Intersections: Gender and Sexuality in Asia and the Pacific
Monograph 1: The Philippines at the Turn of the Sixteenth Century
Malcolm W. Mintz
STARS AND SEASONS
The planets moved erratically across the sky compared with the more fixed positions of the stars. Of these plants, Venus was the one which could be most easily identified, and a discussion of this planet forms the heart of the first part of Section 1. The second part looks briefly at comets and meteors and the attempt made to distinguish between the two by the early lexicographers. In the third part are the constellations. These were given names, identifying groupings familiar to those in the west, and others which are completely new and possibly unknown. The names given to these arrangements of stars often vary from one language to another, giving rise to difficulties in arriving at a definitive identification. Terms for the earth and sky are presented in the fourth part, and in the fifth, the sun and moon. Discussed in some detail are the phases of the moon and the explanation presented when it falls into eclipse. Also included are the primary directions of east and west, determined by the rising and setting of the sun, moon and stars.
In Section 2 is a discussion of the tides, their rise and fall and the land they periodically cover and uncover as they move. Terms for the weather are presented in Section 3, mentioning a change in reference from the old to the modern language. This is followed by a longer section on the winds.
The winds bring the rain which determine the change in season. The directions from which they blow also give their names to the cardinal points of the compass. There is general agreement among the languages on these cardinal directions, but a greater difference occurs when it comes to the finer distinctions referred to as ordinals. The second part of Section 4 looks at the wind-borne storms, from the devastating typhoons to the more local tornados and whirlwinds. Also included here are the effects of the unforgiving winds on trees, crops and infrastructure.
The clouds is the topic of Section 5, looking at different densities and the relationship to mist, fog and dew. The final Section, 6, is rain. This includes rain carried on the prevailing winds blowing from the southwest as well as the northeast and locally formed thunder storms which produce sharp, heavy downpours which run in streams from the roofs of houses. Finally there is the lighter rain or drizzle which may signal the ending of the wet and the move again to a period of relative dry.
The planets were noticed, but, with the exception of Venus, and possibly Mars, not identified. As planets move slowly across the sky, taking varying positions among the stars which appear in fixed positions from the Earth, they were generally called estrellas errantes 'wandering stars' by the early lexicographers. Lisboa does not record such star movements for Bikol. For Hiligaynon, however, Mentrida defines the term bato nga halin as 'wandering stars' referring, possibly, to any of the planets which can be seen from the Earth with the naked eye, and for Waray, Antonio Sánchez de la Rosa defines panoy as 'a wandering star', identifying, possibly, just one single planet. As there is no other information associated with this term, it is impossible to glean any identifying characteristics for this planet.
The planets which are visible with the naked eye from the Earth are Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn. Venus is generally independently identified. That leaves one of the last four of these planets as a possible referent for panoy, with Mercury the least likely of these. As it orbits so close to the sun, it would be visible for only a short time just before sunrise or just after sunset.
Venus is usually identified by its appearance in the early morning or early evening, generally by different terms, indicating that it was seen not as the same planet (or star), but as two distinct objects. This can be explained as follows.
The orbit of Venus is within the orbit of the earth. It also has a position relatively close to the sun in the sky. When Venus trails the sun, it appears in the sky shortly after sunset when the sky is sufficiently dark. This is Venus as the evening star.
Venus, however, moves faster around the sun than the Earth, completing one orbit in 224.7 Earth days. Every 584 days it reaches its closest point to the earth and at this point may be said to 'overtake' the Earth. When this happens Venus moves to a position preceding the sun. It rises before the sun and remains in the sky until daylight making it increasingly difficult, although not impossible, to see. This is Venus as the morning star.
Frequently only an assumption can be made about the identification of Venus. Lisboa, for example, defines nagsubáng as a large star. As the root of this word is subáng, which refers to the rising of the sun, moon, and stars in the east, a star rising in the east is very probably Venus which appears just before sunrise. This would be Venus as the morning star. There is no equivocation when it comes to the reference makakadamlág (see damlág) which clearly refers to Venus when it shines through the night.
damlág MAG- the whole night, overnight; MAGPA- to stay up the whole night; PA--AN a night light which burns until dawn [+MDL: MAG-, PAG--AN to spend the whole night doing s/t: Nagdamlág akóng diˈ matúrog I didn't sleep the whole night; -ON to be drunk the whole night; to be drunk from dusk to dawn; MAKA-: makakadamlág Venus, when visible through the night; daramlágon the full moon which shines through the night]
For Waray two references are given, one of which, bituˈon sa kaagahan, is literally 'the morning star' which is always associated with Venus, and the second, kapanosan, is defined as Venus with no indication of its appearance in the morning or evening. The root here is panos which refers to something 'sour' or 'acidic', a root difficult to associate with the derived form.
For Cebuano, we have an interesting parallel with Waray. There are two references to Venus as the morning star: makabanglos and kabugason. The root word for the first of these terms is banglos which again appears to have no relationship to the derived form. The meaning of banglos however, is 'to add a souring agent to something which is being salted or marinated', and that is where the parallel occurs with the form in Waray. The root word of the second term is bugas referring to unhusked rice or unshelled corn. Again, any relationship between the root and the derived form is hard to see.
Venus as the evening star has specific references in four of the central Philippine languages. In Tagalog it is tanglaw dagá. Tanglaw is a 'torch', or, in its verbal form, 'to shine a light on something', and daga is a 'mouse' or 'rat'. The relationship between this set of root words seems untenable unless we make an association between dusk and evening with the appearance of mice or rats. The same reference is found in Kapampangan where the evening star is sulong dagis. Sulo is a 'light' or 'torch', and verbally, 'to shine a light on something'. Dagis is a 'mouse' or 'rat'.
For Cebuano, Venus as the evening star is kahaponanon. The root here is hapon meaning 'afternoon' or 'early evening'. A similar entry is found for Hiligaynon, kahaponawan nga bituˈon, literally 'the evening star'. Hapon is, as in Cebuano, 'afternoon' or 'early evening'. There is, however, one further entry for the evening star in Hiligaynon, and that is bagio‑bagio. The non-reduplicated form, bagio, is the common word throughout the Philippines for 'storm' or 'typhoon' (see Section 4(ii)). Storms in this part of the Philippines are associated with winds coming from the west or southwest (see Section 4(i)), and since the evening star is seen in the west, this may be the origin of the term.
There is a possibility that the planet Mars may have also been identified in Bikol. Bitúˈon is 'star', and its cognates can be found across Philippine languages. The form of the Bikol entry, birí‑bitúˈon, generally indicates that something is similar to but not exactly like the root it is based on, in this case leading to an interpretation of something that is not quite a normal star. The definition given by Lisboa is more specific than this, identifying a 'painted star'. While this could refer to any star showing a colour different to those more commonly seen, such as the reddish-orange glow of Arcturus (see Section 1(iii)) it may also refer to Mars which appears with a reddish tinge in the sky.
Other celestial objects, apart from the sun and moon, which are recognisable in the sky are comets and meteors. Unfortunately, in the dictionary definitions, it is not always clear which of these is being identified. The term we are dealing with is bulalákaw, a term which is identical in all of the central Philippine languages.
The meaning of 'meteor' is clearest in Waray and Cebuano where it is defined both as 'meteor' and further explained as 'a small sphere or ball of fire'. In Hiligaynon it is defined as 'a constellation of fire which blows up like a rocket'. The definition in Kapampangan is less clear, with 'running star' possibly interpreted either as 'meteor' or 'comet'. The definition in Bikol is 'comet', but the explanation of a star moving quickly through the sky and then, essentially, disappearing, describes more a meteor or shooting star than a comet. Only in Tagalog do we seem to have two distinct definitions. Bulalákaw is defined as a 'comet', but, as with Bikol, the description of 'burning vapour' may actually be a 'meteor'. The entry bituˈin may sumbol 'a star with a pennant or streamer (as on a ship)' is also defined as 'comet', and may indeed be such an object.
Groupings of stars have always been noticeable, with many of these being given names representing objects which they appear to represent. In the western tradition, these names go back millennia, named by Greek or Roman observers. In the Philippines, these names often differ depending on the language area, although there are also many instances where similarities can be observed across language groups.
Another variable is the ability of the lexicographers and others writing at the time to properly identify the constellations referred to by Philippine language terms. The possibility must certainly exist that identification errors were made and that this has led to certain inconsistencies in determining which specific constellations are being referred to. There will be examples of this in the discussion which follows.
The group of stars called the Pleiades is defined in Spanish as siete cabrillas 'the seven little goats' for Bikol, cabrillas 'the little goats' for Hiligaynon, and vulgo cabrillas 'a group of little goats' for Cebuano. The Bikol term is muró‑púro and the Hiligayon and Cebuano cognates, mulo‑pulo. The name siete cabrillas appears to originate from the novel Don Quijote de la Mancha, and vulgo cabrillas is associated with the Pleiades in Tratado de Astronomia, the Spanish translation of a work by John F. W. Herschel.
The Pleiades in Tagalog is mapulon, a constellation identified by Noceda as cabrillas or pleyades, and Plasencia as siete cabrillas. The root word here is pulon which indicates a group of persons or things and undoubtedly refers to the grouping of the stars forming the constellation.
Both Plasencia and Alcina associate the appearance of the Pleiades with a change of season. For Plasencia this is just a simple statement. Alcina explains that the occurrence of wet and dry seasons differs in different regions, but for some areas, the appearance of the Pleiades at its highest point in the sky is the time to start planting.
In the sky above the Visasays the Pleiades appears overhead sometime after midnight in mid-June. This would signal the start of planting in areas such as Panay and Cebu, but not necessarily Samar where the heaviest rains come with the Northeast monsoon and planting is most likely to take place some time in late December and early January. The particular change in season for the Tagalog region, indicated, but not specified, by Plasencia, would most likely be the same as for the central and western Visayas. Like Cebu, the Tagalog region has its predominant exposure to the southwest monsoon. Alcina also names other constellations which signal the start of the planting season: balatik and the Southern Cross.
The constellation Orion is identified by Lisboa as lúbang, which is also the term for the large wooden mortar used for pounding rice. In both Waray and Cebuano, lusong 'mortar' is also identified as a constellation. Sánchez de la Rosa defines this simply as a group of fixed stars, a definition which contributes little to its identification, and Encarnación identifies it as the northern constellation Osa Mayor 'The Great Bear' or 'The Big Dipper'. Orion and the Great Bear are clearly different celestial objects which occupy different positions in the sky. The discussion which follows will, unfortunately, not lend much clarity in an attempt to explain the differing names for these constellations.
lúbang Orion (constellation) [MDL]
For Cebuano, Encarnación identifies balatik as simply a constellation. John Wolff in his dictionary of modern Cebuano includes further information that the constellation comprises three stars in a row. While this does not necessarily indicate that the three stars are those in the belt of Orion, this remains a possibility.
The two references for Waray by Sánchez de la Rosa and Alcina  relate this arrangement of stars to un carro 'a cart', a formation which is associated with the 'The Great Bear' or 'The Big Dipper'. Alcina goes further to identify the appearance of this constellation as the signal for planting depending on how it is displayed in the sky. Looking to the north, the stars forming this constellation appear to take an 'erect' position toward the end of January, a time which could easily signal the planting of rice in areas dominated by the northeast monsoon. In the months previous to this, the constellation appears to be lying across the northern part of the sky.
The definition Mentrida presents for Hiligaynon is not helpful in clarifying matters. Balatik here is associated with the constellation astillejo 'Gemini' or 'The Twins'. There is also a second reference, cayado 'The Shepard's Crook' or 'Staff'. While this may possibly have other celestial referents it is likely that it is intended to be taken as a further reference to 'The Twins'.
The constellations referred to as balatik and muró‑púro are discussed in some detail in 'Balatik: Katutubong bituin ng mga Pilipino' by Dante L. Ambrosio in the Philippine Social Science Review. A version covering some of the same material was published in English in the Philippine Daily Inquirer and is available online.
A constellation comprising three stars in a row and named turóng in Bikol is seen directly overhead in the early evening at the start of the typhoon season. The cognate form, tulong, is found in Waray. This group of stars, when appearing just after dark, is said to signal the start of the slash and burn clearing of the forests called caingin. This would occur at the start of relatively drier weather, preparing the ground for the next onset of rain.
The group of three stars which appear directly overhead in the early evening beginning in mid-May in this part of the Philippines, a time which generally indicates the start of the typhoon season, comprises the three brightest stars in the constellation Aquila the Eagle. The brightest start is altair, flanked by the two stars called tarazed and alshain. While it is not possible to be certain, this may very well be the constellation referred to by Lisboa. The question is, is this also the same constellation referred to by Alcina?
Although significant rain falls throughout the year, the driest months in the eastern region of Samar are April and May. This, with the addition of March, is also the case for much of Bikol. The constellation Aquila the Eagle is certainly high in the sky by early April, although not directly overhead. Since Alcina does not suggest a position directly above as indicating the start of caingin, but simply its visibility, it is likely the same reference as in Bikol.
Interestingly, a word of the same form, listed separately by Lisboa, refers to an extended period of drought. The only thread that might link these two terms is possibly a reference to a delayed start to the rainy season and an extension of the drier weather experienced in March, April and May.
turóng drought; MA- to have an extended period of drought; -ON to dry up; to be affected by drought [MDL]
pugót fish (typ- saltwater; possibly of the family Balistidae known as triggerfish) [MDL]
paglóng top (typ- used by children); MAG- to play with such a top [MDL]
In Tagalog there are two references to the Southern Cross. One of these is pasil. As with the terms discussed for Bikol and Hiligaynon, there is a relationship here to 'tops', with pasil also referring to a contest where two tops are set spinning to see which lasts the longest. The second term is kamali'ing. The root word here is liˈing which means 'to see something out of the corner of the eye', referring no doubt to lowness in the sky of the Southern Cross when visible from Manila.
Súˈag is one further constellation identified by Lisboa. This is described as an arrangement of four stars in the form of a square, which, when directly overhead, indicates that the time is midnight. The information which is obviously missing from the definition is the time of the year, for different stars will be directly overhead at different months. If the square referred to by Lisboa is the main part of the constellation Pegasus 'The Winged Horse', it is overhead at midnight over much of the Bikol region in mid-May, and maintains a position close to this in the month preceding and following.
Another clue that this could be the constellation Pegasus may be the Bikol term itself, for súˈag is the term used when animals fight with their horns. It is also the term for 'to gore'. It is possible to interpret what is seen as the legs of the horse, as horns extending from the square of four stars. This reference does not appear in the other central Philippine languages.
súˈag MAG-, -ON to gore s/o; MAKA-, MA- to get gored [+MDL: MAG- to fight with the horns (two bulls, water buffalo); MA-, -ON or MAG-, PAG- -ON to gore s/o (an animal with horns)]
In Tagalog as well we have makapanis which is identified as the star arturo 'Arcturus' in the constellation bohotes 'Boötes'. Boötes is from the Greek meaning 'Herdsman' or 'Plowman' and incorporated in it is the star Arcturus, the brightest star in Northern celestial hemisphere, located at the bottom tip of the constellation.
Noceda identifies two other constellations for Tagalog, neither of which can be readily associated with names for Western star configurations. Bulang saguan is identified as a constellation only under the entry bituˈin 'star'. Listed independently, the meaning is 'to row with force'. The two parts of bulang saguan can be individually identified to give some idea as to what the constellation looked like. Bulang comprises the root bula plus the linker ‑ng. Bula refers to 'froth' or 'foam', and saguan means 'to row' giving us a probable image of stars representing the froth or foam on the water produced by vigorous rowing.
The final constellation identified by Noceda, may karang, is also listed only under the general entry bituˈin. Karang is the mat or awning placed over the tops of open boats to protect those aboard from sun and rain and may karang means ˈhaving or using such an awningˈ. What is then being visualised here is an arrangement of stars somewhat in the form of this awning.
Turning now to the Visayas, both Hiligaynon and Cebuano identify the constellation alimango. While the meaning of alimango is 'crab' the constellation it refers to is defined as 'The Ram', which in western tradition is 'Aries' and not 'Cancer'. Both of these constellations would appear almost directly overhead early in the evening in September, with Cancer in a position toward the east in the sky and Aries toward the west. The possibility also exits that alimango refers to neither of these western-defined constellations, but is another celestial form seen uniquely through Visayan eyes.
Hiligaynon and Cebuano share another constellation, manok 'chicken', which is described in Hiligaynon as stars in the figure of a chicken, and in Cebuano as simply a constellation comprising a group of numerous stars. With no further information presented, it is impossible to identify which stars are referred to and relate these to constellations in the Western tradition.
Continuing the poultry theme, Cebuano has a further constellation named sulang 'cock's comb' which is described as five stars in the form of a figure 'A'. Sulang is also a term found in Hiligaynon, defined as a 'cock's comb', but not as a constellation. There is one further definition, however, of a word of the same form, and that is of the wind that blows from a direction between the northeast and east, that is essentially from a direction east-northeast.
Winds from the east-northeast, predominately gentle winds blowing under 12 kilometres an hour, can occur throughout the year at Iloilo, bringing respite from the drier and stronger winds from the northeast and the rain-bearing winds from the southwest. If the occurrence of these winds could be better associated with particular months, it might be possible to identify the constellation bearing the same name in Cebuano, assuming there was indeed a connection between the two. A constellation comprising five main stars somewhat resembling a cock's comb, and also resembling the figure 'A', is Cephelus 'King of Ethiopia', found in the northern sky from the mid-January to mid-September, a long period of time. Being unable to find a reference for the months the constellation sulang appears in the sky, its identification as Cephelus remains pure conjecture.
The Western constellation Scorpius 'The Scorpion' has an identified equivalent in Cebuano, silib. This is a constellation visible from Cebu in the southern sky from mid-September, rising in the east a few hours before dawn, to the end of May when it sets in the west around midnight. It is fair to say that its primary period of viewing would be from the end of November when it rises shortly before midnight, to the end of May when it sets around the same time. The intervening period would see it rise and then set progressively earlier.
The same term is also found in Hiligaynon. It and its synonym, balagiohon, are defined as a celestial sign signifying a time of storms, something clearly identified by the root of balagiohon which is bagio 'severe storm' or 'typhoon'. There is, however, no mention in Hiligaynon that this is the constellation Scorpius. For most of the island of Panay, including the main city of Iloilo, the months from December to May would be relatively dry. The typhoon season wouldn't begin until the end of May or June and these months would also signal the arrival of the annual southwest monsoon. If silib in Hiligaynon is associated with storms, it is probably not the constellation identified as Scorpius for Cebuano.
There are two further star groupings recorded by Encarnacion for Cebuano, neither of which have I been able to associate with western constellations. One of these is kalalaw, described as a small basket, and the other is sagˈob, a bamboo tube serving as a water urn or pitcher.
For most of the central Philippine languages, the concept of the Earth was of something round. Indeed, for four of these languages the term is derived from the root libot which carries the adjectival and nominal meanings of 'round' or 'circumference', and the verbal meaning 'to encircle'. This gives rise to the term kalibotan for 'Earth' in Waray, Cebuano and Hiligaynon and sanglibotan / sangkalibotan in Tagalog. Other terms also exist. In Waray nayap refers to an expanse of land uninterrupted by the sea. Sánchez de la Rosa has interpreted the affixed form kanayapan or kanayˈpan as meaning 'world'.
In Tagalog the modern term daigdig and its derived form, sangdaigdigan mean 'Earth' and 'world'. This is also the meaning given by Noceda. There is, however, one further term based on the root hilihid or hilihir. There is some difference in how these terms are entered in two different editions of the Noceda dictionary. Only hilihid is a headword entry in the edition of 1754, while both forms are listed in the later edition of 1860. Noceda defines this as traditionally meaning an entire province, or an entire hemisphere, a term most likely encompassing a world beyond that which can be immediately seen. The later edition also includes the derivations sanghilihir and sanghilihiran accompanied by the definition 'the entire world'.
For Kapampangan, the closest term listed in Bergaño is yato 'the curvature of the earth', a term which is interpreted in the modern language as 'Earth' or 'world'. That brings us now to Bikol where the modern term is kinaˈbán. This is the same term recorded by Lisboa, without the internal glottal stop and with penultimate stress. It is hard to ignore the association of this term with what appears to be its root, kabán, leading to an interpretation of the world seen as a 'chest' or 'coffer'. Kabán is certainly a common word, found in all of the central Philippine languages, but whether a derivation of 'Earth' or 'world' is intended, cannot be confirmed.
kabán chest, trunk, coffer; MAG-, I- to place s/t into a chest [+MDL: MA-, -ON or MAG-, PAG- -ON to place or store s/t in a chest or trunk; kabán‑kabán small chest or box]
urógan sky, heavens; used in narratives and verse in place of lángit [MDL]
habót sky; (fig-) -ON a liar, hypocritical: Habóton ka You are a liar; MAPATAGU-, PATAGU--AN: mapataguhabót, pataguhabotón to insult or dishonor s/o by saying this word to them [MDL]
tagu- affix used in combination with MAKA-, makatagu-, meaning, to consider s/t: ráˈot bad, makatagu‑ráˈot to consider s/t bad, unsuccessful; ráhay good, makatagu‑ráhay to consider s/t good, acceptable; lulóng stupid, makatagu‑lulóng to consider s/o stupid; the active use of the affix in modern Bikol has been lost, but the form can still be identified in many compound words beginning with tagu- [MDL]
mapa- verbal affix, infinitive-command form; a combination of the prefixes ma- and pa-; may also convey the meaning 'to be stricken': base hílang sick; infinitive-command mapahílang to be stricken by illness; past napahílang; progressive napapahílang; future mapapahílang; may also convey the meaning: to feel like; to be in the mood to; to care to: Napapasíne akó I feel like going to the movies
For Lisboa, the term for 'sun', as well as 'day', was aldáw, a term with recognisable cognates in all the central Philippine languages. There was also a second term, saldáng, which is listed as a headword entry by Lisboa with the meaning 'the brightness and heat of the sun', although there are examples where the meaning can be interpreted simply as 'sun' (see saráray, below). What has happened over time is that in modern Bikol, saldáng has become the term for 'sun' with aldáw reserved 'day'.
Saldáng is a complex form comprising sa with meanings such as 'in' or 'at' and a root of the possible form ladáng. This root form does not occur with a relevant meaning in Bikol nor any of the other central Philippine languages. There is, however, a relevant term in Malay, ledáng, which Winstedt records with the meaning 'shimmering in the sun' adding that it was an archaic term when he compiled his dictionary, most likely in the 1920s.
A form such as ledáng [lədáng], the first vowel being a schwa, would be borrowed into Bikol as ladáng. The phonology of the borrowing is clear. What is not so clear is why this should occur. There does appear to be at least of one borrowed term from Malay relating to the winds, and numerous shared terms relating to wind directions, and a term such as ledáng may very well have been part of a larger set relating to weather.
saldáng the sun; MAG- to shine (the sun); -AN or MA--AN to be exposed to the sun; to be aired out or set out in the sun; MAGPA-, PA--ON to expose s/t to the sun; to put s/t outside to air (as a rug, blankets); bungáng saldáng prickly heat [MDL: the brightness and heat of the sun; MA- or MAG- to shine brightly (the sun); (PAG-)-ON or (PAG-)-AN to be exposed to the sun; PAG- the shining of the sun: Makurí an pagsaldáng The sun is very hot; Kíta pa an kasaldangán, múda pa iníng kakahóyan At least we still get sunlight, even in this forest) (something which is good]
The full moon occurs when the moon, earth and sun are in general alignment, with the earth positioned between the moon and sun. In this position the fully lit surface of the moon faces the earth. In modern Bikol the full moon is kabilógan kan búlan (see búlan), and while Lisboa has no Bikol entry for this, it is likely that this was the phrase used considering the appearance of an almost identical form to describe a dark, moonless night (see dulóm). The full moon which shines through the night, however, is referred to by Lisboa as daramlágon (see damlág, Section 1(i)). The light of the moon in modern Bikol is banáˈag, although for Lisboa this is defined more restrictively as starlight or the light from glistening objects such as gold. The halo which can be seen around the moon, as well as the sun or stars, sáyap, is brought about when light is refracted through ice crystals carried by cirrus clouds high above the Earth.
banáˈag beam or ray of light; firelight, moonlight; MA- bright, resplendent, shining; MAG- to give off light; to shine (as the moon, stars); -AN to be illuminated by such light [MDL: MA- or MAG- to shine (gold, the stars): Nagbanáˈag na doy It really shines; (PAG-)-AN to be illuminated by s/t]
sáyap a halo of light which forms around the sun, moon, stars, candles; MA-, -AN or MAG-, PAG- -AN to form around s/t (such a halo); (PAG-)-AN describing s/t surrounded by a halo of light [MDL]
For the appearance of the half moon, both the first and third quarter, the moon is positioned at an angle of 90 degrees with regard to both the Earth and the Sun. When the moon is less than half illuminated, it is referred to as a crescent, and when it is more than half illuminated, but not full, the term is gibbous. Both of the terms crescent and gibbous are used when the moon is increasing in illumination, or waxing, and reducing in illumination, or waning.
The five or six period day of the new moon in Bikol is gimatá. The root here is clearly matá 'eye'. The prefix gi‑, if taken as a shortened form of manggí, as indicated by Lisboa, has the meaning 'to smell of', something obviously not applicable here. There are, however, examples in both old and modern Bikol where a prefix of the form gi‑ also means 'like' or 'similar to', and that is, no doubt, what is intended in examples such as this. The moon as it gradually appears in increasing crescent form from its darkened phase, may very well be seen as the opening of an eye. The same entry can be found in Waray.
matá eye; -ON or MA- to get hit in the eye; MAG- to wake up; to awaken, arouse; nagmamatá conscious (not unconscious), awake; MAPAG- to be awakened; MAGPA-, PA--ON to wake s/o up; MAKA-, -ON to look down on s/o; to be patronizing toward s/o; ... [+MDL: MA-, -AN to add eyes to an image or statue; MA-, I- or MAG-, IPAG- to put the eyes into place; Magmatá ka or Pagmatá Get up, Awake; MAKAPAG- to be able to open the eyes; Namatá ka May your eyes be smashed (Said as a curse)]
gi- short for manggí; indicates 'to smell like' as well as 'to be like' or 'to be similar to' [MDL]
The second form, paro‑pasusbángon, shows a process which might be referred to as mitigating action, an action performed with less intent than the same action would be without the prefix. The referent here is to the subsequent nights of the rising of the waning moon and the mitigating implication may be to the delayed appearance of the moon in the night sky.
One further reference to the waning moon is a figurative meaning for the unit of weight, káti, referring to the waning moon being overtaken by the rising sun in the morning.
káti unit of weight, equivalent to one-tenth of a chinánta or 630 grams; sangkáti one káti, duwáng káti two káti; (fig‑ May káti na an buláwan The gold has a weight (Said when the waning moon in overtaken by the rising sun in the morning) [MDL] [MALAY kati]
We now come to the occurrence of the lunar eclipse. In Sanskrit mythology, rāhu, a demon who deceitfully drank of the immortal waters and had this act exposed by the Sun and Moon, was punished by having its head cut off. From time to time, rāhu, generally represented as a dragon's head, takes its revenge by swallowing the sun or the moon, thereby causing an eclipse. Rāhu appears to explain the forms we find in Tagalog, laho, and Kapampangan, lawo. As late as 1731, Tomás Ortiz records the expression in what is less than correct Tagalog, Linamon laho bovan meaning 'A dragon (tiger or crocodile) has swallowed the moon'. To drive the dragon away and force it to release the sun or moon, the people go out into the streets and bang earthenware pots.
A similar set of referents can be found in Bikol, although relevant definitions are found only much later in a modern article on Bikol mythology by Merito Espinas. Lisboa makes no specific mention that these terms refer to an eclipse. What is clear is that the rituals take place on nights of the full moon to prevent it being swallowed and thereby going into eclipse, and not after the fact to force its release.
guguráng a household spirit carried around on the person, capable of granting the owner's requests; for example: if one asks for rain, it will rain; -NAN: gugurangnán the possessor of such a spirit [MDL]
balalóng bamboo or hollowed tree trunks which are beaten to scare away the bakunáwa as part of the hál-lia ritual [BIK MYT]
Rāhu is associated with the ascending node. The ascending node, also has a literary reference, and that is bhayānaka. The Monier-Williams Sanskrit dictionary makes the association of these two terms quite explicit. The remaining question is: Is the Philippine term bakunáwa a borrowed form of bhayānaka. It most likely is, with some of the less obvious changes mitigated by an intermediary language. A definitive link between the two forms, however, clearly cannot, at this stage, be proven.
An eclipse of the sun in Bikol is kulóp, a term which in Cebuano and Waray, refers simply to the darkness of approaching night, or the darkness of the land or sky caused by heavy cloud.
bánag‑bánag MANG- to break (the dawn); to shine (the first rays of the sun); PANG--AN to be out and about at this time of day (a person); PANG-: an pamánag‑bánag dawn [MDL]
sugkád MA- or MAG- to hit the bottom (as when jumping into shallow water); to touch bottom (the feet); MA-, -ON or MAG-, PAG--ON to touch the bottom with a pole (as when polling a boat in shallow water); MA-, I- or MAG-, IPAG- to touch the bottom with a pole, the feet); -AN: sinusugkáran the bottom; the seabed or riverbed; -AN: sinugkáran horizon [MDL]
sírang rays or beams of light; MAG- to shine (the stars, the sun, a candle); to rise (the sun); MAG-, -AN to illuminate s/t; to shine a light on s/t; to strike (rays of light, the sun); MAG-, I- to direct the rays of light; PAG- shining; an pagsírang kan aldáw dawn; -AN the east [MDL: MA- or MAG- to shine (the sun, stars, a light); MA-, -AN or MAG-, PAG--AN to shine on s/t; MA-, I- or MAG-, IPAG- to send out rays of light; MANG-, PANG--AN to block the glare from one's eyes; to shield the eyes from glare; MANG-, IPANG- to use the hand to shield the eyes from glare; Taˈ daw taˈ pinaninirángan mo an matá mo? Why are you shielding your eyes?; Taˈ daw taˈ pinaninirángan mo iyán matá mo, tará bakóng maláˈad? Why are you shielding your eyes; the light isn't very bright?]
sínag MA- the brightness of the moon or sun when rising or setting; the brightness of the sun at dawn or dusk; the glow in the sky of a distant fire; MA- or MAG- to give off this type of light; (PAG-)-AN to be lit up by this type of light [MDL]
lúnod MAG-, -ON to sink s/t; to scuttle, capsize, submerge or overturn s/t; MAKA-, MA- to sink, capsize, overturn; to get sunk, capsized, overturned [+MDL: MA- or MAG- to sink (as metal, a stone); MA-, -ON or MAG-, PAG--ON to flood a boat, causing it to sink; MA- to sink (a boat and those on board); MAPA-, PA--ON to sink s/t; KA--AN: kalundán west (the direction where the sun appears to sink into the sea)] var- lánod
saráray MA- to set (the sun); -AN to set in the west; (fig) Nasaráray na lámang akó kon bagá sa saldáng I'm reaching the end, like the setting sun (Said when one feels they are reaching the end of their life) [MDL]
In the middle of the day, the sun eventually reaches a position high in the sky (yadát, láway) where, on clear days, reference may be made to its glaring brightness (pásiˈ) or both its brightness and heat (tiˈál, ringgít), particularly in areas exposed to the sun either for a short time or for a major part of the day (láˈay, bantaˈákan).
láway high in the sky (the sun): Láway na an aldáw The sun is high in the sky; Kaláway na kainíng aldáw It's very late [MDL]
pásiˈ MA- to be blinded by the sun or other bright objects; MA--AN to be unable to look at s/t due to extreme brightness or glare (such as looking at the sun); MAKA- to be blinding (as the sun); PAGKA- blinding, glaring [MDL]
tiˈál MA- or MAG- to burn hot and bright (the sun); (PAG-)-AN to bake or burn in the heat of the sun; to be exposed to the heat of the sun; Naghahápon akó pagtitiˈalí dihán sa umá I'm exposed to the heat of the sun in the fields for the whole day; MAGPA- to expose o/s to the heat of the sun: Anó taˈ nagpapatiˈál ka? Why are you out in the heat of the sun? [MDL]
ringgít very hot (the weather); MA- or MAG- to burn brightly and hot (the sun); to be very hot (the weather); (PAG-)-AN to be exposed to the sun on a very hot day [MDL]
láˈay MA- to be exposed to the sun; to be set out in the sun; MA--AN to be exposed to the sun (a particular area) [MDL]
bantaˈákan a place exposed to the sun for the major part of the day [MDL]
The spring tides and neap tides each occur twice in a lunar month. A spring tide results in both a high tide that is higher than usual (tingarákol), and a low tide which is also lower than usual (nitíˈ). The term 'spring' does not refer to the season, but to the 'rise' of the oceans. Neap tides (ayáˈay) are more moderate, rising less high than usual, and also falling less than normal.
Spring tides are brought about by the general alignment of the sun, moon and earth. This occurs during the new moon when the moon is positioned between the sun and the earth, and during the full moon when the earth is positioned between the sun and the moon. In these positions, the gravitational pull of the moon is augmented by that of the sun.
Neap tides occur during the first and third quarter phases of the moon, that is, when the moon appears half full. In this position, the sun and moon are at right angles to each other and their gravitational pull on the earth is in different directions resulting in tides which are more moderate, both rising and falling less than average.
nitíˈ spring tide; MA- to ebb (the tide); IKA- to be the lowest point of the spring tide; MA--AN to be an area experiencing such a tide [MDL]
ayáˈay neap tide; the tide at the time when the difference between high and low tide is the smallest, usually when the moon is in the first or third quarter [+MDL: MA- or MAG- to rise and fall only a small amount (the tide)]
dakól many, much, plenty, a lot; abundant, bountiful, copious, numerous, plentiful; MAG- to abound; to accumulate, increase in number; MAGPA-, PA--ON to augment; to increase the number of s/t; to multiply; PAGPA- multiplication; KA- very many, much; a great number of s/t; KA--AN: kadaklán a majority, a large part; kadaklán na óras often, frequently [+MDL: MA- or MAG- to grow in number or amount; MAPA-, PA--ON to increase the number or amount of s/t; MAPA-, PA--AN to add to an existing amount or quantity; KA--AN: kadaklán or PAGKA- abundance; a large number or amount; dakól‑dakól very large, very fat; also: neither too many nor too few]
kubós out (the tide): Kubós na an táˈob The tide is out; MA- or MAG- to recede or fall (the tide); (PAG-)-AN to be left exposed by the falling tide; (fig-) Kubós‑kubosá iníng saímong buˈót Lower your expectations or Be more humble [MDL]
uróng MA- or MAG- to rise slowly (the sea due to a weak tide or the presence of a first or third quarter moon (por ser ... chica la luna)); (PAG-)-AN to experience a slow rise in the sea (an area) [MDL]
lubág MA- or MAG- to rise increasingly higher (the tide as the moon becomes full): Lubág na an túbig The tide is high [MDL]
alubangiˈán land which remains above water when the tide rises around it; MA- or MAG- to be located in an area which becomes surrounded by the rising tide (land); (PAG-)-AN to be surrounded by the rising tide, yet not be submerged (land) [MDL]
tuˈóng MA- or MAG- to rise (water at the mouth of a river caused by the rising tide, but not having an effect on water levels further upstream due to the force of the river current); (PAG-)-AN to meet at the mouth of a river (the rising tide and downward push of the river current); I(PAG)- to be carried downstream by the river current to where it meets the rising tide [MDL]
patíng somewhat deaf, hard of hearing; deaf in one ear; also: s/o who has trouble keeping their balance; MA- to be hard of hearing; -ON: patíng‑patingón one who is partially deaf [MDL]
aluntagá the landing on a flight of stairs; the attic, loft or garret of a house; MA-, -ON or MAG-, PAG--ON to construct a landing, loft; MA-, -AN or MAG-, PAG--AN to construct a landing, loft in a particular house; MAGKA- to have a one landing over another or one loft over another [MDL]
tagá roost for chickens; MAG-, -AN to prepare a roosting place for chickens [+MDL: MA-, -AN to prepare a roosting place for chickens; MA-, I- to prepare such a roost from particular materials; MAG-, PAG--AN to raise s/o else's chickens, dividing the resultant chicks with the owner; to give the owner of the chickens one half of the chicks produced]
kúnong the turning of the high tide; the point at which the high tide neither rises nor falls; MA- or MAG- to be at the point of turning (the high tide); (fig-) Kúnong na an pagkatáwo ni kuyán kon bagá sa táˈob That person has reached the height of her abilities, just like the turning of the tide [MDL]
bakás high-water mark, the line of high tide or high water left when the tide recedes or the level of water in a river drops [MDL]
húgot MA- or MAG- to turn and begin to recede (the tide); (PAG-)-AN to be exposed by the turning of the tide (land) [MDL]
arurúhoy MA-, -AN or MAG-, PAG--AN to accompany s/o to a particular place, leave them there, and return alone; to go to a particular place and not return as requested; MA-, I- or MAG-, IPAG- take s/t to a particular place and leave it there; (fig-) Nagaarurúhoy na lámang an túbig The tide is beginning to recede [MDL]
rupók‑dupók descriptive of a field plowed or planted in a haphazard way, and not in discernible rows; MAG-, -ON or MAG-, I- to sow crops in an unordered way; MAG-, -AN to plant or plow a field in an unordered way [+MDL: MA-, -ON or MAG-, PAG--ON / MA-, I- or MAG-, IPAG- to sow corps in a haphazard way; also descriptive of the sea when the tide runs against the prevailing wind; MA- or MAG- to be choppy (the sea when the tide runs against the wind); (fig-) Karupók‑dupók kainíng buˈót mo You're very confused]
At the time of Lisboa's residence in the Bikol region, banwáˈ was the term of reference for the weather. This was in addition to its more widespread and ubiquitous meaning of 'town' or 'region' which is still used in modern Bikol. In the Visayan languages banwá carried the same meaning as in Bikol. In Tagalog it referred to the sky as well as to the weather, although Noceda noted that this was an old term at his time of writing in 1754. For Kapampangan, Bergaño defines banwáˈ only as 'sky'.
Banwáˈ was to also fall out of use in Bikol, replaced by panahón which is not a term given a headword entry by Lisboa. The figurative meaning in the entry kúrong‑kúsong shows the term banwáˈ still in use in 1754, but then replaced by panahón by 1865 in the second printed edition of the Vocabulario.
kúrong‑kúsong MA-, -ON or MAG-, PAG--ON to grab the head in displeasure, annoyance or fury; to be ready to pull that hair out of one's head in frustration; (fig-) Kiminúróng‑kúsong namán si banwáˈ The weather is again showing its fury (Said when there is a sudden storm or squall) [MDL] [+MDL 1865 (fig-) Kiminúróng‑kúsong namán si panahón The weather is again showing its fury (Said when there is a sudden storm or squall)]
rupóy MA-, -ON or MAG-, PAG--ON to cease doing s/t which annoys others; Rupóy ka na Cut it out now!; (fig-) Narupóy‑rupóy si banwáˈ The weather has calmed down [MDL]
The direction of the winds and the alternation between those that bring rain and those that bring clear skies and dry air is the main determining factor of seasonal change throughout the Philippines. This sets the rhythm for ordinary life, signaling a time for planting and a time for harvest, a time for repair and building, and a time for travel on the open seas. For most of Bikol, the drier months of March, April and May end with the coming of the southwest monsoon which brings moderate rains to the region, and coincides with the generation of typhoons in the Pacific which are drawn across the islands. When the rains of the southwest monsoon begin to diminish in the west of Luzon and the central and western Visayas during the month of September, the wind-borne rains of the Northeast monsoon begin to affect the Bikol region and the eastern Visasays, making October, November and December some of the wettest months of the year. With these winds and the changes they bring impinging so heavily on Philippine life, it is not surprising that it is the winds that impart their names to the cardinal and ordinal points of the compass.
Lisboa has relatively few entries dealing with the winds. Far more detailed information is provided by Sánchez de la Rosa for Waray and Encarnacion for Cebuano. Entries from these as well as the other central Philippines languages are incorporated in the discussion which follows. Unfortunately, while the terms may be shared, their referents frequently differ.
The first sign that the seasons are in transition is a change in wind direction (sibwá), and once the change has set in, this new season is introduced by the term bugábog.
bugábog referring to the time or season a particular wind blows: Bugábog na amíhan ngunyán Now is it is the season of the amíhan; bugábog na habágat the season of the habágat [MDL]
habágat southwest wind; -AN direction of the wind from the southwest [MDL: west wind; storm bearing winds blowing toward the east; MA- or MAG- to blow (the wind from the west)]
In Bikol salátan refers to a wind which blows from any of the four cardinal directions, namely, north, east, south and west. The attributions for this term are more specific in the other central Philippine languages. For Tagalog, it refers to the wind from the southeast. In Waray and Hiligaynon, reference is to the south wind. The same reference is given for Cebuano, although Encarnacion's detailed entry reveals a somewhat more complex citation. He indicates that for most of the local inhabitants, salátan refers to any wind that blows from the east, south or the west, in other words, the southern arc of winds. For others, however, it refers to the wind from the west. For a wind specifically from the south or southeast Encarnacion cites batong gala, which he also defines as winds which blow over land as opposed to those coming in from the sea.
For Tagalog, the wind from the north, as well as the direction, is hilaga. The wind from the north-northeast, as defined in the 1754 edition, is hilagang mababalak la'ot with the additional segment giving the probable meaning 'to probe the reaches of the open sea'. The 1860 edition defines this simply as the 'northeast wind', an unexplained revision. In both editions the northeast wind is given as balas or sabalas, a term shared with Kapampangan where only the affixed form, sabalas, is cited.
The term hilaga is most probably a borrowing of the Brunei Malay iraga where reference is to the winds of the northeast monsoon which blow strongly across the South China Sea from December to February. It is a term still used in Brunei to refer to the season when fishermen restrict themselves to the more protected areas along the coast rather than risk the turbulence of the open sea.
In the Visayas, the east wind in Waray is dumagsa, a direction represented by the term utala in Cebuano. Also found across the Visayan languages is the term kanaway which appears with two different meanings. For Hiligaynon it refers to the wind from the north, while in Cebuano and Waray, it is the wind from the northwest. Sánchez de la Rosa adds that for Samar it is the most frightening of winds for it heralds the arrival of typhoons. This term is further expanded in Cebuano to kanaway sa habagat for winds from the south-southeast, and kanaway sa amihan for winds from the north-northwest. Additionally, in Waray kabunghan are the winds from the northeast  and in Hiligaynon, sulang are the winds from the north-northeast.
For Bikol, dúros is 'wind', a form somewhat unique among the central Philippine central languages where the general term is either angin or hangin. The final vowel and consonant, ‑os, appears to be a repetitive onomatopoetic element in Bikol for terms relating to the wind, something which will become obvious as the discussion proceeds.
Early in the formation of a typhoon warm water from the surface of the ocean evaporates and rises to a point where it cools and condenses to from clouds and rain. As the warm air rises, it creates an area of low pressure beneath it. The cooler air surrounding this rushes in and is warmed at the ocean's surface. It then also rises. As this cycle progresses, the system becomes stronger and more intense. The spinning effect seen in a typhoon is caused by the rotation of the earth with the winds of a low pressure system spinning anti-clockwise in the northern hemisphere and clockwise in the southern. This change of wind direction as a typhoon moves across land is noted (wúros), with winds coming from the northwest signaling the approach of a typhoon, and winds from the east or southeast signaling its end (see Section 4(i)).
bábaw MAG-, I- to place s/t over s/t else; to put s/t on top; MAG-, -AN to cover s/t, placing s/t on top; to place s/t so that it overlaps with s/t else; MAGKA- to overlap
salibóng MA- or MAG- to run from one place to another as if trying to escape a pursuer; MA-, -ON or MAG-, PAG--ON to chase after s/o or s/t that runs from place to place trying to escape; to run after s/o for a particular reason [MDL]
ibóng SA on the other side [MDL: on the other side, generally of a river; MA-, -ON to do s/t on one side and then the other (as slapping one cheek and then the other); MA-, I- to place s/t on the opposite side; MA-, -AN to place s/t in front of s/t else or on the other side; MAPA-, PA--ON to go to the other side to get s/t; to send s/o to the other side; MAPAPAG- to send s/o to the other side; MAG-, PAG--AN to place two things on opposite sides; to take s/t with both hands; to do s/t with two feet or two hands; MAG-, IPAG- to place things on opposite sides; MAG-, PAG--ON to go to the opposite side for a particular reason; ibóng‑ibóng MAG- to play or do s/t with both hands]
lumód dolphin, porpoise (typ- marine mammal) [+MDL: the appearance of this mammal in the sea is said to signal the approach of a storm]
In Hiligayonon we have alimpulos alternating with alipulos for the meaning 'whirlwind', and in Cebuano, alimpulos 'whirlwind'. Here we clearly have a prefix of the form aliN‑ (see above) which generally derives a noun showing similarities to the root. Encarnacion, in his Cebuano dictionary, includes a separate listing for alin‑ which he defines as a particle which, in combination with a second particle, ‑in‑, creates verbs of 'transformation'. The infix ‑in‑ (which is always prefixed if the following form begins with a vowel), is the verbal element. Alin‑ is the prefix indicating the result of the transformation, and so an analysis of 'similarity' appears to hold.
unós tornado, whirlwind; MA- or MAG- to have a tornado; -AN: unosán or unsán to be struck by a whirlwind; (fig-) Garó kitá inunsán It's as if we have been struck by a tornado (Said when one has had a lot of guests) [MDL]
aliwuswós squall, whirlwind; IGWÁ or MAY to have a squall; MAG- to develop into a squall; -AN to be affected by a squall or whirlwind (a particular area); I- to be drawn up or carried away by a whirlwind [+MDL: MA- or MAG- to develop into a whirlwind or waterspout; (PAG-)-AN to be affected by a whirlwind or waterspout (a particular area); I(PAG)- to be draw up into a whirlwind or waterspout]
alusúˈos squall, whirlwind; MA- or MAG- to form (a whirlwind, heavy squall); (PAG-)-AN to be affected by such a phenomenon (a particular area); I(PAG)- to be sucked up or carried away by a squall or whirlwind; (fig-) Iminalusúˈos siyá rugáring so‑baˈgó She was carrying on just a moment ago, but her anger has now passed; Garó na iminalusúˈos si kuyán That person is like a whirlwind (Meaning: He's quick on his feet) [MDL]
lagbót a strong gust of wind; MA- or MAG- to blow in this way (the wind); (PAG-)-ON to be blown by a strong gust of wind [MDL]
pagusúpos the sound of a strong wind; MA- or MAG- to make this sound; -AN to be affected by such a sound (a place) [MDL]
bagusbós the sound of the wind blowing through a room, entering through cracks, crevices or other openings; MA-or MAG- to make such a sound (the wind) [MDL]
surót MAKA- to enter through a window or opening (rain, wind, the sun); MA- to get wet by blowing rain (s/o or s/t); MA--AN to get wet (an area) [MDL]
talapás MAKA-, MA--AN to rain into a house; to enter into a house (rain); MA- to get wet when rain blows into a house [MDL]
hagubúhob roaring sound of a strong wind, raging seas; MA- or MAG- to make such a sound; (PAG-)-AN to emanate from a particular place (such a sound); Hagubúhob na iníng talínga ko There is a roaring sound in my ears [MDL]
harápay MA- or MAG- to grow calm (the weather after a storm); to abate (strong winds); (PAG-) -AN to experience calmer weather (a place, a person) (fig-) Naghaharápay pa nang gayód an daghán ko It's like my abdomen is still calming down (Said when one still feels stomach discomfort) [MDL]
tangóng calm, still (referring to a time with no wind); MA- or MAG- to grow calm; to be still; to abate (the wind); (PAG-)-AN to experience a time of calm or stillness (a place, a person) [MDL]
línaw MA- clear ... [+MDL: MA- still, calm, tranquil (a day without wind, rain); clear (water); MA-, -ON or MAG-, PAG--ON to clear up (the weather); to become still, calm; (PAG-)-AN to enjoy the calm, stillness or tranquillity of the day (a person); MAKA- to bring about a calm or tranquil feeling]
huyóp‑huyóp MAG- to blow (wind); huyóp‑huyóp kan dúros a gust of wind [MDL: huyóp MA- or MAG- to blow gently (the wind); to have a breeze; (PAG-)-AN to be blown by a gentle breeze]
haguwuhó a swishing sound (such as that made by a whip or a switch of wood, a fishing line rubbing against the side of a boat when pulled by a fish); the sound of the wind whistling through the branches of a tree; MAG- to make this sound [MDL]
parangásan an area exposed to the wind [MDL]
tampák exposed (a boat, a port); exposed to the wind; -AN an area exposed to the wind [MDL]
sárag MA-, MA--AN to break off from a tree (a branch); MAKA-, MA- to break a branch off a tree (as the wind) [MDL]
rampíng inclined, tilted, leaning to one side; MA- to be inclined or leaning (as a tree blown partially over by a strong wind) [MDL]
If we can speculate for a moment, there is a fourth form which completes the existing set of three which has either an internal glottal stop or h. That form is buhól which is a 'slip knot' or 'bowknot' and describes a knot where a loop is formed at the end. Can tikmuhól refer to a time when things are tied down, as on the approach of a typhoon? As mentioned, this is speculation.
buhól slipknot, bowknot; a knot with a loop at the end; MA-, -ON or MAG-, PAG--ON to tie s/t with a such a knot MA-, -AN or MAG-, PAG--AN to tie s/t to s/t else with such a knot [MDL]
hápay MA- or MAG- to fall over when blown by the wind; MA- to be knocked over by the wind (rice, reeds, grasses, small trees or shrubs); MAKA- to knock over reeds, shrubs (the wind) [MDL]
hayóp MAG-, -ON to blow s/t away; MAG-, -AN to blow on s/t [+MDL: MA-, -ON or MAG-, PAG- -ON to blow on s/t (such as a fire; (fig-) Garó pinaghayóp iníng tinanóm It is as if these plants have been blown on (Said when plants have grown, showing the effects of the wind)]
ragtíˈos creaking sound of wood when houses shake in an earthquake or move in a strong wind; MA- or MAG- to make such a sound [MDL]
tanyóg MAG-, -ON to shake s/t with force, to jolt or jar s/t; MAKA-, MA- to get jolted, jarred [+MDL: MA-, -ON or MAG-, PAG--ON to make s/t shake (such as when entering a poorly built house, or climbing a small tree); MAKA-, MA- to shake (from a gust of wind, the blast of a piece of artillery]
pálid MAG- or MAKA- or I- to be blown away or carried away by the wind [+MDL: MA-, I- or MAG-, IPAG- to blow or carry s/t away (the wind); MA-, -AN or MAG-, PAG--AN to blow things away in a particular area (the wind); PAG- the carrying off of s/t by the wind; (fig-) an aswáng: Habóˈ kong makipagbaláyi kaiyán pálid na mga táwo I don't want my child to marry into a family of aswáng]
The general term for clouds in Bikol is panganúron. The root word here is clearly ánod and the prefix-suffix combination of pang‑on is from the general affix series. In modern Bikol, ánod refers to the current of water and its effect on floating items. While Lisboa does not have ánod with this meaning as a headword entry, it can be found in the other central Philippine languages with the same reference as that in modern Bikol. Only in Hiligaynon is there also a reference to clouds. Panganor is defined as non rain-bearing clouds which are carried on the wind. Dalás describes the quick movement of such clouds in Bikol.
ánod MAG- to bob on the surface of the water; I- to get carried away by the current; to drift; to be adrift; MAGPA-, PA--ON or MAGPA-, IPA- to set s/t adrift; also anód‑ánod.
dalás MA- quick, referring to metal which liquefies quickly when heated, clouds which move quickly across the sky when driven by the wind; MA- or MAG- to liquefy quickly (metal when heated in a process of forming alloys with gold or silver) [MDL]
alupúˈop mist or low-lying fog over the mountains or lakes which rises at night; MA- or MAG- to rise (such mist or fog); -AN to be covered in such mist or fog; syn‑ alapáˈap [MDL]
Fogs or mists are common in the morning (ambón) for this is a time when the ground has had a long period of overnight cooling. If there is enough moisture which condenses in the air, fogs can become quite dense (dampóg). Each of these terms has changed somewhat over time with dampóg now referring to fog more generally, and the meaning of ambón extended to include dew.
dampóg foggy; moist; MAG- to become foggy; MA--AN to get caught in a fog [+MDL: dense fog; MA- or MAG- to become increasingly foggy]
puróg‑puróg MANG- to be wet with dew, mist: Puróg‑puróg na akó I'm wet with dew; Puróg‑puróg ka na doy You are very wet with dew [MDL]
malaymáˈ MA- moist, damp; referring to soil, rocks, wood (not clothing); MA- or MAG- to become moist, damp; (PAG-)-AN to be wet with moisture or dampness [MDL]
lánag‑lánag MA- or MAG- to drip or collect (water, as from a saturated sponge or from moss saturated with dew); (PAG-)-AN to be saturated with water; Lánag‑lánag na The water is really dripping [MDL]
rumárom MA- cloudy, overcast; describing a time when either the sun or the moon is obscured by clouds; leaden (the color of the sky on stormy days); dim (light); murky; MAG- to become cloudy, overcast [+MDL: MA- or MAG- to be overcast; to burn dimly with poor light (a candle); Marumárom an banwáˈ The weather is overcast]
daˈgóm MA- cloudy, overcast; MAG- or -UMIN- to grow cloudy; to become overcast [+MDL: dagóm heavy dark clouds signaling the imminent arrival of a heavy squall or whirlwind; MA- or MAG- to move closer together (such heavy, dark clouds)]
dáˈay MA- or MAG- to become obscured (the sun); (PAG-)-AN to become darkened when the sun is obscured (a particular area); NAKA-: nakakadáˈay obscured (the sun) [MDL]
dangyáp MA- or MAG- to block the light of the sun or moon (clouds, smoke); to obscure the sun or moon; to cover gold, diminishing its gleam (as soot); (PAG-)-AN to become obscured: the sun or moon by clouds, a mirror by steam, gold by soot; MAPA-, PA--AN to steam up a mirror; to take the shine off gold [MDL]
The cycle of monsoonal rains comes annually to the Philippines. For most of the Bikol region, these rains start in early June with the arrival of the southwest monsoon and continue into January, with the most significant rainfall occurring in October, November and December carried on the winds of the northeast monsoon.
There are signs that the dry weather is about to end and the wet about to set in. Aside from the increasing frequency of late afternoon storms triggered by a build up of clouds, fish begin to spawn, something also seen as an harbinger of the coming change (gáwad‑gáwad).
alingáhot MA- warm, humid; MÁGIN MA- to become warm [MDL: MA- warm (one's clothing); MA-, MA--AN to feel uncomfortably warm due to the clothes one is wearing; var- aringáhot]
harasáhas MA- warm and humid; muggy, sultry; MAG- to become sultry; KA--AN humidity [MDL: the feeling of great distress or discomfort accompanying a fever-producing illness or drunkenness; MA- or MAG- to have a high fever; (PAG-)-AN to feel the effects of a fever or drunkenness; var- arasáhas]
lípot MA- chilly, cool, cold; ... MAG- to become chilly, cool; -ON or MA- to feel cold; MAGPA-, PA--ON to chill s/t; to make s/t cold; PAGKA- coldness, chill; TIG- winter [+MDL: MA--ON: maliliptón very cold; (PAG-)-AN: (pag)liptán to have chills (as after a fever)]
dunág rain, said in annoyance or anger in place of urán; var- dusnág
lagbóng describing a heavy shower that suddenly falls; MA- or MAG- to rain suddenly and heavily; (PAG-)-AN to be hit by a sudden shower; (fig-) Kalagbóngan na magtarám ni kuyán This person just blurts things out [MDL]
dagarháˈ MA- or MAG- to have a sudden downpour (with thunder); to have a sun shower (accompanied by thunder); (PAG-)-ON to become wet in such a shower; (PAG-)-AN to be affected by such a shower (a particular area) [MDL]
parág a heavy shower with large, widely-spaced drops of rain; MA- or MAG- to rain in such a way; (PAG-)-AN to be caught in such a rain [MDL]
tayháp MAKA- to strike (lightning); MA--AN to be struck by lightning [MDL]
lintíˈ lightning; MAG- to flash (lightning); to have lightning; -AN or MA--AN to be struck by lightning [+MDL: thunder or lightning; MA- or MAG- to have a flash of lightning, a clap of thunder; PAG- a flash of lightning; Ngípon nin lintíˈ hail, hailstones; (fig-) Garó na naglilintíˈ si kuyán That person has a resounding, thunderous voice]
parák‑parák a loud sound such as that of thunder; MA- or MAG- to make such a sound; to have thunder and lightning; (PAG-)-AN to be affected by such a sound; Harí ka dihán sa pantáw; parák‑parakán ka Get off the porch; you'll be struck by lightning; (fig-) Síˈisay iyán parák‑parák na? Who is making that thundering noise? (Said when one defecates with a lot of wind) [MDL]
daguldól thunder; MAG- to thunder [MDL: the sound of distant thunder; MA- or MAG- to make this sound (distant thunder); (PAG-)-AN to arise from a particular place (such a sound) [MDL]
daguˈróˈ rumbling sound of thunder far in the distance (a sound more like the rumble of a kettle drum); MA- or MAG- to make this sound (very distant thunder); (PAG-)-AN to hear such a sound; to reach a particular area (such rumbling) [MDL]
takróg din, noise, racket; MA- noisy (voices, traffic); MAG- to become noisy, make a racket [MDL: rumbling sound of thunder far in the distance (a sound more like the rumble of a kettle drum); MA- or MAG- to make this sound (very distant thunder)]
kurób‑kurób the murmur of a crowd of people; the rumble of distant thunder; the sound made when covering the ears; MA- or MAG- to make this sound [MDL]
gaságas rain storms which come from the north, generally in the month of December; MA- or MAG- to approach (such storms); (PAG-)-ON to be affected by such storms [MDL]
dungdóng MA- or MAG- to rain heavily; (PAG-) -AN to be drenched in a heavy rain (a place, things) [MDL]
dukádok the heaviest part of a downpour; MA- or MAG- to be pelting down or pouring with rain; Maglalakáw ka kaiyán na nadukádok pa an urán? You're going to go out for a walk while it's still the height of the storm?; (PAG)-AN to be exposed to heavy rain (a person, place) [MDL]
bagukbók the sound of a heavy downpour; MA- or MAG- to make such a sound (a heavy shower, rain): Bagukbók na an urán The rain is really heavy [MDL]
lapaták splat; MAG- to fall with a splat (as large drops of rain falling on a roof); to fall and make this sound [+MDL: MA- or MAG- to make this sound (as large drops of rain); (PAG-)-AN to reverberate with this sound (as a roof)]
agawáˈaw the sound made by swiftly flowing water, a waterfall or water poured from one container to another; also used to describe the sound of a heavy rain; MA- or MAG- to make such a sound; Agawáˈaw na What a loud sound the water is making; Agawáˈaw na iníng urán The rain is loud [MDL]
barisbís MAG- to flow or run, referring only to rain water which runs from a roof; -AN eaves [MDL: MA- or MAG- to overflow from the gutters of a roof (rainwater); -AN: rain gutters]
guˈób inundation, flood (small, causing by the overflowing of a river); MA- or MAG- to flood (a river); (PAG-)-AN to be inundated, flooded (land around a river) [MDL]
lapáy MA- or MAG- to overflow (water, rising to unusually high levels due to a storm, heavy rain a high tide); (PAG-)-ON or (PAG-)-AN to be inundated by such water (an area) [MDL]
lantóp MAG- to overflow (water); ‑ON to be covered with water; to be inundated; MAKA- to overflow; MAKA-, MA--AN to overflow onto s/t; to pass beyond set bounds [+MDL: MA- or MAG- to overflow (as a river breaking its banks after an unusually heavy rain); MA-, -AN or MAG-, PAG--AN to flood a particular area (a river breaking its banks, an unusually high tide); to breach (as defenses); to pierce armor, a shield; (PAG-)-ON to be inundated; to be wounded when a weapon is able to piece a shield or armor]
tagithí a light rain, drizzle; MA- or MAG- to drizzle; (PAG-)-AN to get wet in a light rain; var- tagití [MDL]
apgí MAG- to drizzle, shower; MA--AN to be caught in a drizzle or shower [MDL: a sprinkling of rain which blows in through windows, doors; MA- or MAG- to blow in (such rain); (PAG-)-AN or MA--AN to be dampened by such rain; (fig-) MA--AN to be tainted by s/t bad which does not directly involve you: Garó na kitá naapgihán It is as if we have become associated with s/t bad]
húbay (PAG-)-AN to experience a break in the bad weather (a place); to feel a period of relief (a person from pain, illness); to have a period of clarity (one suffering a mental illness); MA- or MAG- to clear or stop momentarily (wind, rain); to give some let-up or respite (pain, illness); húbay‑húbay MA- to have a short break or interval [MDL]
tibwás MA- or MAG- to clear up; to become fine (the weather); (PAG-)-AN to have good weather (a place, a person) [MDL]
timáw pools of water which remain after a heavy rain, or water which flows into a depression in the ground and remains there before evaporating; MA- or MAG- to form small pools; to collect in puddles (water); MA-, -AN or MAG-, PAG--AN to form (puddles) or collect (water) in a particular area [MDL]
tingáting a poor season, a poor harvest; scarcity in the yield of rice: Tingáting an naˈáni ko My harvest was poor; MÁGIN to become poor (the harvest) [MDL: the long dry period which follows the rainy season: Tingáting na iníng húraw ngunyán What a long dry spell this is]
The night sky changed with the movement of the earth around the sun, and with this movement came a change in the seasons. Constellations became associated with the yearly cycle of wet and dry for their appearance and position were always predictable. Many of these arrangements of stars were given names which represented their form or outline. Some of these were associated with constellations in the west by the early lexicographers, but many others remained unique to their local areas, differing from language to language.
The identification of the planets was harder, for their position was less predictable as they wandered in and out among the constellations. Venus was the most readily named planet either as the morning star, or the evening star, or both, but recognition of the other planets remained elusive. The tailed movement of comets and the more explosive movement of meteors were also identified, although the single term found across the central Philippine languages to identify both made specific identification difficult.
The Earth was most commonly referred to as a circle or sphere, although there were some variations. It was also seen as an uninterrupted expanse of land extending beyond the visible as well as a form ending in a curve at the horizon.
The 'sun' and 'day' were at first represented by the same term in Bikol, although over time these meanings became differentiated. The moon and its phases received their clearest and most detailed descriptions in two of the central Visayan languages, however, terms for its waxing and waning were common in all. An eclipse, particularly of the moon, gave rise to fear and speculation, with ceremonies held to prevent its occurrence, or to restore it to its former self. The primary directions of east and west were named, respectively, as the areas where the light of the sun could first be seen, or where the sun sank somewhere into the sea.
The rise and fall of the tides came with predicable regularity and the association of this movement with the alignment of the earth, sun and moon, at least when the moon was full, was clearly made. Weather was referred to by the early term banwá', coincident with the same term for 'town' or 'country', although this was to change in the nineteenth century when panahón came to replace it.
The seasons were defined by the rains, and the rains came with a change in the winds. It was the all important directions from which these winds blew that gave their names to the cardinal and ordinal points of the compass. Winds from the west were the most feared. Not only was this the direction of the strongest storms, but it was the direction from which the winds of the typhoons started to blow. Winds from the east or southeast were the most welcome, for these were gentler, also signaling the passing of a typhoon.
The rains for Bikol started with the arrival of the southwest monsoon in late May or early June. These winds would dominate the weather until early October. Although this month would see the end of the rains in the western Visayas and the western provinces of Luzon, the rains would only intensify for Bikol with the arrival of the northwest monsoon which brought even more wet and overcast days.
Days of increasing humidity culminating in afternoons of heavy, thunderous storms would signal the approach of the wet. The heat would eventually moderate as the sky became covered in denser and more widespread clouds. Then, as it came in May or June, by February there were signs that the rains were again waning, diminishing in intensity and becoming less frequent. One cycle was coming to an end, only to start again, bringing a change in season.
 Alonso de Mentrida, Diccionario de la lengua Bisaya, Hiliguena, y Haraya de la Isla de Panay, Manila: La Imprenta de D. Manuel y Felix Dayot, 1841, see bato nga halin.
 Antonio Sánchez de la Rosa, Diccionario español - bisaya para las provincias de Sámar y Leyte, 3rd edition, aumentado por Antonio Valeriano, Manila: Santos y Bermal, 1914, see panoy.
 'Mercury and Jupiter,' Universe Today (accessed 8 September 2016).
 'Venus, the Morning star and Evening Star,' Universe Today (accessed 8 September 2016); 'Venus,' Wikipedia, English, n.d. (accessed 8 September 2016).
 Juan José Noceda, and Pedro de Sanlucar, Vocabulario de la lengua Tagala, 1754, Manila: Imprenta de Ramirez y Giraudier, Reimpreso 1860, see bitoin.
 Fr. Leo James English, Tagalog - English Dictionary, Manila: Congregation of the Most Holy Redeemer, 1986, see tala.
 Juan de Plasencia, 'Customs of the Tagalogs,' 1589, in Blair and Robertson, vol. 7, p. 186.
 Sánchez de la Rosa, Sámar y Leyte, see aga, capanusan, panos.
 Juan Feliz de la Encarnacion,, Diccionario español- bisaya, Manila: Imprenta de los amigos del pais, á cargo de M. Sanchez, 1852, see macabanglos, banglos, cabogason, bogas.
 Noceda and de Sanlucar, Tagala, see tanglao daga, daga.
 Fr. Diego Bergaño, Vocabulario de la lengua Pampanga, en romance, 1732, Manila: Imprenta de Ramirez y Giraudier, Reimpreso 1860, see sulungdaguis, daguis.
 de la Encarnacion, Bisaya, see cahaponanon, hapon.
 de Mentrida, Bisaya, Hiliguena, y Haraya, see cahapunauan nga bitoon, bagio bagio, bagio.
 Noceda and de Sanlucar, Tagala, see bitoin; de la Encarnacion, Bisaya, see bitoon; de Mentrida, Bisaya, Hiliguena, y Haraya, see bitoon; Sánchez de la Rosa, Sámar y Leyte, see bitoon; Bergaño, Pampanga, see bituin.
 Sánchez de la Rosa, Sámar y Leyte, see bulalacao; de la Encarnacion, Bisaya, see bolalacao.
 de Mentrida, Bisaya, Hiliguena, y Haraya, see bulalacao.
 Bergaño, Pampanga, see bulalacao.
 Noceda and de Sanlucar, Tagala, see bulalacao.
 de la Encarnacion, Bisaya, see molo polo; de Mentrida, Bisaya, Hiliguena, y Haraya, see molo polo.
 'Pléyades (astronomía),' Wikipedia, Spanish, n.d. (accessed 20 September 2016).
 Sir John F. W. Herschel, Tratado de Astronomia, Imprenta de la Sociedad Literaria y tipográfica, 1884, p. 338.
 Francisco Ignacio Alcina, The Muñoz text of Alcina's History of the Bisayan Islands, 1668, part 1; transliteration from a microfilm of the Spanish text in the Biblioteca de Palacio, Madrid, by Victor Baltazar; Book 3, p. 45.
 Sánchez de la Rosa, Sámar y Leyte, see marocapoc.
 Noceda and de Sanlucar, Tagala, see polonpolon.
 de Plasencia, 'Customs of the Tagalogs,' in Blair and Robertson, vol. 7, p. 186.
 Noceda and de Sanlucar, Tagala, see polon.
 Noceda and de Sanlucar, Tagala, see balatic.
 'Cinturón de Orión,' Wikipedia, Spanish, n.d. (accessed 28 September 2016).
 de Plasencia, 'Customs of the Tagalogs,' in Blair and Robertson, vol. 7, p. 186, 189.
 de la Encarnacion, Bisaya, see balatic.
 John U. Wolff, A Dictionary of Cebuano Visayan. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines, 1971, see balatik.
 Sánchez de la Rosa, Sámar y Leyte, see balatic; Alcina, The Muñoz text of Alcina's History of the Bisayan Islands, 1668, part 1; Book 3, p. 45.
 'El_Carro_(asterismo),' Wikipedia, Spanish, n.d. (accessed 28 September 2016).
 de Mentrida, Bisaya, Hiliguena, y Haraya, see balatic.
 Dante L. Ambrosio, 'Balatik: Katutubong bituin ng mga Pilipino,' Philippine Social Science Review, vol. 57, no. 1-4, 2005, pp. 1-28.
 Ambrosio, Balátik and Moropóro, Stars of Philippine skies, Philippine Daily Inquirer, first posted 02/02/2008, (accessed 25 October 2016).
 Sánchez de la Rosa, Sámar y Leyte, see tolong.
 Your Sky, by John Walker (accessed 22 October 2016); the sky over Naga City can be found by changing the coordinates to 13.6218 N latitude and 123.1948 E longitude and the date to 2016/06/15 (for mid-June) and the time to 19.00 for early evening.
 Sánchez de la Rosa, Sámar y Leyte, see pogot.
 de Mentrida, Bisaya, Hiliguena, y Haraya, see casing; de la Encarnacion, Bisaya, see casing; Sánchez de la Rosa, Sámar y Leyte, see casing.
 The Muñoz text of Alcina's History of the Bisayan Islands, part 1; Book 3, p. 45.
 Noceda and de Sanlucar, Tagala, see pasil, camaliyng, liing.
 Noceda and de Sanlucar, Tagala, see balais; 'Ursa Minor,' Wikipedia, English, n.d. (accessed 15 October 2016).
 Noceda and de Sanlucar, Tagala, see macapanis; 'Arturo (estrella),' Wikipedia, Spanish, n.d. (accessed 15 Ocrober 2016); 'Arcturus,' Wikipedia, English, n.d. (accessed 15 October 2016).
 Noceda and de Sanlucar, Tagala, see bitoin, bulansaguan.
 Noceda and de Sanlucar, Tagala, see bula, saguan, bulang saguan.
 Noceda and de Sanlucar, Tagala, see bitoin, may carang, carang.
 de Mentrida, Bisaya, Hiliguena, y Haraya, see alimango; de la Encarnacion, Bisaya, see alimango.
 de Mentrida, Bisaya, Hiliguena, y Haraya, see manoc; de la Encarnacion, Bisaya, see manoc.
 de la Encarnacion, Bisaya, see solang; de Mentrida, Bisaya, Hiliguena, y Haraya, see sulang.
 'Climate: Iloilo City, ' Meteoblue (accessed 5 October 2016); Census of the Philippine Islands, Bulletin 2, The Climate of the Philippines, Department of Commence and Labor, Bureau of Census 1904, Rev. José Algué. S.J., Director of the Philippine Weather Bureau, p. 66.
 de la Encarnacion, Bisaya, see silib.
 de Mentrida, Bisaya, Hiliguena, y Haraya, see silib, balaguiohon.
 de la Encarnacion, Bisaya, see calalao, sag-ob.
 Sánchez de la Rosa, Sámar y Leyte, see libut, calibutan; de la Encarnacion, Bisaya, see libot, calibutan; de Mentrida, Bisaya, Hiliguena, y Haraya, see libot, calibotan.
 Noceda and de Sanlucar, Tagala, see libot, sangcalibotan.
 Sánchez de la Rosa, Sámar y Leyte, see nayap, canayapan, canay-pan.
 Noceda and de Sanlucar, Tagala, see daygdig, sangdaigdigan.
 Noceda and de Sanlucar, Tagala, see hilihid, hilihir.
 Bergaño, Pampanga, see yato.
 Noceda and de Sanlucar, Tagala, see arau; Sánchez de la Rosa, Sámar y Leyte, see adlao; de la Encarnacion, Bisaya, see adlao; de Mentrida, Bisaya, Hiliguena, y Haraya, see arlao; Bergaño, Pampanga, see adlao.
 R. O. Winstedt, Unabridged Malay-English Dictionary, Singapore: Kelly & Walsh Ltd, nd., see ledang.
 Noceda and de Sanlucar, Tagala, see bouan.
 '22° Halo,' Wikipedia, English, n.d. (accessed 22 October 2016).
 '22º Halo,' Wikipedia, English, n.d. (accessed 22 October 2016).
] Sánchez de la Rosa, Sámar y Leyte, see bulan.
 Malcolm W. Mintz, Bikol Dictionary, vol. I: English-Bikol Index; vol. II: Bikol-English Dictionary, Australia: Indonesian/ Malay Texts, 2004, see Introduction, Section 6.9.
 Mintz, Bikol Dictionary, vol. I: English-Bikol Index, see Introduction, Section 6.19.
 Sánchez de la Rosa, Sámar y Leyte, see bulan.
 de la Encarnacion, Bisaya, see luna.
 de Mentrida, Bisaya, Hiliguena, y Haraya, see luna.
 Sanskrit Dictionary
 Noceda and de Sanlucar, Tagala, see laho; Bergaño, Pampanga, see lauo.
 Tomás Ortiz, Práctica del Ministério, ca. 1731, in Blair and Robertson, vol. 43, p. 112.
 Merito B. Espinas,, 'A critical study of the Ibalong, the Bikol folk epic fragment,' in Unitas, vol. 41, no. 2 (1968), pp. 173-249.
 de Mentrida, Bisaya, Hiliguena, y Haraya, see bacunaua.
 de la Encarnacion, Bisaya, see baconaoa; Sánchez de la Rosa, Sámar y Leyte, see bacunaua.
 'Lunar node,' Wikipedia, English, n.d. (accessed 15 October 2016).
 Sanskrit Dictionary.
 de la Encarnacion, Bisaya, see baconaoa; Sánchez de la Rosa, Sámar y Leyte, see colop.
 Sanskrit Dictionary .
 Sánchez de la Rosa, Sámar y Leyte, see lonop; de la Encarnacion, Bisaya, see lonop.
 Noceda and de Sanlucar, Tagala, see silang, silangan, lonod, calonoran.
 Sánchez de la Rosa, Sámar y Leyte, see sirang, sirangan, lonud, calundan; de la Encarnacion, Bisaya, see sirang, sirangan, lonud, calondan.
 Bergaño, Pampanga, see silang, aslag, albug.
 de Mentrida, Bisaya, Hiliguena, y Haraya, see subang, siblang, sirlang, calundan, lonor.
 Mintz, 'The Fossilized Affixes of Bikol,' Currents in Pacific Linguistics: Papers on Austronesian Languages and Ethnolinguistics in Honor of George W. Grace, ed. by Robert Blust, Canberra: Pacific Linguistics C-117, 1991, pp. 265-291, p. 276.
 Sánchez de la Rosa, Sámar y Leyte, see taac; de la Encarnacion, Bisaya, see taac.
 'Tide,' Wikipedia, English, n.d. (accessed 29 November 2016); 'Spring and Neap Tides,' National Ocean Service (accessed 29 November 2016).
 Sánchez de la Rosa, Sámar y Leyte, see banua; de la Encarnacion, Bisaya, see banoa; de Mentrida, Bisaya, Hiliguena, y Haraya, see banua.
 Noceda and de Sanlucar, Tagala, see banoua.
 Bergaño, Pampanga, see banua.
 Sánchez de la Rosa, Sámar y Leyte, see amihan; de la Encarnacion, Bisaya, see amihan; Bergaño, Pampanga, see amian.
 de Mentrida, Bisaya, Hiliguena, y Haraya, see amihan; Noceda and de Sanlucar, Tagala, see amihan.
 de la Encarnacion, Bisaya, see timog; de Mentrida, Bisaya, Hiliguena, y Haraya, see timog.
 Noceda and de Sanlucar, Tagala, see timog; Sánchez de la Rosa, Sámar y Leyte, see timug.
 Bergaño, Pampanga, see timog; 'Vendaval,' Weather Online (accessed 6 November 2016).
 Winstedt, Unabridged Malay-English Dictionary, see barat.
 ] Noceda and de Sanlucar, Tagala, see habagat; de Mentrida, Bisaya, Hiliguena, y Haraya, see habagat.
 [ Sánchez de la Rosa, Sámar y Leyte, see habagat, habagat sa natondan, habagat sa calondan, habagat sa cabarian, habagat sa sugbo.
 de la Encarnacion, Bisaya, see habagat.
 Noceda and de Sanlucar, Tagala, see salatan.
 Sánchez de la Rosa, Sámar y Leyte, see salatan; de Mentrida, Bisaya, Hiliguena, y Haraya, see salatan.
 de la Encarnacion, Bisaya, see salatan, batonggala.
 Noceda and de Sanlucar, Tagala, see hilaga, hilagang mababalaclaot, balac, laot, balas; Bergaño, Pampanga, see sabalas
 H. B. Marshall, with notes by J. C. Moulton, 'A Vocabulary of Brunei Malay,' Journal of the Straits Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, No. 83, April 1921, pp. 45-74, p. 57; Ooi Keat Gin, ed., Brunei - History, Islam, Society and Contemporary Issues, London and New York: Routledge, 2016, p. xxvii, 169.
 Sánchez de la Rosa, Sámar y Leyte, see dumagsa, de la Encarnacion, Bisaya, see otala.
 de Mentrida, Bisaya, Hiliguena, y Haraya, see canauay; Sánchez de la Rosa, Sámar y Leyte, see canauay; de la Encarnacion, Bisaya, see canauay.
 de la Encarnacion, Bisaya, see canauay sa habagat, canauay sa amihan.
 Sánchez de la Rosa, Sámar y Leyte, see cabonghan.
 de Mentrida, Bisaya, Hiliguena, y Haraya, see sulang.
 Bergaño, Pampanga, see angin.
 Noceda and de Sanlucar, Tagala, see hangin; de la Encarnacion, Bisaya, see canauay sa habagat, hangin; Sánchez de la Rosa, Sámar y Leyte, see hangin; de Mentrida, Bisaya, Hiliguena, y Haraya, see hangin.
 Sanskrit Dictionary .
 Noceda and de Sanlucar, Tagala, see bagyo; Sánchez de la Rosa, Sámar y Leyte, see baguio; de la Encarnacion, Bisaya, see bagio; de Mentrida, Bisaya, Hiliguena, y Haraya, see bagio; Bergaño, Pampanga, see bag-guio.
 'How do Hurricanes Form,' NASA Space-place (accessed 18 November 2016); 'What Causes Typhoons?' Tech FAQ (accessed 18 November 2016); 'Cyclone,' Wikipedia, English, n.d. (accessed 22 November 2016).
 Mintz, 'The Fossilized Affixes of Bikol', p. 283.
 Noceda and de Sanlucar, Tagala, see dayao / salindayao; papar / salinparpar; de la Encarnacion, Bisaya, see abut / saliabot; Sánchez de la Rosa, Sámar y Leyte, see botong / salimbotong; orug / salinorug; Bergaño, Pampanga, see gutgut / saligutgut, padpad / salipadpad.
 Dolphin Quest (accessed 18 November 2016).
 Sánchez de la Rosa, Sámar y Leyte, see alimpoporos, aliporos, poros.
 de Mentrida, Bisaya, Hiliguena, y Haraya, see alimpolos, alipolos.
 de la Encarnacion, Bisaya, see alimpolos, alin.
 Noceda and de Sanlucar, Tagala, see bohaui.
 Mintz, Bikol Dictionary, vol. I: English-Bikol Index, see Introduction, Section 6.5.
 Noceda and de Sanlucar, Tagala, see anod; Bergaño, Pampanga, see anod in the Spanish-Kampangan Index and añyud in the dictionary proper; Sánchez de la Rosa, Sámar y Leyte, see anud; de la Encarnacion, Bisaya, see anod.
 de Mentrida, Bisaya, Hiliguena, y Haraya, see anor.
 Noceda and de Sanlucar, Tagala, see alapaap.
 Bergaño, Pampanga, see alapaap.
 Sánchez de la Rosa, Sámar y Leyte, see alapaap; de la Encarnacion, Bisaya, see alapaap.
 'Fog and Mist,' Weather Online (accessed 10 December 2016).
 'Dew,' Wikipedia, English, n.d. (accessed 10 December 2016).
 'Red Sky at Morning,' Wikipedia, English, n.d. (accessed 10 December 2016).
 'Naga City,' Weather Online (accessed 5 January 2017).
 Noceda and de Sanlucar, Tagala, see bahag hari, bahag subay, balangao; Bergaño, Pampanga, see pindan.
 Sánchez de la Rosa, Sámar y Leyte, see balangao; de la Encarnacion, Bisaya, see balangao; de Mentrida, Bisaya, Hiliguena, y Haraya, see balangao.