o an aswáng; to search out the bodies of the dead to feast on; MANGHING‑, PANGHING‑‑AN to accuse s/o of being a witch; (fig‑) KA‑ gluttonous: Kaaswáng mo doy sa pagsúngay What an aswáng you are when it comes to eating]
The Boxer Codex mentions that slaves would be killed in the same way that their masters met their end. If they had drowned, the slaves too would be drowned, and if they were stabbed, this would also be the way the slaves were put to death. In the case of illness, the slaves would either be drowned or buried alive.
Loarca also mentions that a slave would be put death in the same way that the deceased had died. The slave who was chosen was one that was little valued, and one who was foreign to the region, presumably someone who had been captured in one of the frequent raids on neighbouring communities.
In Colin's description, one of the deceased favourite slaves, whether male or female, would be well fed, and then put to death. This description is from an account based on the work of Chirino who, additionally, indicated that more than one slave could be chosen for this fate. Plasencia adds that if the deceased was a warrior, a living slave would be tied beneath the body and left there to die and subsequently decay along with the boat and its contents.
Colin also relates an account attributed to the island of Bohol where the deceased was placed in a boat serving as a coffin with up to seventy slaves assigned as rowers buried with him. Colin, again, draws on the written reports of Chirino. Chirino does mention that there was once a case where the deceased was burred with a full contingent of rowers, but he does not mention the number of rowers involved nor does he indicate that the incident took place on the island of Bohol.
This scale of ritual killing is not repeated elsewhere and is very likely exaggerated if not apocryphal. In societies so chronically short of labour as those in the sixteenth century Philippines, where raids were carried out to secure additional workers and death sentences were commuted to a life-time of slavery, it is highly unlikely that the loss of so many lives for ritual purposes would have been tolerated, although, if Chirino's account is to be accepted, exceptions clearly occurred.
Lisboa includes two entries which refer to the death of a slave upon the death of the master. Hugót refers to a slave killed by garrotting or strangling. In none of the other central Philippine languages does this term refer to the death of a slave, and only in Hiligaynon and Cebuano does it refer to death by hanging. In Waray as well as Hiligaynon and Cebuano, this term, or its cognate form, igut in Kapampangan, refers to the tensing or tightening of something which is slack or loose, such as a rope or cord. In Tagalog it has the opposite meaning of loosening something which is tense.
Accounts of early Philippine society have all described three classes of citizens: the ruling class, discussed above (see Section 1) the slaves, discussed below (see Section 3), and the group of freemen positioned between these two. This group of freemen, referred to as timáwaˈ, comprised both individuals who were always free, that is, those who were never slaves, as well those who had once been slaves, but were set free or who had earned or purchased their freedom This is a term found in all of the central Philippine languages. Additionally, for Tagalog, there was another term for this group of people, maharlika, a term which has a dramatically different meaning in the modern language. From reference to what were freed slaves it now refers to the 'nobility' or 'aristocracy'.
Maharlika is from the Sanskrit maharddhika, an adjective with the central meaning of 'prosperous'. This is the meaning the term carried in tenth century Java. By the early colonial period in Indonesia, the Dutch had come to use this term, now expressed as mardijikers, to refer to the children of former slaves, primarily the Portuguese-speaking Christians from India, indicating that at some point in the etymological development of the term, reference came to be made to freed slaves. It is this aspect of its meaning that must have entered the Philippines. As a side note, maharddhika is also the origin of the modern Indonesian term merdeka 'freedom'.
We now turn to the slaves, urípon, a term with cognates in all of the central Philippine languages. When annoyed with a slave, a term of anger in Bikol such as salpók or pungkáˈ may have been used, and when reference is made to slaves in a narrative or verse, the term pandóˈ.
salpók slave, used only when annoyed or angry; syn‑ pungkáˈ [MDL]
pandóˈ ‑AN slave, used in place of urípon in narratives and verse [MDL]
Slaves were the property of their masters, and children of such slaves (gintúboˈ) also held that same status in the household. If they were born to slaves living in the main household, then they too were always on call to serve their masters in that capacity. If they were slaves who lived independently in their own homes, then the children also served in the same way, required to work when called upon but also enjoying some independent existence. Things were more complicated when children were born to slaves having a differing relationship to the owner, or those born to parents, one who was free and one who was a slave. In such a situation, if there was only a single child, it would be considered half slave and half free. If two children were born, then the first would follow the condition of the father, and second that of the mother. A third child would be treated like a single-child family, considered half-slave and half free. This is described in more detail, focusing on the Tagalog region, by Morga  and San Antonio, drawing for the most part on the work of Plasencia. Romantic relationships also existed between masters and slaves in the Bikol region, both through marriage (únoy) and concubinage (utáy).
únoy MANG‑, PANG‑‑ON to marry one's female slave [MDL]
utáy MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to fool or deceive s/o; to mislead or defraud s/o; MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to deceive s/o about s/t; PAG‑ deception; MAKA‑, IKA‑ to give s/t of lesser value for s/t that is of greater value; MAKA‑, MA‑‑AN to take s/t of greater value in exchange for s/t of lesser value; also associated with this meaning is: to be a concubine to one's master (a slave); to argue with one's master (a slave) [MDL]
Slaves were property, and as such they could be bought or sold (sáliw). Morga, writing in 1609, comments that this trade was so widespread, not only from village to village and province to province, but also from island to island, that the Spanish, at first, did not dare attempt to disrupt it, not so much for its economic impact, but its cultural one. This was in spite of slavery being officially outlawed in 1591. It wasn't until the end of the seventeenth century that we see the enforcement of laws banning inherited slaves (gintúboˈ). The total elimination of debt slavery was far less successful and may be said to have continued in some form or other until the end of the Spanish period in 1898.
talustós MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to transplant rice from the edges of a field where it was first transplanted (see tagbóng) to another area when the area along the perimeter becomes flooded with too much water; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to plant an area with such transplanted rice [MDL]
hawáˈ scarcely, hardly; only, just: Hawáˈ nakakikítaˈ (It's) hardly visible; Hawáˈ pagtatarám (She) hardly speaks; Hawáˈ na? Just that? (used ironically to indicate it is too much); ... Hawáˈ na an sanggatós Just a hundred (but used ironically to indicate that even one will be difficult to get); (fig‑) Pagkahahawáˈ nang pagbatón; urípon iyán It's an overly expensive way of raising a sail; he's just a slave (Implying that too high a price was paid for a slave) [MDL]
laygáy MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to be in command of a boat, vessel; to be in charge of a ship; MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to issue particular orders to the crew of a boat; also indicates: to be in charge of the servants and slaves in one's house: Maráˈot an daˈí naglalaygáy sa mga urípon It's bad for one not to be in charge of one's slaves; Maráˈot an daˈí naglalaygáy sa tibáˈad nang tuklós It's bad for one not to be in charge of those who are working [MDL]
atáman referring to s/o in the care of another; s/o who is adopted or is a foster child; a servant, pet; MAG‑, ‑ON to adopt s/o; to care for s/o; to nurse, nurture or support s/o; to foster a child; KAG‑: kagatáman nin amáˈ foster father; kagatáman nin ináˈ foster mother [MDL: MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to concern o/s with s/t; to take an interest in s/t; to attend to or look after s/o; MANG‑, PANG‑‑ON to take care of s/o; to show concern toward s/o or s/t; PAG‑ or PANG‑ care, attention, concern]
sapód MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to take in s/o who is wandering about, seemingly lost (whether a slave or free person): Sinapód ko na lámang iníng ákiˈ taˈ nagkakabasáng-basáng I've taken in this child because he was just wandering about aimlessly [MDL]
ayóp MAPA‑, PA‑‑AN or MAGPA‑, PAGPA‑‑AN to work for s/o in exchange for protection; to seek care, protection or guardianship from s/o in exchange for work; (fig‑) MAPA‑ or MAGPA‑ to surrender: Paayóp na kamó Surrender [MDL]
lábo MA‑ or MAG‑ to fly into a flame (as a moth) or drop into a liquid (as the wax of a candle); ... (fig‑) Taˈ daw taˈ malábo ka sakóˈ na bakóˈ kang urípon? Why are you indenturing yourself to me since you are not a slave? ... [MDL]
síring MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to treat s/o badly; MAG‑, IPAG‑ to treat s/o badly in a particular way; MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to mistreat s/o belonging to another; MANG‑ to be mistreated; to be injured or hurt by mistreatment; MANG‑‑AN to have s/o belonging to you mistreated; MAKANG‑: makaníring to be the reason one suffers mistreatment [MDL]
sahóm MAPA‑, PA‑‑ON to kill or slaughter a domestic animal for home consumption, not for trade; (fig‑) Pasasahomón taká ngatdihán I'm going to slaughter you (Said to a slave, indicating that the owner has nothing to lose by such a death) [MDL]
átong ... [+MDL: MA‑ or MAG‑ to go downstream; I‑ to be carried downstream by the current; ... MAPA‑, IPA‑ to set s/t adrift downstream; MAPA‑, PA‑ ‑AN to send s/t drifting down a particular river; (fig‑) to sweet-talk s/o; to unduly influence s/o: Pinagpapaatóngan nin úlay ni kuyán an sakóng urípon My slaves are being unduly influenced by that person; Maraháy daˈí taká pinaatóngan nin úlay It's good that I didn't unduly influence you by what I said; ...]
tungíˈ MA‑ or MAG‑ to become uneasy and touchy due to being overfull (an animal); MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to leave food over when feeling overfull; MAPA‑, PA‑‑ON to feed an animal to the point of its being satiated; (fig‑) Pinatungíˈ giráray nin pagkakán iníng urípon na iní, nanhahaˈbón pa nang gayód This slave is always fed more than he needs, and still it seems he goes around stealing [MDL]
súgoˈ MAG‑, ‑ON to send s/o on an errand or mission; to command s/o to do s/t; ... [+MDL: MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to give s/o an order or command; Nalimót-limót túlos si kuyán kon sinusúgoˈ That person immediately makes a face showing displeasure when asked to do s/t; MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to issue a particular order; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to send s/o on an errand to a particular place; ‑ON: susugóˈon
guráng old (humans, animals); aged, elderly... [+MDL: gúrang MA‑ old; MA‑‑ON very old; MA‑ or MAG‑ to grow old; ... PAGKA‑ age; KA‑ ‑NAN: kagurangnán Mr, Mrs; master; Himinaríˈ na akó kainíng sakóng kagurangnán I find my master insufferable; Nagngalás na gáyo akó kainíng sakóng kagurangnán taˈ daˈí akó pinahihingalóˈan I'm annoyed at my master because I'm not given time to rest; MAGKA‑‑NANAN: magkagurangnánan to call s/o Mr or Mrs; MANG‑‑NAN, PANG‑‑NANAN: mangagurangnán, pangagurangnánan to serve a particular master as a servant or slave]
San Antonio describes a ceremony held between master and slave to celebrate the gaining of freedom. Included in this is the absolute division of all furniture and utensils used by the slave, down to the ripping of blankets in two and the smashing of pottery vessels so that the pieces could be evenly divided.
hiluwás MAKA‑ to free o/s from servitude by paying off one's debts or otherwise satisfying ones obligations; MAKA‑, IKA‑ to pay off one's debts and obtain one's freedom; MAKA‑, MA‑‑AN to settle one's debts with s/o [MDL]
luwás SA outside, external; ...[+MDL: MA‑ or MAG‑ to go out; MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to go out for s/t; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to leave or go out from a particular place]
híwas free; MAGPA‑ to look to obtain one's freedom; to seek one's freedom (a slave or one with other obligations); Mahíwas an buˈót ko taˈ nakabáyad na akóng si útang I feel free now that I have paid my debts
alagád MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to be in the constant company of s/o; to serve s/o; PARA‑ constant companion; servant (the meaning of 'servant' developed subsequent to the traditional meaning of 'companion'); also once signified a household or guardian spirit: Si kuyán may paraalagád That person has a guardian spirit [MDL]
adág a male or female working for the Spanish as a servant; MA‑ or MAG‑ to work for the Spanish as a servant; MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, ‑ON to work for a particular Spaniard; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to work on a particular Spanish estate [MDL]
patimamangháˈ a small payment made against a debt which is owed or labor which has been provided to reduce penalties which would be imposed if no payment were made at all; MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to pay a small amount toward a debt or provided service; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to pay off a portion of a debt to s/o; to partially pay s/o for the labor they have provided; Maraháy kutáˈ na kon patitimamanghaˈán nang gayód an mga táwo kainíng dakól na átag It would be good if we give the people who have worked for us a small amount in appreciation of the great deal of service they have provided [MDL]
Status was achieved though authority and wealth. Clearly only a small portion of the inhabitants of a village held this exalted position. Others would have found themselves with adequate finances and moderate influence, and still others with little money and no power. These were the poor of the society who would have struggled to survive (mírot).
karákal MA‑ poor, impoverished; Abóng karákal mo How poor you are; MANG‑ to be in need; to present an appearance of poverty; MANG‑, IPANG‑ to give s/t without payment; MANG‑, PANG‑‑AN to give s/t to s/o poor or in need; MAKI‑‑AN to contribute or offer support, each person according to his or her own means; MAKI‑, PAGPAKI‑‑AN to apportion things among yourselves, each person receiving an appropriate share [MDL]
gugóm a clenched fist; ... [+MDL: MA‑ or MAG‑ to clench the fist; MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to clench s/t in the fist; (PAG‑)‑AN to be held in a fist ...; (fig‑) Sagkód ta na iní sa panggugóm We have reached the point where we just have a fistful (Said when one has become very poor)]
darí-darí MAKA‑, IKA‑ to be able to extract or get s/t from one who is destitute or poor; MAKA‑, MA‑‑AN to be able to get one who is destitute or poor to give s/t; Daˈí ka makakadarí-darí kaiyán táwong iyán You won't be able to get anything from that wretched person [MDL]
Those in power were shown what must have been anticipated deference by others of lower status in the community. Slaves would have been expected to be humble before their masters (lúdok), and those captured in what were endemic raids on neighbouring communities would no doubt have also been intimidated into submission and subservience (níroˈ). The general term for humility, hámak, is listed by Lisboa as a borrowing from Manila and, therefore, Tagalog in origin.
níroˈ MANG‑ to humble o/s; MANG‑, PANG‑‑AN to submit o/s to s/o; to become subservient to s/o; MANG‑, PANG‑‑ON to humble s/o; to conquer or subdue s/o; PANG‑ humiliation; MAPANG‑: mapanírong táwo humble, subservient, submissive; MAPAPANG‑: mapapanírong táwo dominant [MDL]
hámak lowly, humble; MAGPA‑, PA‑‑ON to humble s/o; to consider s/o of low status; MAKAPA‑, MAPA‑ to be humbled [+MDL: MAPA‑, IPA‑ to think little of s/o; to undervalue or underrate s/o; hámak lámang roughly, more or less; the term is taken from Manila]
ikíˈ term of affection used by women when speaking to their daughters; MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to speak to a daughter with love and affection [MDL]
yabáˈ ... [+MDL: words of love or affection, as parents might use with children, older people with the young, those of high status with those of lesser status, and among those fond of each other; ... MAPA‑, IPA‑ or MAGPA‑, IPAGPA‑ to say words of affection, respect; MAPA‑, PA‑‑ON or MAGPA‑, PAGPA‑‑ON to speak to s/o with such words of respect or affection]
baldíˈ nausea, disgust; ‑ON or MA‑ to feel disgusted, nauseous; to have a sour taste in one's mouth; MA‑‑ON describing s/o prone to nausea; ... [+MDL: PAG‑‑ON to feel nauseous; (fig‑) Nababaldiˈán man gayód an pagkaginoˈó niyá His adulation is sickening (Said when s/o does not like the person who is complimenting them)]
alugaˈóg MA‑, MA‑‑AN to hold s/o in high regard; to be too shy to approach s/o or give them s/t due to a feeling of differential status, or a feeling that what may be given is not enough; Kadaˈí mo maaalugaˈóg How little respect you are showing [MDL]
maˈnó (always used in the negative or implying the negative): DAˈÍ MAKI‑ to not get anything; to get nothing: Daˈí akó nakikimaˈnó I got nothing; Nakikimaˈnó akó? And what did I get? Nothing; DAˈÍ PAKI‑‑AN to get nothing; to give nothing: Ayáˈ pang nalulungtóˈ ka, daˈí múˈna kamí pinakikimaˈnohán? Although you get richer and richer, we get nothing; DAˈÍ IPAKI‑ to get nothing of s/t [MDL]
atá rice bran [+MDL: also referring to rice which is all husk and no grain; MA‑ rice which contains a large mixture of empty rice husks; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to mix good rice with empty rice husks in an attempt to deceive; MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to add empty rice husks to good rice; (fig‑) Magturúgang kamí patín iyán mga ginoˈó, kundíˈ aanhón ta an atá kon bagá sa pároy We and the influential people in town are all related, and yet all we get are the empty husks and not the rice]
támay MA‑, ‑ON or MANG‑, PANG‑‑ON to belittle, insult or deprecate s/o, comparing one's own status or wealth to their lack of it; MA‑, I‑ or MANG‑, IPANG‑ to disparage or belittle s/o's status or wealth [MDL]
sáday platforms built onto the tree houses called muˈóg; MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to construct such a platform; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to build a platform onto a muˈóg; (fig‑) Nalalábot akó kaiyán, nasáday lámang akó kon bagá sa muˈóg I take responsibility for that, and yet I'm relegated to being a platform on a tree house (Said of s/o who has primary responsibility, yet is not given the respect expected) [MDL]
sípat MA‑ angry, annoyed, aggrieved (due to not being treated with the respect one feels they deserve); MA‑ or MAG‑ to take offense; to feel one has been dealt an affront; to be angry or annoyed (as due to not being invited first, and so now refusing to go); MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to feel this way toward s/o; MAKA‑ to cause s/o to take offense (as the use of an incorrect term of address); MAGKA‑ to be annoyed at one another due to such perceived offense [MDL]
saníg MA‑, ‑AN to sit with the back half-turned to s/o else; MA‑, I‑ to turn the back half way; MAG‑ to be seated with the back half-turned to one another (two people); ... (fig‑) MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to demean s/o; to treat s/o as if they were lower in status: Pinagsasanigán akó ni kuyán That person is not treating me with due respect; also: to withdraw a proposal of marriage from one set of future in-laws in favor of another who offers better prospects [MDL]
riˈíg-díˈig MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to say s/t harshly or gruffly; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to speak to s/o in this way [MDL]
rawráw MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to deride, mock or ridicule s/o; to scoff at s/o; to defile or deface s/t; PAG‑ travesty [MDL]
duhágiˈ MAG‑, ‑ON to smite, scourge [MDL: MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to insult, discredit or disgrace s/o; MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to say s/t to insult, discredit or disgrace s/o]
The reasons behind the contempt shown to others are difficult to ascertain from dictionary entries alone. While the effort to convince someone they are of little importance (hínaˈ) is clearly done to lower their status, it most likely was also done to raise one's own. And when insults are directed at a person in their presence (tangád) causing enough offense to lead them to run off (abís), the question remains as to why things were taken to this extent in the first place. Passive acceptance to insults was, however, by no means guaranteed, for instead of turning and going off, the aggrieved individual may very well have countered with insults of their own (see tangád).
tangád MA‑, ‑ON to belittle, demean, discredit or disgrace s/o, speaking ill of them in their presence; MA‑, I‑ to say s/t to demean s/o; MAG‑ to exchange insults, demeaning one another; MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to exchange insults with one another; MAG‑, IPAG‑ to say s/t to one another in an exchange of insults [MDL]
abís MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to hurt s/o either physically, or emotionally by saying s/t unpleasant, causing the person to run off; MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to say s/t or to use s/t to hurt s/o [MDL]
raráma.ˈ MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to speak ill of s/o; to dishonor or defame s/o; MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to say s/t to defame s/o; MA‑ to be placed in a bad light due to what is said about you; to be dishonored, defamed; Habóˈ kong makipagibá-ibá ki kuyán; marararámaˈ lámang akó I don't want to go with the person; I don't want people to think I am like him (lit: I don't want people to speak ill of me) [MDL]
While there were many instances of kindness in early Philippine society, there also existed numerous areas of interpersonal conflict. In the remainder of this chapter, we will look at these elements which led to personal or social enmity.
When irony is used, the meaning conveyed is generally the opposite of what is said (suhíˈ), and the intent is either to inject humour into the conversation, or to bring about additional emphasis. Sarcasm is less neutral, drawing on the use of irony to deride or ridicule, or even show contempt (saláˈ-sála). The modern meaning of saláˈ-sálaˈ is closer to the non-reduplicated form, sálaˈ 'incorrect' or 'mistaken'. The conveying of sarcasm by this term is not current, and only in Tagalog did it appear to have the same meaning.
saláˈ-sálaˈ if I'm not mistaken; all things considered ... [MDL: MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to say s/t in a sarcastic way; MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to talk sarcastically about s/t; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to speak to s/o sarcastically; MA‑: masaláˈ-sálang táwo a sarcastic person; Abóng saláˈ-sálaˈ mo doy You are very sarcastic]
álit MA‑ conservation-minded, provident ... [+MDL: alít MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to conserve s/t (as food, drawing down one's stocks slowly); to use s/t sparingly (as particular items of clothing so they will not become worn) maalít na táwo one who conserves or is careful in the use of s/t; Abóng alít mo How careful you are with things (Implying stinginess)]
saná just, merely, only; a mere ... [+MDL: Iyó saná Just that; Pirá saná Just a few; Pirá saná? So, how many are there? ...]
lúmoy soft, tender; spongy; ... [+MDL: MA‑ soft; MA‑ or MAG‑ to become soft; MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to soften s/t; PAGKA‑ softness; (fig‑) Malúmoy an buˈót ni kuyán That person has a nice disposition; also used ironically: Malúmoy pa an síring? Is this acceptable? (Said ironically for s/t that is wonderful); Malúmoy pa an síring? or Malúmoy pa iní? Is that s/t to laugh about (Said ironically to indicate that s/t is very serious); Malúmoy pang táwo iyán kabalákid? Is this the number of people you wanted (Said when there is a huge number of people); Malúmoy pang álo nindó iyán? Is this the level of noise you want (Said when it is very noisy)]
sudhóˈ MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to joke with or tease s/o by praising them, but meaning the exact opposite of what is said (such as calling s/o smart when they have just done s/t stupid, or good when they have just done s/t bad); MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to praise s/o when joking in this way; MA‑ one who jokes in this manner [MDL]
káyaw MA‑ or ‑ON to exaggerate s/o's actions by indicating it verges on the absurd, setting the scene for joking with them: Garó kinakayáw an lalawgón mo kon nakakainóm ka Your face takes on the look of a crazy person when you drink [MDL]
arutárot an expression used ironically to indicate that a person is far older than his or her actual age: Arutárot pang taˈón idtó She is many years older; Arutárot sakúyaˈ si kuyán That person is much older than me [MDL]
ayád pa interrogative expression indicating sarcasm, similar to the English 'Do you really think this is good?' or 'Do you think you've done well?': Ayád pa iníng gíbo mo? Do you think what you've done is good? (Well, it isn't!) [MDL]
buwát MAG‑ to have the ability to do s/t (always used sarcastically); Iyóng buwat iyán (He) should at least have been able to do that; Iyóng buwát sanggatós, átaˈ daˈíng sangpúloˈ It should have been a hundred, but it wasn't even ten; Iyóng nabubuwát sanggatós, átaˈ daˈíng saróˈ It should have been a hundred, but it wasn't even one [MDL]
singáw MA‑ describing s/t which brings delight, pleasure or gratification; MA‑, MA‑‑AN to take delight or pleasure in s/t; Singáw ko saímong so-baˈgó I was pleased with you earlier (Said ironically when s/o does not do what they are told, does the opposite of what is expected or does not do s/t well); Iká ko lámang nasigawán asó nagugútom akó Only you sustained me when I was dying of hunger [MDL]
dayakdák happy, glad; used ironically when angry or annoyed: Abubóng dayakdák mo, tará baˈgó kang kagadánan How happy you are, and you have just had a death in the family; MA‑ happy (when one should be sad) [MDL]
dudúˈot few, but used ironically to mean 'many': Dudúˈot pa iyán? Is that what you call a few?; Dudúˈot pang táwo iyán? You think that's just a few people? (There are many) [MDL]
hamamáni shortly, just a little more; used ironically indicating that much more time remains, or there is still a great distance to cover: Hamamáni pang pinaglakawán ta idtó? Have we just walked a short way? (Implying that it seems like a long way); Hamamáni pa idtóng duwáng púloˈ nang taˈón It's as if it has been twenty years (but in reality it has been longer) [MDL]
dúgos a good time to do s/t (used ironically, implying one is too late); Dúgos ka babakál taˈ naúbos na So you have finally decided to go shopping now that everything is gone; Dúgos ka kakaˈág taˈ daˈí na digdí si kuyán So you'll finally be coming, now that that person isn't here; [MDL]
Lisboa has included many terms which refer to arguments. The most general is íwal, with a variety of others carrying meanings such as 'to bicker' or 'to quarrel'.
búsaˈ MA‑ or MAG‑ to argue or quarrel; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to argue or quarrel with s/o [MDL]
síga MA‑ or MAG‑ to argue or disagree with one another; MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to argue with s/o; to have a dispute with s/o; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to argue or disagree over s/t; MAKI‑ to pick a quarrel with s/o [MDL]
simpál MAGKA‑ to bicker or argue; MAGKA‑, IPAGKA‑ to bicker or argue over s/t, MAGKA‑, PAGKA‑‑AN to bicker or argue with s/o [MDL]
tíliw MAG‑ to quarrel or bicker; MAG‑, ‑ON to quarrel or bicker over s/t; MAKI‑‑ON: makititilíwon quarrelsome, peevish [+MDL: MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to quarrel or bicker with s/o; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to bicker over s/t]
sáˈil MAG‑ to quarrel, argue, bicker (two people); MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to quarrel over s/t; MAKI‑ to pick a quarrel with s/o; MAKI‑‑ON: makikisaˈílon quarrelsome [MDL]
rúbo-rúbo MAGKA‑, PAGKA‑‑AN to bicker, argue or quarrel; to talk at cross purposes (two or more people); MAGKA‑, PAGKA‑ ‑AN to argue over s/t in this way [MDL]
ángag MAG‑ or MAGKA‑ to argue or quarrel over a woman (two men, both of whom have a relationship with her); MAGKA‑, PAGKA‑‑AN to quarrel over a particular woman [MDL]
taláy MA‑, ‑ON argue with a woman, insulting her (another woman); MA‑, ‑AN to argue over s/t; MAG‑ to stand face to face and argue, trading insults (two women); MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to argue together over s/t [MDL]
saláy-sagáy describing a woman's voice when she yells in an argument: Saláy-sagáy na si kuyán That woman is really yelling [MDL]
Bikol shares the general meaning of dahás with Tagalog where it means 'to take by force', although there is no specific reference in Tagalog of this applying to women. In Waray and Cebuano the meaning also centres on violence, but in the larger sense of sacking and pillaging a town during a time of conflict.
kamót hand; ... [+MDL: MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to make s/t with the hands; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to run the hands over s/t (such as an image); (fig‑) PAG‑‑AN: Pagkinamtán kitá Let's go our own ways and earn our own livelihood (Said when a husband and wife or relatives argue)]
aníˈ referring to a situation where one's enemy or opponent causes a fight between himself and a husband, relative or friend by making advances toward the wife; MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to incite such a fight with s/o; MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to incite such a fight by saying s/t or by a particular action; MAKA‑, MA‑ to be incited to fight in this way [MDL]
dahás violence or force shown toward a woman; MA‑ describing one who shows violence toward women; MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to take another person's wife or woman by force; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to use force or show violence toward a woman [MDL]
súbok MA‑, ‑AN to argue stubbornly with s/o; to be firm in one's opposition to s/o; to oppose s/o with great conviction; MA‑, I‑ to say or do s/t when opposing s/o; MAG‑ to oppose one another, neither giving any ground (two people or many opposing each other); MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to firmly oppose a number of people; MAG‑, IPAG‑ to say s/t in opposition to a number of people; (fig‑) Nagsusúbok na gáyo sa kuyán Those people are equally stubborn [MDL]
sahúri MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to quarrel with s/o; to chastize or punish s/o who has hindered or obstructed you in some way after the impediment has been removed; MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to impose a particular punishment [MDL]
dúlon MA‑ to work in a field adjacent to another; MAG‑ to be side by side (two agricultural fields); to work in adjacent fields; ... (fig‑) Garó na kamó naghúliˈ nin pagdulónan It is as if you are finding fault with the boundary between two fields (Said when people argue over things of little consequence) ... [MDL]
gúmon a small bundle of tangled or uncombed abaca fiber which must be combed in preparation for weaving; MA‑ to be entangled (fiber, such as abaca, cotton, silk); (fig‑) Garó na kamó kagúmon-gumónan It's like you have got yourself all tied up (Said when one argues so much they forget who they are arguing with; or when one strikes blindly out with a knife, forgetting exactly who they are fighting) [MDL]
gúlong MAG‑ to come to blows during an argument; MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to fight with s/o during an argument (many against one); MA‑, ‑ON to fight with s/o during an argument [MDL]
kawhág MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to scratch or claw at s/o when quarreling; MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to scratch s/t off; PAG‑ scratching, clawing [MDL]
Some disagreements may be classified as arguments and others as debates, perhaps a more civil way of maintaining divergent views (rawí, súyat). Here different points of view are presented and held, with the possibility that the investigation and reasoning may eventually bring about agreement
súyat MA‑, ‑ON to argue or debate with s/o; MA‑, I‑ to argue over or debate s/t; to wrangle over s/t; MAG‑ to argue with one another; MAG‑, PAG‑ ‑AN to argue with one another over s/t; MA‑, IPAG‑ to present one's point of view when arguing with s/o; súyat-súyat MAG‑ to argue (many people) [MDL]
sudyáˈ MAG‑, ‑ON to admonish s/o; to censure, chide, rebuke, reprimand, reproach or reprove s/o [MDL: MA‑ to investigate or look into s/t so as to be satisfied with the conclusions one has drawn; MAG‑ to work to get to the truth of the matter (two people); to attempt to convince one another that one's point of view is right (a number of people); MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN / MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to disagree over s/t; to dispute the veracity of s/t; MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to argue a point with s/o; to disagree with s/o over the truth or falsity of s/t; MAKA‑, MA‑ or MAKA‑, IKA‑ to bring s/o around to your point of view about s/t; to convince s/o of s/t; MAKA‑, MA‑‑AN to be able to win s/o over; to be able to convince s/o; PAG‑ conviction, a convincing argument]
Arguments can come about for any number of reasons and they can persist and develop in any number of ways. They can arise when someone becomes aware of an incident which has brought about feelings of resentment. They then seek out the person who brought about these feelings in order to confront them (rawál). The reason for the argument may also be unspecified, based simply on the desire to pick a quarrel (sáˈan-sáˈan), or it may come down to a someone's personality where a quarrel is the desired outcome of a person's aggressiveness (hingos).
sáˈan-sáˈan MAPA‑, IPA‑ or MAGPA‑, IPAGPA‑ to look for an excuse (for a quarrel, to leave, to flee); MAPA‑, PA‑‑AN or MAGPA‑, PAG PA‑‑AN to look for an excuse to quarrel with s/o or to leave or flee from a particular place [MDL]
hingos MANG‑, PANG‑‑ON to go around picking fights with people; to be quarrelsome toward people [MDL]
tíngol MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to annoy or irritate s/o by what one says; MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to say s/t irritating or annoying; MA‑, MA‑‑AN to find yourself repeatedly annoyed or irritated by s/o; IKA‑ irritating, annoying (what s/o says) [MDL]
uyát MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to pester or harass s/o with repeated requests or questions; MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to repeatedly ask s/t; MA‑ a pest, vexatious; uyát-uyát MAG‑ to ask over and over again [MDL]
nuksó curse; MAG‑, ‑ON to put a curse on s/o [MDL: MAKA‑, MA‑ to provoke s/o to anger; to enrage s/o by saying s/t derogatory; MAKA‑, MA‑‑AN to say s/t derogatory, provoking s/o to anger]
sugót-sugót MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to mock or ridicule s/o; to make fun of s/o; MA‑ a tease; one who mocks or ridicules; also sugót [MDL]
ulóg-ulóg MAG‑, ‑ON to scorn, disdain or mock ... [+MDL: úlog-úlog MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to mock or ridicule s/o; MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to hold s/o up to particular ridicule; ‑ON one who ridicules or mocks]
tárik MA‑ to leave or excuse o/s so as to avoid an argument or fight; MA‑, MA‑‑AN to walk away from an argument or fight [MDL]
híwal MA‑ or MAG‑ to leave; to walk away from s/o so as to not suffer further maltreatment; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to leave a particular person or place for this reason [MDL]
lúgong MA‑ or MAG‑ to go off angry or irritated; to go off in a huff because of what has been said to you; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to leave s/o for this reason [MDL]
húlay ‑AN: huláyan taˈ or huláyan saná expression used to mock or ridicule s/o with the intent of driving them away [MDL]
hátod-hátod MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to spread rumors about people, causing discord; MA‑, ‑AN: hátod-hatorán or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN: paghátod-hatorán to tell a rumor to s/o; to cause discord among people by spreading rumors or gossip; MA‑ rumor monger, a gossip [MDL]
kulíˈ-kulíˈ inconsistent, variable in speech: Katangkóran na úlay, daˈíng kulí-kulí Honest talk or Straight talk with nothing changed; MA‑: makulíng-kulíng táwo describing s/o who is inconsistent in what they say; MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to change or vary s/t that is said with the aim of causing trouble; MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to use particular words in changing what has been said; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to cause trouble between people by deliberately reporting incorrectly to one what the other has said [MDL]
panás MA‑ having a sharp point; MAG‑, ‑AN to sharpen s/t to a point [+MDL: pointed (a stick, length of bamboo); MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑ ‑AN to carve s/t to a point; (fig‑) panás magibóng describing s/o who goes from place to place sowing discord]
úring charcoal (usually referring to charcoal made from coconut shell); ... [+MDL: MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to make charcoal from a particular wood; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑ ‑AN to blacken s/t with charcoal; MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to use charcoal for a particular purpose; PAGKA‑ the making of charcoal ... (fig‑) MAPAG‑: mapagúring táwo a person who besmirches the reputations of others; one who sows discord]
Saginunóng is clearly a compound form, the first element of which is sagín which, when affixed with the set of causative affixes, creates the meaning 'to defame' or 'to misrepresent someone to others'. The second part of the compound is less straight-forward. If we maintain the final stress of unóng then the meaning is 'to live in someone else's house'; if we use the form with penultimate stress, then we have the meaning 'to share in another's work'. While it is possible to assign a literal meaning to the compound, the result would only be speculative.
saginunóng MAPA‑, PA‑‑AN or MAGPA‑, PAGPA‑‑AN to incite, stir up or inflame the emotions of one who is already angry with s/o else by saying s/t bad about that person; to encourage s/o to persist in some wrongdoing that they have already begun by saying that they won't be caught; MAPA‑, IPA‑ or MAGPA‑, IPAGPA‑ to say s/t to incite s/o; to take s/t on the sly after being encouraged to do so [MDL]
Arguments will eventually end, and those who at one point had stopped speaking to each other may again find themselves on speaking terms (húron). On other occasions it may take a third party to step and make things right, talking to both people involved (háwak, híron), or to just one of them where the blame is felt to be more one-sided (hubád, see the figurative meaning).
háwak MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to reconcile or make peace between two people who have quarreled [MDL]
híron MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to straighten s/t up; to rectify s/t; to set s/t right; to settle an argument; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to settle an argument between two people; (fig‑) Kadákol kahíron-híron kainíng úlay mo You speak in a very roundabout manner [MDL]
hubád MAG‑, ‑ON to undo a knot; to untie or unfasten s/t; to disentangle or untangle s/t [+MDL: MA‑ or MAG‑ to come loose or become undone (a knot or tie); MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to loosen a knot or tie; MA‑, ‑AN: hubarán or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN: paghubarán to untie (as the hands, feet, a person); (fig‑) Hubarón mo si pagkatampalásan mo ki kuyán Undo your impudence toward that person (Meaning: Ask for forgiveness or Say you are sorry)]
Reprimands and scoldings generally occur where there is a state of unequal power relationships. Parents may scold children, and those in authority may reprimand those over whom they expect to have some control. Blame, on the other hand, can occur across all social and personal levels, bringing varying responses and outcomes.
A simple reprimand (túyaw) might be expressed in the hopes of correcting evidence of deficient behaviour. This can be lightly done so as not to cause offense, more like chiding or nudging someone to change their behaviour (húpay, agumúˈod), used perhaps in a situation where someone is reminded that they talk too much (kábal-kábal).
húpay MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to chide s/o; to gently admonish or reprove s/o; MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to say s/t in admonishment [MDL]
agumúˈod MA‑, ‑AN: agumuˈóran or MAG‑, PAG‑ ‑AN: pagagumuˈóran to chide or reprimand s/o you are annoyed with [MDL]
kábal-kábal term used to reprimand s/o by telling them they talk too much: Nagkakábal-kábal ka man giráray You're always running off at the mouth [MDL]
daˈdáˈ MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to admonish or reprimand s/o, presenting an endless stream of speech; to repeatedly reprimand s/o; MA‑, I‑ MAG‑, IPAG‑ to say many things in admonishment or as a reprimand: Mapagdaˈdáˈ ka pa, daˈí ka máyoˈ tataˈóng pakaráy You continue to be reprimanded, and still you don't know how to improve you behavior [MDL]
tangpás MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to reprimand s/o; to scold s/o to their face or by referring to them by name; MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to say s/t when reprimanding or scolding s/o [MDL]
paksáˈ MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to call s/o by their full name, thereby showing a lack of respect; different from gaháˈ which is a nickname showing respect or affection; MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to use the full name when calling s/o [MDL]
palagsák MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to call parents, in-laws or other people who should be regarded with respect by their own names instead of by title, thereby showing less respect than might normally be expected; in-laws should be addressed with the titles amáˈ for men and ináˈ for women, and others by the name of one of their children, such as amáng Juan father of Juan or ináng Juana mother of Juana [MDL]
yunyón MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to take a position against s/o; to accuse, denounce or contradict s/o (the whole household or community); MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to accuse s/o of s/t; MA‑, MA‑‑AN to fall on one's shoulders; to become one's responsibility (household chores, work, business dealings); MA‑, IKA‑ to be responsible for all duties or chores; Sakóˈ saná kayuyunyón iníng dakól na gigibóhon Everything that has be to done has fallen on me [MDL]
murángos MANGHING‑, PANGHING‑‑AN to take out anger on one who is blameless; to blame s/o unjustly [MDL]
tukdáw MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to blame s/o without basis or foundation; to accuse s/o using circumstantial evidence; MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to blame s/o for s/t; to accuse s/o of s/t [MDL]
rabáy MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to blame or punish everyone for the misdeeds of a few; MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to blame and punish the innocent along with the guilty; MA‑‑AN to be blamed or punished in this way (the guilty and innocent); IKA‑ to be blamed or punished (the innocent); MAKA‑ to blame the innocent along with the guilty [MDL]
muswáng MAPA‑, PA‑‑AN to take out the anger one feels toward s/o on s/o else; to direct one's anger toward one who is blameless; MAPA‑, IPA‑ to direct one's anger elsewhere, and not where it should be directed [MDL]
básol MAG‑, ‑ON to blame or censure s/o; to reprove s/o; MAG‑, I‑ to blame s/o for s/t; MANG‑, PANG‑‑AN to take the blame for s/t; to atone or repent for s/t [MDL: MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to blame, censure or reproach s/o for s/t another person has done]
A person can become annoyed for any one of many reasons (uyám), and in turn their behaviour can annoy others. There are also those who are inherently grouchy or cranky and so can be irritated at the slightest provocation (purók-pusók, puˈsóng).
purók-pusók MA‑ or MAG‑ to be irritated or annoyed; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to be irritated or annoyed at s/o [MDL]
puˈsóng irritated, grouchy, cranky, annoyed; MA‑ or MAG‑ to become irritated, grouchy, cross at the slightest provocation; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to become annoyed at s/o [MDL]
yúwoˈ-yúwoˈ MA‑, MA‑‑AN to be annoyed or fed up at seeing s/o do s/t slowly or apathetically; Yúwoˈ-yúwoˈ ko saímong maghilíng It annoys me to see you so apathetic [MDL]
baróˈ ignorant, foolish; stubborn; MA‑ or MAG‑ to be ignorant, foolish; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to irritate or annoy s/o with one's ignorance, foolishness or stubbornness; MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to ask foolish questions which result in irritating others; baróˈ-baróˈ MAG‑ to repeatedly ask foolish questions; to stubbornly pursue a point; ‑ON: baróˈ-baróˈon na táwo s/o who acts in this way [MDL]
pángoˈ MAG‑ to become annoyed, fed up after waiting a long time for s/o: Nagpángoˈ na akó paghalát ki kuyán I'm fed up waiting for that person; Nagpángoˈ na akó paghalát saímo I'm tired of waiting for you [MDL]
pararatóng MA‑, ‑AN: pararatngán to be angry or annoyed at s/o in your house who has just come in from outside (as from another house or from work in the fields) [MDL]
gagátok MA‑, MA‑‑AN to take offense at what s/o does or says; to be displeased or cross at s/o; MA‑‑ON: magagatókon cross, vexed, peevish; easily offended [MDL]
biˈnól MAG‑ to be peeved, irritated, irked [+MDL: binól MA‑, MA‑‑AN to be annoyed, displeased or resentful at what has been said to you, or toward the person who has said it; MAKA‑ to cause such displeasure]
hinálod MANG‑, PANG‑‑ON to take offence at what s/o has said; MANG‑, PANG‑‑AN to become annoyed at s/o who has said s/t causing offence; MAPANG‑: mapanhinálod na táwo one who takes offence at what is said; also: to involve o/s on behalf of a friend or relative when an offence is committed against them; to repay a debt for s/o who is unable to do so himself: Taˈ daw taˈ nanhihinálod ka; iká an linalanghadán ko? - Taˈ daw taˈ daˈí ko man hinálod na, linalanghadán mo an sakóng ákiˈ? Why are you taking offence; were you the one I insulted? - Why shouldn't I take offence when you have insulted my child?; Daˈí kutá na akóng ibinabáyad kundíˈ pinanhinálod ni amá idtóng útang ko I wouldn't have been able to pay, but my father repaid my debt [MDL]
kúsong MA‑ or MAG‑ to do or say s/t in an annoyed, irritated or vexed manner: Nakúsong ka saná kon sinúgoˈ ka na You become irritable when s/o asks you carry out an errand; Makúsong namán ngápit si kuyán That person will just get annoyed (if you ask her to do s/t) [MDL]
puráw MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to be annoyed with s/o without just cause; to give s/o a drink without drinking first and offering them a toast (see álap); MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to be annoyed at s/o due to a particular reason; to offer a drink of tubáˈ without first drinking and offering a toast [MDL]
Annoyance and anger are separated only by degrees of irritation. In modern Bikol siríˈ describes a temperamental, thin-skinned person who is easily angered, a change from the meaning recorded by Lisboa where the term referred to the mischievous and quarrelsome behaviour of young men. Even people who are usually calm, easy-going and generally forgiving can be roused to anger (gagátaˈ).
gagátaˈ MA‑ to be angered, roused, provoked (one who is normally calm, easy going, accommodating or forgiving); usually used in the negative: DAˈÍ MA‑: Daˈí nagagagátaˈ si kuyán That person is very slow to anger; DAˈÍ MA‑, MA‑‑AN to bear s/t; to accommodate or forgive s/o; to be slow to exact vengeance on s/o; Si daˈí magagagátang táwo si kuyán patient, long-suffering; MA‑‑ON: magagagatáˈon vengeful, quick to anger; cross, peevish; (fig‑) Hangáw kagagagátaˈ si kuyán kon nagtatarám That person is hardly roused when speaking (Meaning: You can hardly get a word out of him or her) [MDL]
Mulanghít is another complex form, although neither the meaning of the root nor the affix is recoverable. The fullest possible form may very well have been hing- + pu- + langhít resulting in himulanghít after the expected assimilation. Loss of the first part of the prefix, hi-, would have resulted in the current form. While there is some evidence that a prefix of the form pu- existed, without an attributable meaning for the root, this derivation must be seen as speculative.
dúmol MA‑, MA‑‑AN to be annoyed or angry at s/o; MA‑, IKA‑ to be annoyed or angry for a particular reason; MAGKA‑ to be annoyed or angry at one another [MDL]
hulók MA‑, MA‑‑AN: mahulkán to be angry or annoyed at s/o; MA‑, IKA‑ to be angry at s/o for a particular reason; MAKA‑ to be annoying, angering; MA‑‑AN: mahuhulkán angry, cross, annoyed [MDL]
mulanghít MA‑ to be very angry, cross, irritated or annoyed; to be furious; to fly into a rage; Namulanghít na si kuyán That person is very angry; Namumulanghít túlos si kuyán kon naanó-anohán na That person flies into a rage if you bother him [MDL]
laghód describing speech showing irritation or anger; MA‑ or MAG‑ to speak or talk loudly and angrily; MA‑, ‑AN: laghorán or MAG‑, PAG‑ ‑AN: paglanghorán to speak irritably or angrily to s/o; MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to say s/t in an irritable or angry way; MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to direct particular angry words toward s/o; Laghód an pagtarám ni kuyán; naaanggót gayód That person is speaking loudly and irritably; she must be angry [MDL]
There are, undoubtedly many subtle and overt reasons for people to find themselves at odds with one another. Enmity or ill-will (rimírim) is the result of unpleasant associations, either current or historical, as is the bearing of grudges (ráˈan-dáˈan) arising from unresolved, and possibly, unresolvable hostility. Such grudges may result in short-term conflict where the smallest reason could be used to cause trouble (gumárit), or in long-term feuds between families in the same village (natád).
ráˈan-dáˈan MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to hold a grudge against s/o; MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to hold a grudge for a particular reason [MDL]
gumárit MAKI‑, PAKI‑‑AN to look for a pretext or excuse for some action; for example: to not do what one is told; to pick a fight with s/o one has previously had a grudge against) [MDL]
natád MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN: pagnatarán to feud; to fight (one clan or family with another in a village); MAG‑, IPAG‑ to take up arms in such a fight or feud [MDL]
siróm ant (typ‑ small, red, biting); MAG‑, ‑ON to bite s/t (such ants); ‑ON to be covered with such ants [+MDL: MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to eat s/t (ants); (fig‑) Garó ka pagsiromón kon pakiíwal ka kaiyán dakól na magturúgang It's as if you'll be covered with ants if that family picks a fight with you (Said as a warning about associating with a family where there are many brothers and sisters)]
linák MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to thresh rice with the feet, used in annoyance or anger in place of giník; to trample on s/t; (fig‑) Paglilinakán taká ngatdihán kon maanggót akó I'll trample on you if I get angry [MDL]
paták MA‑ or MAG‑ to split, cleft, break or crack s/t (as an ivory bracelet); MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to split, cleave or crack s/t; MAKA‑, MA‑ to split, crack or break; PAG‑ splitting, cracking; KA‑ ‑AN a split, cleavage; (fig‑) Mapapaták ngatdihán an saláng mo kon maanggót akó I'll break your jaw if I get angry [MDL]
gútol MAG‑, ‑ON or MANG‑, (PANG‑)‑ON to pick flowers or leaves by pinching them off with the nails ... [+MDL: MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to pinch off flowers or leaves with the nails; (fig‑) Gugutólon ko ngatdihán an halanóhan mo In another moment I'm going to wring your neck]
dalín ‑ON: dinalín torch (typ‑ made from a round ball of resin); MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to make such a torch; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to roll resin into a ball on a particular surface; (fig‑) Pagdalinón taká ngatdihán A few moments more and I'll flog you or I'll slap you [MDL]
tapasák splat, the sound of an egg falling and breaking on the floor; the sound of hacking into s/t soft (like the trunk of a banana plant); MA‑ or MAG‑ to make this sound; (fig‑) Magtatapasák ka pakaraháy ngatdihán kon maanggót akó I'll cut you in two if I get angry [MDL]
gabás MAKA‑, MA‑‑AN to unintentionally cut or stab s/t with a knife (as a fish, or frog that happened to be in the grass when one was clearing a rice field); (fig‑) Garó ka ngatdihán kagabasán na talapáng kon maanggót akó You'll be like a frog that accidentally gets stabbed if I become angry (Said when threatening s/o with a knife) [MDL]
pangahás MA‑ threatening, menacing; MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to threaten, menace or challenge s/o; MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to set down a particular challenge; to threaten s/o with s/t [MDL]
ároy MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to threaten or menace s/o with s/t; MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to use s/t to threaten s/o [MDL]
antál MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to pick up a plank, stick or similar object by one end, and strike or threaten to strike s/o with the other; MA‑ to shake or tremble from a blow [MDL]
ángat MAG‑, ‑ON to challenge s/o; PAG‑ a challenge [MDL: MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to challenge s/o to come out of their house and fight]
dagók MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to wash clothes, beating them with the hand or a stick; MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to remove a stain on clothes in this way; MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to use a stick or the hand for beating clothes; (fig‑) Pagdadagokán taká ngatdihán I'm going to beat you to a pulp [MDL]
túpak MA‑, ‑ON or MAG‑, PAG‑‑ON to knead s/t with the hands; (fig‑) Pagtutupákan taká ngatdihán I'll beat you to a pulp or I'll give you a severe whipping [MDL]
huráhod MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to rub one thing against another (as when putting out a candle by rubbing it against a wall); MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to rub s/t against s/t else; (fig‑) Ipaghuhuráhod taká ngatdihán I'm going to rub your face on the ground [MDL]
písang MA‑, ‑ON to cut a yam with a knife; MA‑, ‑AN to share a cut yam with s/o; MAG‑, PAG‑ ‑ON to divide up yams, sharing the cut-up pieces; MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to share the cut-up pieces of yam with others; ... (fig‑) Mapipísang an payó mo kon tigbasón taká Your head will be split open if I cut you with a knife [MDL]
lasák MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to cause s/o or s/t to panic, or be afraid or apprehensive (as a chicken when s/o without warning tries to grasp it, a child who is roundly scolded, or an apprentice who doesn't immediately grasp s/t and is reprimanded or berated); MAKA‑, MA‑ ‑AN to be panicky or fearful [MDL]
gagasód MA‑ or MAG‑ to make a show of force by movement and gesture; MA‑, ‑AN: gagasorán or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN: paggagasorán to bully, menace, threaten or challenge s/o; to bluff s/o; MA‑, I‑ or MAG‑, IPAG‑ to make particular movements or gestures as a threat or challenge [MDL]
kúpa-kúpa MA‑ or MAG‑ to move the hands about in a intimidating gesture, as when threatening to strike s/o or when rebuking s/o; MA‑, ‑AN or MAG‑, PAG‑‑AN to intimidate s/o with such gestures [MDL]
The Spanish arrived in the Philippines to find small, self-governing communities ruled by individuals referred to as dátoˈ. These were individuals who obtained their status through the accumulation of power and wealth and held their positions as long as these could be maintained. Their families, too, shared their status and were exempt from many of the duties that others in the community would have to bear. In exchange for protection by their leaders, residents in the community would be expected to pay an annual tax or tribute and contribute their labour to the recurrent tasks of planting and harvesting and the more extraordinary duties of defense during times of conflict.
While there was no set system for choosing a leader, once an individual had managed to gather enough support to be recognised in that position, subsequent rulers would be chosen from the male line of the same family.
Various titles were used to refer to these leaders. Perhaps the most interesting were those used in the Tagalog regions which referred directly back to the Malay world to the south, not unusual considering the ties the Manila elite had to the Sultanate of Brunei.
The full dominance of the ruling classes was clearly obvious during the formalities accompanying death and burial. These were family-focused rituals, but their elaboration in preparation and their extravagance in execution could leave no one in doubt of their positions of power. Food was added to the coffin to accompany the dead on their journey to the afterlife, and a number of slaves were killed to serve their deceased master. Torches were lit and the coffin guarded for a considerable length of time to deter any interference by evil spirits.
The freemen and the slaves comprised the remaining two classes of society. The freemen were those who had never seen servitude, as well as those who had managed to buy their freedom after serving as slaves. Those in debt and those who were captured in the not infrequent raids on neighbouring villages could find themselves enslaved to those to whom they owed their money or lives. The same status could also be conveyed by inheritance, with the children of slaves having to serve in the same capacity as their parents.
The poor would have had the most tenuous existence, and where their relationships could be traced to the families in power, they had certain expectations of sharing which, if not met, could engender periods of extended resentment.
While there were many kindnesses that governed individuals in an interdependent community, there were also the inevitable frictions that human societies have experienced for millennia. Arguments broke out between people for any number of reasons, from major disagreements over wedding plans to marriage squabbles between husband and wife. There were large and small provocations, some possibly intended to deliberately cause trouble, and others simply the result of annoying behaviour.
Reprimands were proffered where a difference in status made such behaviour acceptable, whereas blame was far more democratic in nature. It could be targeted not only at the deserving, but also at the innocent as proof was not considered relevant. People took offence at a variety of behaviours leading either to anger, or to challenges and threats. Irony and sarcasm played a rather ambiguous role, serving sometimes to inject humour into a conversation, sometimes to show the folly of a held position, and at other times to criticise with unpredictable results. These were the relationships which both bound a community together, and also revealed the significant fissures that kept individuals apart.
 Antonio de Morga, Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas, 1609, Cambridge: The Hakluyt Society - Cambridge University Press, 1971, p. 271 (also in Blair and Robertson, vol.16, 'Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas (concluded),' pp. 25-210, pp. 119-120); Diego de Artieda, 'Relation of the Western Islands Called Filipinas,' ca. 1572, in Blair and Robertson, vol. 3, pp. 190-208, p. 197; Francisco Colín, 'Native Races and their Customs,' 1663, in Blair and Robertson, vol. 40, pp. 37-98, pp. 86-87.
 Juan José Noceda and Pedro de Sanlucar, Vocabulario de la lengua Tagala, 1754, Manila: Imprenta de Ramirez y Giraudier, reimpreso 1860, see dato; Antonio Sánchez de la Rosa, Diccionario español - bisaya para las provincias de Sámar y Leyte, 3rd edition, aumentado por Antonio Valeriano, Manila: Santos y Bermal, 1914, see dato; Juan Feliz de la Encarnacion, Diccionario español - bisaya, Manila: Imprenta de los amigos del pais, á cargo de M. Sanchez, 1852, see dato; Alonso de Mentrida, Diccionario de la lengua Bisaya, Hiliguena, y Haraya de la Isla de Panay, Manila: La Imprenta de D. Manuel y de Felix Dayot, 1841, see dato; Diego Bergaño, Vocabulario de la lengua Pampanga, en romance, 1732, Manila: Imprenta de Ramirez y Giraudier, Reimpreso 1860, see dato.
 David P. Barrows, A History of the Philippines, New York: American Book Company, 1905; Project Guttenberg, EBook #38269, December 11, 2011, pp. 102-104; also see the following pages for the use and later changes in the application of the term dátoˈ: 40, 59, 80, 101-103, 127,130, 138-140, 152, 164-165, 167, 202, 206-208.
 'Datuk,' Wikipedia, English, n.d. (accessed 5 May 2017); 'Telaga Batu Inscription,' Wikipedia, English, n.d. (accessed 5 May 2017); 'Srivijaya,' Wikipedia, English, n.d. (accessed 5 May 2017).
 Noceda and de Sanlucar, Tagala, see pono; Sánchez de la Rosa, Sámar y Leyte, see ponooan; de la Encarnacion, Bisaya, see pono; de Mentrida, Bisaya, Hiliguena, y Haraya, see ponoan.
 Noceda and de Sanlucar, Tagala, see dolohan: the entry is listed twice on the same page with details included only in the second listing.
 Noceda and de Sanlucar, Tagala, see matanda.
 de Morga, Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas, p. 271.
 Noceda and de Sanlucar, Tagala, see bouis; Sánchez de la Rosa, Sámar y Leyte, see buhis; de la Encarnacion, Bisaya, see bohis; de Mentrida, Bisaya, Hiliguena, y Haraya, see buhis; Bergaño, Pampanga, see buis.
 de Morga, Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas, pp. 119-120.
 Noceda and de Sanlucar, Tagala, see ginoo, guinoo; Sánchez de la Rosa, Sámar y Leyte, see guinoo; de la Encarnacion, Bisaya, see ginoo; de Mentrida, Bisaya, Hiliguena, y Haraya, see guinoo; Bergaño, Pampanga, see guino.
 Bible Hub (accessed 15 June 1917).
 Mateo Sanchez, Bisaya, 1617, Manila, Colegio de la Sagrada Compañia de Iesus, por Gaspar Aquino de Belen, 1711, see ginoo, tubo.
 Colin, 'Native Races and their Customs,' in Blair and Robertson, vol. 40, pp. 86-87.
 Noceda and de Sanlucar, Tagala, see angca.
 This is discussed more fully in Chapter 8, 'Jewellery and Body Ornamentation.'
 de Morga, Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas, pp. 119-120.
 Colin, 'Native Races and their Customs,' in Blair and Robertson, vol. 40, pp. 86-87.
 Noceda and de Sanlucar, Tagala, see poon.
] de Morga, Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas, pp. 119-120.
 de Mentrida, Bisaya, Hiliguena, y Haraya, see daay.
 de la Encarnacion, Bisaya, see daay; Sánchez de la Rosa, Sámar y Leyte, see daay.
 Noceda and de Sanlucar, Tagala, see hari; Sánchez de la Rosa, Sámar y Leyte, see hadi; de la Encarnacion, Bisaya, see hadi; de Mentrida, Bisaya, Hiliguena, y Haraya, see hari; Bergaño, Pampanga, see ari.
 Juan R. Francisco, 'Further Notes on Pardo de Tavera's 'El Sanscrito en la lengua Tagalog',' Asian Studies, Vol. 6, No. 2, pp. 223-234, pp 230-231; Spoken Sanskrit.
 R. O. Winstedt, Unabridged Malay-English Dictionary, Singapore: Kelly & Walsh Ltd, n.d, see ari.
 Monier-Williams Sanskrit Dictionary .
 Old Javanese Dictionary; type adi in the search box in the upper left.
 de la Encarnacion, Bisaya, see luming.
 de Mentrida, Bisaya, Hiliguena, y Haraya, see luming.
 ] Noceda and de Sanlucar, Tagala, see touan.
 John Crawfurd, A Grammar and Dictionary of the Malay Language, 2 vols., London: Smith, Elder and Company, 1852, see tŘan.
 Noceda and de Sanlucar, Tagala, see gat, dayan.
 Winstedt, Unabridged Malay-English Dictionary, see megat; 'Malay styles and titles,' Wikipedia, English, n.d. (accessed 10 June 2017); 'Megat Iskandar Shah of Malacca,' Wikipedia, English, n.d. (accessed 10 June 2017).
 Bergaño, Pampanga, see bagat.
 Crawfurd, A Grammar and Dictionary of the Malay Language, see dayang; William A. Marsden, Dictionary of the Malayan language, London: Cox and Baylis, 1812, see dāyang; Winstedt, Unabridged Malay-English Dictionary, see dayang.
 Noceda and de Sanlucar, Tagala, see lacan.
 Francisco, 'Further notes on Pardo de Tavera's 'El Sanscrito en la Lengua Tagalog',' p. 231; V. Lieberman and M. C. Ricklefs, Handbook of Oriental Studies, Section 3, 'Southeast Asia,' Leiden & Cologne: E. J. Brill, 1977, Volume 7: 'The Economic and Administrative History of Early Indonesia.' F. H. van Naerssen and R. C. de Iongh, Chapter IV: 'The Agrarian Kratons of Hindu-Java and Bali'' pp. 36-45.
 de Artieda, 'Relation of the Western Islands Called Filipinas', in Blair and Robertson, vol. 3, p. 197; 'Anonymous Eyewitness Account of the Conquest of Luzon,' 1572, in Christianization in the Philippines, Bulletin VI: Historical Conservation Society, Manila: Historical Conservation Society and University of San Agustin, 1965, p. 359; de Morga, Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas, p. 271 (also in Blair and Robertson, vol.16, 'Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas (concluded),' pp. 124-125); also see Chapter 4, 'Crime and Punishment,' Section 3.
 de Morga, Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas, p. 133.
 Colin, 'Native Races and their Customs,' in Blair and Robertson, vol. 40, pp. 79-80; Pedro Chirino, S. J., 'Relacion de las Islas Filipinas,' 1604, Manila: Historical Conservation Society, 1969, p. 302.
 Colin, 'Native Races and their Customs', in Blair and Robertson, vol. 40, p. 80; Chirino, 'Relacion de las Islas Filipinas,' p. 303; Carlos Quirino and Mauro Garcia, 'The manners, customs and beliefs of the Philippine inhabitants of long ago'; Being chapters of 'A Late 16th Century Manila Manuscript, transcribed, translated and annotated,' Manila: The Philippine Journal of Science, vol. 87, No. 4, December 1958, p. 421.
 Colin, 'Native Races and their Customs,' in Blair and Robertson, vol. 40, p. 80; de Morga, Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas, p. 133; Miguel de Loarca, , 'Relación de las Islas Filipinas,' 1582, in Blair and Robertson, vol. 5, pp. 34-187, p. 135.
 Juan de Plasencia, 'Customs of the Tagalogs,' 1589, in Blair and Robertson, vol. 7, pp. 173-196, pp. 194-195.
 Colin, 'Native Races and their Customs,' in Blair and Robertson, vol. 40, pp. 80-81, and Labor Evangelica, Misterios Apostolocos de los Obreros de la Compa˝ia de Jesus, Madrid: Joseph Fernandez de Buendia, 1663, Chapters 4 and 15-16; Chapter 15, pp 67-68.
 Quirino and Garcia, 'The manners, customs and beliefs of the Philippine inhabitants of long ago,' pp. 416, 431-432.
 Noceda and de Sanlucar, Tagala, see biray.
 Sánchez de la Rosa, Sámar y Leyte, see biray; de la Encarnacion, Bisaya, see biray; de Mentrida, Bisaya, Hiliguena, y Haraya, see biray; Bergaño, Pampanga, see biray.
 de Plasencia, 'Customs of the Tagalogs,' in Blair and Robertson, vol. 7, pp. 173-174.
 de Loarca, 'Relación de las Islas Filipinas,' in Blair and Robertson, vol. 5, p. 135.
 Quirino and Garcia, 'The manners, customs and beliefs of the Philippine inhabitants of long ago,' p. 431.
 Colin, 'Native Races and their Customs,' in Blair and Robertson, vol. 40, p. 80.
 Chirino, 'Relacion de las Islas Filipinas,' p. 303.
 Colin, 'Native Races and their Customs,' in Blair and Robertson, vol. 40, p. 80; Chirino, 'Relacion de las Islas Filipinas,' p. 303; Quirino and Garcia, 'The manners, customs and beliefs of the Philippine inhabitants of long ago,' p. 416.
 Colin, 'Native Races and their Customs,' in Blair and Robertson, vol. 40, p. 80.
 Quirino and Garcia, 'The manners, customs and beliefs of the Philippine inhabitants of long ago,' pp. 431-432; Colin, 'Native Races and their Customs,' in Blair and Robertson, vol. 40, p. 81.
 de Plasencia, 'Customs of the Tagalogs,' in Blair and Robertson, vol. 7, pp. 194-195.
 de Loarca, , 'Relación de las Islas Filipinas,' in Blair and Robertson, vol. 5, p. 135.
 Quirino and Garcia, 'The manners, customs and beliefs of the Philippine inhabitants of long ago,' p. 415.
 Quirino and Garcia, 'The manners, customs and beliefs of the Philippine inhabitants of long ago,' p. 431.
 Sánchez de la Rosa, Sámar y Leyte, see dayo; de la Encarnacion, Bisaya, see dayo; de Mentrida, Bisaya, Hiliguena, y Haraya, see dayo.
 Quirino and Garcia, 'The manners, customs and beliefs of the Philippine inhabitants of long ago,' pp. 414-416.
 de Loarca, , 'Relación de las Islas Filipinas,' in Blair and Robertson, vol. 5, p. 135.
 Colin, 'Native Races and their Customs,' in Blair and Robertson, vol. 40, pp. 80-81, and Labor Evangelica, Chapter 15, pp 67-68.
 Chirino, 'Relacion de las Islas Filipinas,' p. 327.
 de Plasencia, 'Customs of the Tagalogs,' in Blair and Robertson, vol. 7, pp. 194-195.
 de la Encarnacion, Bisaya, see hogot; de Mentrida, Bisaya, Hiliguena, y Haraya, see hugut.
 Sánchez de la Rosa, Sámar y Leyte, see hogot; Bergaño, Pampanga, see igut.
 Noceda and de Sanlucar, Tagala, see hogot.
] John Richardson, A Dictionary, Persian, Arabic and English, London: JL Cox, 1829 (originally published 1778-1780), see sayyāf.
 Winstedt, Unabridged Malay-English Dictionary, see sayat.
 Quirino and Garcia, 'The manners, customs and beliefs of the Philippine inhabitants of long ago,' p. 407; de Artieda, 'Relation of the Western Islands Called Filipinas,' in Blair and Robertson, vol. 3, p. 197; Colin, 'Native Races and their Customs,' in Blair and Robertson, vol. 40, pp. 86-87; Juan de San Antonio, Chronicas de las Apostolica Provincia de S. Gregorio de Religiosos Descalzos, Sampaloc: Convento de Nuestra Señora de Loreto, 1738, in Blair and Robertson, vol. 40, pp. 296-373, p. 468.
 Noceda and de Sanlucar, Tagala, see timaua; Sánchez de la Rosa, Sámar y Leyte, see timaua; de la Encarnacion, Bisaya, see timaoa; de Mentrida, Bisaya, Hiliguena, y Haraya, see timaua; Bergaño, Pampanga, see timaua.
 Noceda and de Sanlucar, Tagala, see maharlica; de San Antonio, Chronicas de las Apostolica Provincia de S. Gregorio de Religiosos Descalzos, in Blair and Robertson, vol. 40, p. 349-350.
 Fr. Leo James English, Tagalog - English Dictionary, Manila: Congregation of the Most Holy Redeemer, 1986, see maharlika.
 DCS - Digital Corpus of Sanskrit; Ooi Keat Gin, ed., Southeast Asia: A Historical Encyclopedia from Angkor Wat to East Timor, Santa Barbara CA: ABC-CLIO Inc., 2004, p. 872.
 Winstedt, Unabridged Malay-English Dictionary, see batak; Kamus Dewan, Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka, 1994, see batak.
 Noceda and de Sanlucar, Tagala, see alipin; Sánchez de la Rosa, Sámar y Leyte, see oripon; de la Encarnacion, Bisaya, see olipon; de Mentrida, Bisaya, Hiliguena, y Haraya, see olipun; Bergaño, Pampanga, see alipan.
 de Loarca, 'Relación de las Islas Filipinas,' in Blair and Robertson, vol. 5, pp. 181-183.
 de Morga, Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas, p. 276; Chirino, 'Relacion de las Islas Filipinas,' Chapter 46 (also in Blair and Robertson, vol. 13, pp. 56-58.
 de Loarca, 'Relación de las Islas Filipinas,' in Blair and Robertson, vol. 5, pp. 179; de Plasencia, 'Customs of the Tagalogs,' in Blair and Robertson, vol. 7, pp. 325-326.
 de Loarca, 'Relación de las Islas Filipinas,' in Blair and Robertson, vol. 5, pp. 185.
 de Loarca, 'Relación de las Islas Filipinas,' in Blair and Robertson, vol. 5, pp. 183-185.
 de San Antonio, Chronicas de las Apostolica Provincia de S. Gregorio de Religiosos Descalzos, in Blair and Robertson, vol. 40, p. 477.
 de Morga, Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas, pp. 121-123.
 de San Antonio, Chronicas de las Apostolica Provincia de S. Gregorio de Religiosos Descalzos, in Blair and Robertson, vol. 40, pp. 469, 473-476.
 Sanchez, Bisaya, see ginoo.
 de Morga, Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas, pp. 124-125.
 John Leddy Phelan, The Hispanization of the Philippines: Spanish Aims and Filipino Responses, 1565-1700, 1959, Filipiniana Reprint Series, Manila: Cacho Hermanos, 1985. p. 94.
 de San Antonio, Chronicas de las Apostolica Provincia de S. Gregorio de Religiosos Descalzos, in Blair and Robertson, vol. 40, p. 471.
 Noceda and de Sanlucar, Tagala, see atag; Bergaño, Pampanga, see atag.
 Noceda and de Sanlucar, Tagala, see lacal, calacal; Bergaño, Pampanga, see calacal; de la Encarnacion, Bisaya, see calacal; de Mentrida, Bisaya, Hiliguena, y Haraya, see calacal.
 Noceda and de Sanlucar, Vocabulario de la lengua Tagala, see duc-ha which does not appear as a headword entry, but is used in 12 example sentences throughout the dictionary under a search for pobre.
 Winstedt, Unabridged Malay-English Dictionary, see duka.
 Spoken Sanskrit.
 Noceda and de Sanlucar, Vocabulario de la lengua Tagala, see galang; Bergaño, Vocabulario de la lengua Pampanga, see galang; Sánchez de la Rosa, Sámar y Leyte, see galang.
 Noceda and de Sanlucar, Vocabulario de la lengua Tagala, see ani ani, gaua; Bergaño, Vocabulario de la lengua Pampanga, see aniani, gaua.
 English, Tagalog - English Dictionary, see duhagi.
 Winstedt, Unabridged Malay-English Dictionary, see dahagi.
 Kamus Dewan, see dahagi.
 Andrea Acri, Roger Blench, Alexandra Llandmann (eds.), Ships and Spirits: Cultural transfers in Early Monsoon Asia, Singapore: ISEAS - Yusuf Ishak Institute, 2017. p. 463.
 The exchange of insults in early Bikol society could be considered so severe as to end up in the courts to be adjudicated by a set of village leaders who served as judges. This aspect of social conflict was covered in Chapter 4, 'Crime and Punishment,' Section 3(i):
 Noceda and de Sanlucar, Vocabulario de la lengua Tagala, see sala-sala.
 Noceda and de Sanlucar, Vocabulario de la lengua Tagala, see dahas.
 Sánchez de la Rosa, Sámar y Leyte, see dahas; de la Encarnacion, Bisaya, see dahas.
 Malcolm W. Mintz, 'The Fossilized Affixes of Bikol,' Currents in Pacific Linguistics: Papers on Austronesian Languages and Ethnolinguistics in Honor of George W. Grace, ed. Robert Blust, Canberra: Pacific Linguistics C-117, 1991, p. 265-291, pp. 279-281.