Intersections: Gender and Sexuality in Asia and the Pacific
Monograph 1: The Philippines at the Turn of the Sixteenth Century

Malcolm W. Mintz

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Chapter 12


The planets moved erratically across the sky compared with the more fixed positions of the stars. Of these plants, Venus was the one which could be most easily identified, and a discussion of this planet forms the heart of the first part of Section 1. The second part looks briefly at comets and meteors and the attempt made to distinguish between the two by the early lexicographers. In the third part are the constellations. These were given names, identifying groupings familiar to those in the west, and others which are completely new and possibly unknown. The names given to these arrangements of stars often vary from one language to another, giving rise to difficulties in arriving at a definitive identification. Terms for the earth and sky are presented in the fourth part, and in the fifth, the sun and moon. Discussed in some detail are the phases of the moon and the explanation presented when it falls into eclipse. Also included are the primary directions of east and west, determined by the rising and setting of the sun, moon and stars.

In Section 2 is a discussion of the tides, their rise and fall and the land they periodically cover and uncover as they move. Terms for the weather are presented in Section 3, mentioning a change in reference from the old to the modern language. This is followed by a longer section on the winds.

The winds bring the rain which determine the change in season. The directions from which they blow also give their names to the cardinal points of the compass. There is general agreement among the languages on these cardinal directions, but a greater difference occurs when it comes to the finer distinctions referred to as ordinals. The second part of Section 4 looks at the wind-borne storms, from the devastating typhoons to the more local tornados and whirlwinds. Also included here are the effects of the unforgiving winds on trees, crops and infrastructure.

The clouds is the topic of Section 5, looking at different densities and the relationship to mist, fog and dew. The final Section, 6, is rain. This includes rain carried on the prevailing winds blowing from the southwest as well as the northeast and locally formed thunder storms which produce sharp, heavy downpours which run in streams from the roofs of houses. Finally there is the lighter rain or drizzle which may signal the ending of the wet and the move again to a period of relative dry.

(i) Planets
The planets were noticed, but, with the exception of Venus, and possibly Mars, not identified. As planets move slowly across the sky, taking varying positions among the stars which appear in fixed positions from the Earth, they were generally called estrellas errantes 'wandering stars' by the early lexicographers. Lisboa does not record such star movements for Bikol. For Hiligaynon, however, Mentrida defines the term bato nga halin as 'wandering stars' referring, possibly, to any of the planets which can be seen from the Earth with the naked eye,[1] and for Waray, Antonio Sánchez de la Rosa defines panoy as 'a wandering star', identifying, possibly, just one single planet.[2] As there is no other information associated with this term, it is impossible to glean any identifying characteristics for this planet.

The planets which are visible with the naked eye from the Earth are Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn. Venus is generally independently identified. That leaves one of the last four of these planets as a possible referent for panoy, with Mercury the least likely of these. As it orbits so close to the sun, it would be visible for only a short time just before sunrise or just after sunset.[3]

Venus is usually identified by its appearance in the early morning or early evening, generally by different terms, indicating that it was seen not as the same planet (or star), but as two distinct objects. This can be explained as follows.

The orbit of Venus is within the orbit of the earth. It also has a position relatively close to the sun in the sky. When Venus trails the sun, it appears in the sky shortly after sunset when the sky is sufficiently dark. This is Venus as the evening star.

Venus, however, moves faster around the sun than the Earth, completing one orbit in 224.7 Earth days. Every 584 days it reaches its closest point to the earth and at this point may be said to 'overtake' the Earth. When this happens Venus moves to a position preceding the sun. It rises before the sun and remains in the sky until daylight making it increasingly difficult, although not impossible, to see. This is Venus as the morning star.[4]

Frequently only an assumption can be made about the identification of Venus. Lisboa, for example, defines nagsubáng as a large star. As the root of this word is subáng, which refers to the rising of the sun, moon, and stars in the east, a star rising in the east is very probably Venus which appears just before sunrise. This would be Venus as the morning star. There is no equivocation when it comes to the reference makakadamlág (see damlág) which clearly refers to Venus when it shines through the night.
    súbang MAG- to rise (the sun, moon, stars); -AN the east [+MDL: subáng MA- or MAG- to rise (the sun, moon, stars); MA-, -AN or MAG-, PAG--AN to rise in the east; -AN: subangán or sinusubangán the east; nagsubáng star (typ- large, possibly Venus)]

    damlág MAG- the whole night, overnight; MAGPA- to stay up the whole night; PA--AN a night light which burns until dawn [+MDL: MAG-, PAG--AN to spend the whole night doing s/t: Nagdamlág akóng diˈ matúrog I didn't sleep the whole night; -ON to be drunk the whole night; to be drunk from dusk to dawn; MAKA-: makakadamlág Venus, when visible through the night; daramlágon the full moon which shines through the night]
There is a mention in the Noceda Tagalog dictionary of the star tala under the general entry for bituˈin 'star', although there is no corresponding independent entry for this term elsewhere in the dictionary.[5] Fr. English in his modern Tagalog dictionary defines tala as a bright star,[6] but Plasencia in his Customs of the Tagalogs clearly defines this term as the morning star, Venus.[7]

For Waray two references are given, one of which, bituˈon sa kaagahan, is literally 'the morning star' which is always associated with Venus, and the second, kapanosan, is defined as Venus with no indication of its appearance in the morning or evening. The root here is panos which refers to something 'sour' or 'acidic', a root difficult to associate with the derived form.[8]

For Cebuano, we have an interesting parallel with Waray. There are two references to Venus as the morning star: makabanglos and kabugason. The root word for the first of these terms is banglos which again appears to have no relationship to the derived form. The meaning of banglos however, is 'to add a souring agent to something which is being salted or marinated', and that is where the parallel occurs with the form in Waray. The root word of the second term is bugas referring to unhusked rice or unshelled corn. Again, any relationship between the root and the derived form is hard to see.[9]

Venus as the evening star has specific references in four of the central Philippine languages. In Tagalog it is tanglaw dagá. Tanglaw is a 'torch', or, in its verbal form, 'to shine a light on something', and daga is a 'mouse' or 'rat'.[10] The relationship between this set of root words seems untenable unless we make an association between dusk and evening with the appearance of mice or rats. The same reference is found in Kapampangan where the evening star is sulong dagis. Sulo is a 'light' or 'torch', and verbally, 'to shine a light on something'. Dagis is a 'mouse' or 'rat'.[11]

For Cebuano, Venus as the evening star is kahaponanon. The root here is hapon meaning 'afternoon' or 'early evening'.[12] A similar entry is found for Hiligaynon, kahaponawan nga bituˈon, literally 'the evening star'. Hapon is, as in Cebuano, 'afternoon' or 'early evening'. There is, however, one further entry for the evening star in Hiligaynon, and that is bagio‑bagio. The non-reduplicated form, bagio, is the common word throughout the Philippines for 'storm' or 'typhoon' (see Section 4(ii)). Storms in this part of the Philippines are associated with winds coming from the west or southwest (see Section 4(i)), and since the evening star is seen in the west, this may be the origin of the term.[13]

There is a possibility that the planet Mars may have also been identified in Bikol. Bitúˈon is 'star', and its cognates can be found across Philippine languages.[14] The form of the Bikol entry, birí‑bitúˈon, generally indicates that something is similar to but not exactly like the root it is based on, in this case leading to an interpretation of something that is not quite a normal star. The definition given by Lisboa is more specific than this, identifying a 'painted star'. While this could refer to any star showing a colour different to those more commonly seen, such as the reddish-orange glow of Arcturus (see Section 1(iii)) it may also refer to Mars which appears with a reddish tinge in the sky.
    bitúˈon star (in the sky) [+MDL: -ON birí‑bitúˈon painted star, possibly Mars]

(ii) Comets and Meteors
Other celestial objects, apart from the sun and moon, which are recognisable in the sky are comets and meteors. Unfortunately, in the dictionary definitions, it is not always clear which of these is being identified. The term we are dealing with is bulalákaw, a term which is identical in all of the central Philippine languages.

The meaning of 'meteor' is clearest in Waray and Cebuano where it is defined both as 'meteor' and further explained as 'a small sphere or ball of fire'.[15] In Hiligaynon it is defined as 'a constellation of fire which blows up like a rocket'.[16] The definition in Kapampangan is less clear, with 'running star' possibly interpreted either as 'meteor' or 'comet'.[17] The definition in Bikol is 'comet', but the explanation of a star moving quickly through the sky and then, essentially, disappearing, describes more a meteor or shooting star than a comet. Only in Tagalog do we seem to have two distinct definitions. Bulalákaw is defined as a 'comet', but, as with Bikol, the description of 'burning vapour' may actually be a 'meteor'. The entry bituˈin may sumbol 'a star with a pennant or streamer (as on a ship)' is also defined as 'comet', and may indeed be such an object.[18]
    bulalákaw meteor, shooting star [MDL: a type of comet, one of those objects which seems to be like a star, moving quickly through the sky until it disappears, completely consumed]

(iii) Constellations
Groupings of stars have always been noticeable, with many of these being given names representing objects which they appear to represent. In the western tradition, these names go back millennia, named by Greek or Roman observers. In the Philippines, these names often differ depending on the language area, although there are also many instances where similarities can be observed across language groups.

Another variable is the ability of the lexicographers and others writing at the time to properly identify the constellations referred to by Philippine language terms. The possibility must certainly exist that identification errors were made and that this has led to certain inconsistencies in determining which specific constellations are being referred to. There will be examples of this in the discussion which follows.

The group of stars called the Pleiades is defined in Spanish as siete cabrillas 'the seven little goats' for Bikol, cabrillas 'the little goats' for Hiligaynon, and vulgo cabrillas 'a group of little goats' for Cebuano. The Bikol term is muró‑púro and the Hiligayon and Cebuano cognates, mulo‑pulo.[19] The name siete cabrillas appears to originate from the novel Don Quijote de la Mancha,[20] and vulgo cabrillas is associated with the Pleiades in Tratado de Astronomia, the Spanish translation of a work by John F. W. Herschel.[21]
    muró‑púro the constellation 'seven little goats' (in Western tradition, Pleiades, the seven daughters of Atlas metamorphosed as stars) [MDL]
Alcina identifies this constellation as marok‑purok and translates the Waray as hervidero de luces 'a cauldron of lights'.[22] The closest term found in the Sánchez de la Rosa dictionary is maro‑kapok which is the sound made by water, wind, or heavy rain.[23] What we have here is clearly a word representing the sound of seething water which has been applied to the appearance of the stars. Similar onomatopoetic terms are found across all of the central Philippine languages to refer to such sounds made by water.

The Pleiades in Tagalog is mapulon, a constellation identified by Noceda as cabrillas or pleyades,[24] and Plasencia as siete cabrillas.[25] The root word here is pulon which indicates a group of persons or things and undoubtedly refers to the grouping of the stars forming the constellation.[26]

Both Plasencia and Alcina associate the appearance of the Pleiades with a change of season. For Plasencia this is just a simple statement. Alcina explains that the occurrence of wet and dry seasons differs in different regions, but for some areas, the appearance of the Pleiades at its highest point in the sky is the time to start planting.

In the sky above the Visasays the Pleiades appears overhead sometime after midnight in mid-June. This would signal the start of planting in areas such as Panay and Cebu, but not necessarily Samar where the heaviest rains come with the Northeast monsoon and planting is most likely to take place some time in late December and early January. The particular change in season for the Tagalog region, indicated, but not specified, by Plasencia, would most likely be the same as for the central and western Visayas. Like Cebu, the Tagalog region has its predominant exposure to the southwest monsoon. Alcina also names other constellations which signal the start of the planting season: balatik and the Southern Cross.

The constellation Orion is identified by Lisboa as lúbang, which is also the term for the large wooden mortar used for pounding rice. In both Waray and Cebuano, lusong 'mortar' is also identified as a constellation. Sánchez de la Rosa defines this simply as a group of fixed stars, a definition which contributes little to its identification, and Encarnación identifies it as the northern constellation Osa Mayor 'The Great Bear' or 'The Big Dipper'. Orion and the Great Bear are clearly different celestial objects which occupy different positions in the sky. The discussion which follows will, unfortunately, not lend much clarity in an attempt to explain the differing names for these constellations.
    lúbang mortar used for grinding or pounding [MDL: large wooden mortar used for pounding rice]

    lúbang Orion (constellation) [MDL]
If we begin by looking at other possible identifications of Orion and The Great Bear, we find the term balátik. In five of the central Philippine languages under consideration here, this term is translated as balleston or ballesta and refers to a 'crossbow'. For Bikol, this is a type of bow which is set as a trap on a trail frequented by game and is most likely triggered, although no explicit trigger is mentioned, when a string or bar is tripped (see Chapter 17, 'Hunting and Trapping,' Section 5 (i)). This type of trap appears commonly throughout the Philippines, Malaysia and Indonesia. Lisboa does not associate this term with a constellation, although for Tagalog and the Visayan languages such an association is made.
    balátik snare, spring trap (typ- somewhat like a large crossbow, loaded with an arrow and set on a path frequented by game); MA-, -ON or MAG-, PAG--ON to hunt game with such a snare; MA-, -AN or MAG-, PAG--AN to place such a snare in a particular location; -AN: binalatíkan game caught with such a snare [MDL]
Noceda, for Tagalog, refers to a constellation of three stars as the tres Marias 'the Three Marias',[27] a term which is associated with the belt of Orion.[28] Plasencia, however, associates the term balatik with another arrangement of stars he refers to a 'The Great Bear', which is also 'The Big Dipper'.[29]

For Cebuano, Encarnación identifies balatik as simply a constellation.[30] John Wolff in his dictionary of modern Cebuano includes further information that the constellation comprises three stars in a row.[31] While this does not necessarily indicate that the three stars are those in the belt of Orion, this remains a possibility.

The two references for Waray by Sánchez de la Rosa and Alcina [32] relate this arrangement of stars to un carro 'a cart', a formation which is associated with the 'The Great Bear' or 'The Big Dipper'.[33] Alcina goes further to identify the appearance of this constellation as the signal for planting depending on how it is displayed in the sky. Looking to the north, the stars forming this constellation appear to take an 'erect' position toward the end of January, a time which could easily signal the planting of rice in areas dominated by the northeast monsoon. In the months previous to this, the constellation appears to be lying across the northern part of the sky.

The definition Mentrida presents for Hiligaynon is not helpful in clarifying matters. Balatik here is associated with the constellation astillejo 'Gemini' or 'The Twins'. There is also a second reference, cayado 'The Shepard's Crook' or 'Staff'. While this may possibly have other celestial referents it is likely that it is intended to be taken as a further reference to 'The Twins'.[34]

The constellations referred to as balatik and muró‑púro are discussed in some detail in 'Balatik: Katutubong bituin ng mga Pilipino' by Dante L. Ambrosio in the Philippine Social Science Review.[35] A version covering some of the same material was published in English in the Philippine Daily Inquirer and is available online.[36]

A constellation comprising three stars in a row and named turóng in Bikol is seen directly overhead in the early evening at the start of the typhoon season. The cognate form, tulong, is found in Waray. This group of stars, when appearing just after dark, is said to signal the start of the slash and burn clearing of the forests called caingin.[37] This would occur at the start of relatively drier weather, preparing the ground for the next onset of rain.

The group of three stars which appear directly overhead in the early evening beginning in mid-May in this part of the Philippines, a time which generally indicates the start of the typhoon season, comprises the three brightest stars in the constellation Aquila the Eagle. The brightest start is altair, flanked by the two stars called tarazed and alshain. While it is not possible to be certain, this may very well be the constellation referred to by Lisboa[38]. The question is, is this also the same constellation referred to by Alcina?

Although significant rain falls throughout the year, the driest months in the eastern region of Samar are April and May. This, with the addition of March, is also the case for much of Bikol. The constellation Aquila the Eagle is certainly high in the sky by early April, although not directly overhead. Since Alcina does not suggest a position directly above as indicating the start of caingin, but simply its visibility, it is likely the same reference as in Bikol.

Interestingly, a word of the same form, listed separately by Lisboa, refers to an extended period of drought. The only thread that might link these two terms is possibly a reference to a delayed start to the rainy season and an extension of the drier weather experienced in March, April and May.
    turóng constellation comprising three stars in close proximity to one another; when they appear overhead in the early evening, it signals the start of the typhoon season [MDL]

    turóng drought; MA- to have an extended period of drought; -ON to dry up; to be affected by drought [MDL]
Another constellation visible during the typhoon season is pugót. As this is the only information provided by Lisboa, and an identical reference in Waray[39] is simply defined as a group of stars, it is not possible to identify this constellation. A word of the same form in Bikol and Waray refers to a type of saltwater fish. Additional information in Waray describes this as a narrow- snouted, fat, edible fish.
    pugót constellation (typ- visible during the typhoon season) [MDL]

    pugót fish (typ- saltwater; possibly of the family Balistidae known as triggerfish) [MDL]
The Southern Cross would be visible from Naga City roughly from the months of September through to March, tracing a low arc in the southern sky. It would begin its journey in the southeast in September and then move out of sight in the southwest toward the end of March. It would be little noticeable in September, rising after midnight, but as the months progressed it would be seen earlier and for longer periods of time. This period of visibility would again decrease in the months of the new year, and by the end of March, the constellation would be seen for only a short time in the early evening. The Southern Cross in Bikol is paglóng, taking its name from the form of the children's top.
    paglóng Southern Cross (constellation) [MDL]

    paglóng top (typ- used by children); MAG- to play with such a top [MDL]
In Hiligaynon, the Southern Cross is kasing which is also a children's 'top'. Kasing is found in the other Visayan languages under discussion here, but in Cebuano and Waray, it is simply a 'top' with no application to the constellation.[40] The reference given for the Southern Cross by Alcina for Waray is butiti, the 'blowfish' or 'puffer fish'. Alcina further explains that the farmers use the positioning of this group of stars to determine the correct time for planting, waiting for the arrangement of stars to appear straight up and down in the sky.[41] Using the coordinates for Borongan, Samar, this occurs in mid-December. As this region is more exposed to the northeast rather than the southwest monsoon, it is likely that this could signal the start of planting which would then continue into January.

In Tagalog there are two references to the Southern Cross. One of these is pasil. As with the terms discussed for Bikol and Hiligaynon, there is a relationship here to 'tops', with pasil also referring to a contest where two tops are set spinning to see which lasts the longest. The second term is kamali'ing. The root word here is liˈing which means 'to see something out of the corner of the eye', referring no doubt to lowness in the sky of the Southern Cross when visible from Manila.[42]

Súˈag is one further constellation identified by Lisboa. This is described as an arrangement of four stars in the form of a square, which, when directly overhead, indicates that the time is midnight. The information which is obviously missing from the definition is the time of the year, for different stars will be directly overhead at different months. If the square referred to by Lisboa is the main part of the constellation Pegasus 'The Winged Horse', it is overhead at midnight over much of the Bikol region in mid-May, and maintains a position close to this in the month preceding and following.

Another clue that this could be the constellation Pegasus may be the Bikol term itself, for súˈag is the term used when animals fight with their horns. It is also the term for 'to gore'. It is possible to interpret what is seen as the legs of the horse, as horns extending from the square of four stars. This reference does not appear in the other central Philippine languages.
    súˈag constellation (typ- comprising four stars arranged in a square; when directly overhead it signals midnight [MDL]

    súˈag MAG-, -ON to gore s/o; MAKA-, MA- to get gored [+MDL: MAG- to fight with the horns (two bulls, water buffalo); MA-, -ON or MAG-, PAG- -ON to gore s/o (an animal with horns)]
There are no further references to constellations in the early dictionaries for Bikol, Waray or Kapampangan. This, however, is not the case for Tagalog, Hiligaynon and Cebuano. In Tagalog, the constellation termed balaˈis refers to the stars called las tres marineras 'the three sailors'. This traditionally refers to the three stars in the handle of The Little Dipper' (or the tail of Ursa Minor 'The Little Bear') which includes the North Star 'Polaris'. The North Star was typically used for navigation by sailors.[43]

In Tagalog as well we have makapanis which is identified as the star arturo 'Arcturus' in the constellation bohotes 'Boötes'. Boötes is from the Greek meaning 'Herdsman' or 'Plowman' and incorporated in it is the star Arcturus, the brightest star in Northern celestial hemisphere, located at the bottom tip of the constellation.[44]

Noceda identifies two other constellations for Tagalog, neither of which can be readily associated with names for Western star configurations. Bulang saguan is identified as a constellation only under the entry bituˈin 'star'.[45] Listed independently, the meaning is 'to row with force'. The two parts of bulang saguan can be individually identified to give some idea as to what the constellation looked like. Bulang comprises the root bula plus the linker ‑ng. Bula refers to 'froth' or 'foam', and saguan means 'to row'[46] giving us a probable image of stars representing the froth or foam on the water produced by vigorous rowing.

The final constellation identified by Noceda, may karang, is also listed only under the general entry bituˈin.[47] Karang is the mat or awning placed over the tops of open boats to protect those aboard from sun and rain and may karang means ˈhaving or using such an awningˈ. What is then being visualised here is an arrangement of stars somewhat in the form of this awning.

Turning now to the Visayas, both Hiligaynon and Cebuano identify the constellation alimango.[48] While the meaning of alimango is 'crab' the constellation it refers to is defined as 'The Ram', which in western tradition is 'Aries' and not 'Cancer'. Both of these constellations would appear almost directly overhead early in the evening in September, with Cancer in a position toward the east in the sky and Aries toward the west. The possibility also exits that alimango refers to neither of these western-defined constellations, but is another celestial form seen uniquely through Visayan eyes.

Hiligaynon and Cebuano share another constellation, manok 'chicken', which is described in Hiligaynon as stars in the figure of a chicken, and in Cebuano as simply a constellation comprising a group of numerous stars.[49] With no further information presented, it is impossible to identify which stars are referred to and relate these to constellations in the Western tradition.

Continuing the poultry theme, Cebuano has a further constellation named sulang 'cock's comb' which is described as five stars in the form of a figure 'A'. Sulang is also a term found in Hiligaynon, defined as a 'cock's comb', but not as a constellation.[50] There is one further definition, however, of a word of the same form, and that is of the wind that blows from a direction between the northeast and east, that is essentially from a direction east-northeast.

Winds from the east-northeast, predominately gentle winds blowing under 12 kilometres an hour, can occur throughout the year at Iloilo, bringing respite from the drier and stronger winds from the northeast and the rain-bearing winds from the southwest. If the occurrence of these winds could be better associated with particular months, it might be possible to identify the constellation bearing the same name in Cebuano, assuming there was indeed a connection between the two. A constellation comprising five main stars somewhat resembling a cock's comb, and also resembling the figure 'A', is Cephelus 'King of Ethiopia', found in the northern sky from the mid-January to mid-September, a long period of time. Being unable to find a reference for the months the constellation sulang appears in the sky, its identification as Cephelus remains pure conjecture.[51]

The Western constellation Scorpius 'The Scorpion' has an identified equivalent in Cebuano, silib.[52] This is a constellation visible from Cebu in the southern sky from mid-September, rising in the east a few hours before dawn, to the end of May when it sets in the west around midnight. It is fair to say that its primary period of viewing would be from the end of November when it rises shortly before midnight, to the end of May when it sets around the same time. The intervening period would see it rise and then set progressively earlier.

The same term is also found in Hiligaynon. It and its synonym, balagiohon, are defined as a celestial sign signifying a time of storms, something clearly identified by the root of balagiohon which is bagio 'severe storm' or 'typhoon'.[53] There is, however, no mention in Hiligaynon that this is the constellation Scorpius. For most of the island of Panay, including the main city of Iloilo, the months from December to May would be relatively dry. The typhoon season wouldn't begin until the end of May or June and these months would also signal the arrival of the annual southwest monsoon. If silib in Hiligaynon is associated with storms, it is probably not the constellation identified as Scorpius for Cebuano.

There are two further star groupings recorded by Encarnacion for Cebuano, neither of which have I been able to associate with western constellations. One of these is kalalaw, described as a small basket, and the other is sagˈob, a bamboo tube serving as a water urn or pitcher.[54]

(iv) The Earth and Sky
For most of the central Philippine languages, the concept of the Earth was of something round. Indeed, for four of these languages the term is derived from the root libot which carries the adjectival and nominal meanings of 'round' or 'circumference', and the verbal meaning 'to encircle'. This gives rise to the term kalibotan for 'Earth' in Waray, Cebuano and Hiligaynon[55] and sanglibotan / sangkalibotan in Tagalog.[56] Other terms also exist. In Waray nayap refers to an expanse of land uninterrupted by the sea. Sánchez de la Rosa has interpreted the affixed form kanayapan or kanayˈpan as meaning 'world'.[57]

In Tagalog the modern term daigdig and its derived form, sangdaigdigan mean 'Earth' and 'world'. This is also the meaning given by Noceda.[58] There is, however, one further term based on the root hilihid or hilihir. There is some difference in how these terms are entered in two different editions of the Noceda dictionary. Only hilihid is a headword entry in the edition of 1754, while both forms are listed in the later edition of 1860. Noceda defines this as traditionally meaning an entire province, or an entire hemisphere, a term most likely encompassing a world beyond that which can be immediately seen. The later edition also includes the derivations sanghilihir and sanghilihiran accompanied by the definition 'the entire world'.[59]

For Kapampangan, the closest term listed in Bergaño is yato 'the curvature of the earth', a term which is interpreted in the modern language as 'Earth' or 'world'.[60] That brings us now to Bikol where the modern term is kinaˈbán. This is the same term recorded by Lisboa, without the internal glottal stop and with penultimate stress. It is hard to ignore the association of this term with what appears to be its root, kabán, leading to an interpretation of the world seen as a 'chest' or 'coffer'. Kabán is certainly a common word, found in all of the central Philippine languages, but whether a derivation of 'Earth' or 'world' is intended, cannot be confirmed.
    kinaˈbán earth, world; PANG- international, universal [+MDL kinában or kinában nin lángit earth, world; the roundness of the earth]

    kabán chest, trunk, coffer; MAG-, I- to place s/t into a chest [+MDL: MA-, -ON or MAG-, PAG- -ON to place or store s/t in a chest or trunk; kabán‑kabán small chest or box]
Sky is lángit, the expected term with identical forms found in Tagalog, the Visayan languages under discussion here, and most of the other Philippine languages, with cognate forms across the Malayo-Polynesian world. Kapampangan uses a different set of terms (see Sections 3 and 5). Lisboa also lists two other terms, urógan, used only narratives and verse, and habót, this last term dominated by its associated figurative meanings. Out of interest, I have included entries for the relevant affixes for this entry, tagu‑ and mapa‑, which appear to indicate that a 'liar' is 'someone considered to be affected by the sky'.
    lángit sky, heavens; KA--AN the heavens; -NON: langitnón heavenly, celestial [+MDL: tagá lángit celestial]

    urógan sky, heavens; used in narratives and verse in place of lángit [MDL]

    habót sky; (fig-) -ON a liar, hypocritical: Habóton ka You are a liar; MAPATAGU-, PATAGU--AN: mapataguhabót, pataguhabotón to insult or dishonor s/o by saying this word to them [MDL]

    tagu- affix used in combination with MAKA-, makatagu-, meaning, to consider s/t: ráˈot bad, makatagu‑ráˈot to consider s/t bad, unsuccessful; ráhay good, makatagu‑ráhay to consider s/t good, acceptable; lulóng stupid, makatagu‑lulóng to consider s/o stupid; the active use of the affix in modern Bikol has been lost, but the form can still be identified in many compound words beginning with tagu- [MDL]

    mapa- verbal affix, infinitive-command form; a combination of the prefixes ma- and pa-; may also convey the meaning 'to be stricken': base hílang sick; infinitive-command mapahílang to be stricken by illness; past napahílang; progressive napapahílang; future mapapahílang; may also convey the meaning: to feel like; to be in the mood to; to care to: Napapasíne akó I feel like going to the movies

(v) The Sun and Moon
For Lisboa, the term for 'sun', as well as 'day', was aldáw, a term with recognisable cognates in all the central Philippine languages.[61] There was also a second term, saldáng, which is listed as a headword entry by Lisboa with the meaning 'the brightness and heat of the sun', although there are examples where the meaning can be interpreted simply as 'sun' (see saráray, below). What has happened over time is that in modern Bikol, saldáng has become the term for 'sun' with aldáw reserved 'day'.

Saldáng is a complex form comprising sa with meanings such as 'in' or 'at' and a root of the possible form ladáng. This root form does not occur with a relevant meaning in Bikol nor any of the other central Philippine languages. There is, however, a relevant term in Malay, ledáng, which Winstedt records with the meaning 'shimmering in the sun' adding that it was an archaic term when he compiled his dictionary, most likely in the 1920s.[62]

A form such as ledáng [lədáng], the first vowel being a schwa, would be borrowed into Bikol as ladáng. The phonology of the borrowing is clear. What is not so clear is why this should occur. There does appear to be at least of one borrowed term from Malay relating to the winds, and numerous shared terms relating to wind directions, and a term such as ledáng may very well have been part of a larger set relating to weather.
    aldáw day; maráy na aldáw good day; -AN daily; aró‑aldáw daily, every day; MAG-, PAG--ON to do s/t every day; PANG-: pangaró‑aldáw commonplace, ordinary, usual; the norm; for ordinary or everyday use; tatarámon pangaró‑aldáw colloquial speech [MDL: sun; also day, the days being counted by suns and the months and years by moons: Anó na an aldáw ‑ Nabubuntóg an aldáw What time of day is it?Exactly midday; MA- or MAG- to hire o/s out for a day; MA-, -AN or MAG-, PAG--AN to work for s/o on a casual or daily basis; MA-, -ON or MAG-, PAG--ON to work for a particular reward (not a monetary wage which is tangdán); MAGPA-, PAGPA--ON to hire laborers to work for a day; MAGPA-, PAGPA--AN to hire s/o for a particular day or for a particular job; MAGPA-, IPAGPA- to hire s/o for a particular day; MANG- to look for work for a day; PARA- day laborer, casual worker]

    saldáng the sun; MAG- to shine (the sun); -AN or MA--AN to be exposed to the sun; to be aired out or set out in the sun; MAGPA-, PA--ON to expose s/t to the sun; to put s/t outside to air (as a rug, blankets); bungáng saldáng prickly heat [MDL: the brightness and heat of the sun; MA- or MAG- to shine brightly (the sun); (PAG-)-ON or (PAG-)-AN to be exposed to the sun; PAG- the shining of the sun: Makurí an pagsaldáng The sun is very hot; Kíta pa an kasaldangán, múda pa iníng kakahóyan At least we still get sunlight, even in this forest) (something which is good]
Búlan, the term for 'moon' as well as 'month', is the common term found throughout the central Philippine languages, with the exception of Tagalog where the form is realised as buwán.[63]
    búlan moon, month; -ON: bubulánon loony; also describing s/o affected by periods of strange and unaccountable actions; -AN monthly; KA--AN month of expected delivery or birth of a child; maliwánag an búlan the moon is bright; the moon is shining; an kabilógan kan búlan full moon; bulán‑búlan every month, monthly [+MDL: MA- to rise (the moon); -AN to be delayed by a month; to spend a month somewhere or working on s/t; to be exposed to the moonlight; (fig-) Inuulápan iníng búlan The moon is obscured]
There are relatively few terms dealing with the phases of the moon in Bikol when compared to the detail found in the other central Philippine languages.

The full moon occurs when the moon, earth and sun are in general alignment, with the earth positioned between the moon and sun. In this position the fully lit surface of the moon faces the earth.[64] In modern Bikol the full moon is kabilógan kan búlan (see búlan), and while Lisboa has no Bikol entry for this, it is likely that this was the phrase used considering the appearance of an almost identical form to describe a dark, moonless night (see dulóm). The full moon which shines through the night, however, is referred to by Lisboa as daramlágon (see damlág, Section 1(i)). The light of the moon in modern Bikol is banáˈag, although for Lisboa this is defined more restrictively as starlight or the light from glistening objects such as gold. The halo which can be seen around the moon, as well as the sun or stars, sáyap, is brought about when light is refracted through ice crystals carried by cirrus clouds high above the Earth.[65]
    dulóm the dark of the moon; the period with no moonlight [+MDL: MA- or MAG- to grow dark (a night with no moon or with little moonlight); kabilógan na dulóm a dark, moonless night]

    banáˈag beam or ray of light; firelight, moonlight; MA- bright, resplendent, shining; MAG- to give off light; to shine (as the moon, stars); -AN to be illuminated by such light [MDL: MA- or MAG- to shine (gold, the stars): Nagbanáˈag na doy It really shines; (PAG-)-AN to be illuminated by s/t]

    sáyap a halo of light which forms around the sun, moon, stars, candles; MA-, -AN or MAG-, PAG- -AN to form around s/t (such a halo); (PAG-)-AN describing s/t surrounded by a halo of light [MDL]
The period with no moonlight is referred to as the new moon. For this to occur the earth, moon and sun are also in general alignment, but with the moon positioned between the earth and sun. In this position, it is the dark side of the moon which faces the earth.

For the appearance of the half moon, both the first and third quarter, the moon is positioned at an angle of 90 degrees with regard to both the Earth and the Sun. When the moon is less than half illuminated, it is referred to as a crescent, and when it is more than half illuminated, but not full, the term is gibbous. Both of the terms crescent and gibbous are used when the moon is increasing in illumination, or waxing, and reducing in illumination, or waning.

The five or six period day of the new moon in Bikol is gimatá. The root here is clearly matá 'eye'. The prefix gi‑, if taken as a shortened form of manggí, as indicated by Lisboa, has the meaning 'to smell of', something obviously not applicable here. There are, however, examples in both old and modern Bikol where a prefix of the form gi‑ also means 'like' or 'similar to', and that is, no doubt, what is intended in examples such as this. The moon as it gradually appears in increasing crescent form from its darkened phase, may very well be seen as the opening of an eye. The same entry can be found in Waray.[66]
    gimatá describing the five or six day period of the new moon; MA- to be the time of the new moon; MA--AN to be somewhere during the time of the new moon (a person) [MDL]

    matá eye; -ON or MA- to get hit in the eye; MAG- to wake up; to awaken, arouse; nagmamatá conscious (not unconscious), awake; MAPAG- to be awakened; MAGPA-, PA--ON to wake s/o up; MAKA-, -ON to look down on s/o; to be patronizing toward s/o; ... [+MDL: MA-, -AN to add eyes to an image or statue; MA-, I- or MAG-, IPAG- to put the eyes into place; Magmatá ka or Pagmatá Get up, Awake; MAKAPAG- to be able to open the eyes; Namatá ka May your eyes be smashed (Said as a curse)]

    gi- short for manggí; indicates 'to smell like' as well as 'to be like' or 'to be similar to' [MDL]
The first night of the waning moon is referred to as pasusbángon. Also referring to this night, as well as the second night, is a further derived form, paro‑pasusbángon. The root word here is súbang referring to the rising of the sun, moon and stars (see Section 1(i)). The full form before deletion of the u of the root would be pasusubángon. This type of form has just one meaning, causation, and the reduplication of the first consonant and vowel of the root and not the causative prefix pa‑, in combination with the suffix ‑on, indicates, for Lisboa, not a causative agent, but simply an action or state which is brought about indirectly, or caused to happen.[67] While the waning of the moon is a visual consequence of its movement around the earth, the focus here is on the delayed rising, although the exact reason for the choice of the causative affix is unclear.

The second form, paro‑pasusbángon, shows a process which might be referred to as mitigating action,[68] an action performed with less intent than the same action would be without the prefix. The referent here is to the subsequent nights of the rising of the waning moon and the mitigating implication may be to the delayed appearance of the moon in the night sky.

One further reference to the waning moon is a figurative meaning for the unit of weight, káti, referring to the waning moon being overtaken by the rising sun in the morning.
    pasusbángon first night of the waning moon which starts to rise later after sunset; paró‑pasusbángon first or second night of the waning moon [MDL]

    káti unit of weight, equivalent to one-tenth of a chinánta or 630 grams; sangkáti one káti, duwáng káti two káti; (fig‑ May káti na an buláwan The gold has a weight (Said when the waning moon in overtaken by the rising sun in the morning) [MDL] [MALAY kati]
As mentioned, the references to the phases of the moon in the Lisboa Vocabulario are relatively few compared with the information found in other dictionaries of the central Philippine languages. For Waray, the salient aspects of the moon are mentioned, such as the first or third quarter, and each of the phases is numbered with some accompanied by comments referring to the moon's general appearance during that phase and the specific effect it has on tides.[69] Detailed entries may also be found for Cebuano[70] and Hiligaynon.[71]

We now come to the occurrence of the lunar eclipse. In Sanskrit mythology, rāhu, a demon who deceitfully drank of the immortal waters and had this act exposed by the Sun and Moon, was punished by having its head cut off. From time to time, rāhu, generally represented as a dragon's head, takes its revenge by swallowing the sun or the moon, thereby causing an eclipse.[72] Rāhu appears to explain the forms we find in Tagalog, laho, and Kapampangan, lawo.[73] As late as 1731, Tomás Ortiz records the expression in what is less than correct Tagalog, Linamon laho bovan meaning 'A dragon (tiger or crocodile) has swallowed the moon'.[74] To drive the dragon away and force it to release the sun or moon, the people go out into the streets and bang earthenware pots.

A similar set of referents can be found in Bikol, although relevant definitions are found only much later in a modern article on Bikol mythology by Merito Espinas.[75] Lisboa makes no specific mention that these terms refer to an eclipse. What is clear is that the rituals take place on nights of the full moon to prevent it being swallowed and thereby going into eclipse, and not after the fact to force its release.
    hál-lia a ritual held on the nights of the full moon in honor of the guguráng; bamboo or hollowed tree trunks are beaten to scare away the bakunáwa who would otherwise swallow the moon [BIK MYT] [MDL: a pastime of women who chant responsively on the nights of the full moon, one group saying hál-lia, and the other responding in the same way] [+MDL 1865 hália]

    guguráng a household spirit carried around on the person, capable of granting the owner's requests; for example: if one asks for rain, it will rain; -NAN: gugurangnán the possessor of such a spirit [MDL]

    balalóng bamboo or hollowed tree trunks which are beaten to scare away the bakunáwa as part of the hál-lia ritual [BIK MYT]
To return to rāhu, its relationship to Bikol and the other central Philippine languages is not immediately clear. In Bikol the lunar eclipse is bakunáwa. Identical forms are found in Hiligaynon[76] where reference, as in Bikol, is only to a lunar eclipse, and Cebuano and Waray[77] where reference is both to a lunar and solar eclipse. As can be seen in the entry below, rāhu and bakunáwa have identical descriptions. To see how these two terms may be related we have to look first at something called lunar nodes.
    bakunáwa a supernatural creature, said to be a grotesque dragon, which swallows the moon during an eclipse, an event believed to bring bad luck [BIK MYT] [MDL: an animal said to swallow the moon during an eclipse; sinisibán bakunáwa swallowed by the bakunáwa, expression said during an eclipse of the moon]
Lunar nodes refer to the points where the orbit of the moon intersects with that of the sun, a path referred to as the ecliptic. The ascending node refers to the moon crossing the ecliptic from the south to the north, and the descending node to the moon crossing from north of the ecliptic to the south. If an eclipse is to occur, it will happen near the lunar nodes.[78]

Rāhu is associated with the ascending node. The ascending node, also has a literary reference, and that is bhayānaka. The Monier-Williams Sanskrit dictionary makes the association of these two terms quite explicit.[79] The remaining question is: Is the Philippine term bakunáwa a borrowed form of bhayānaka. It most likely is, with some of the less obvious changes mitigated by an intermediary language. A definitive link between the two forms, however, clearly cannot, at this stage, be proven.

An eclipse of the sun in Bikol is kulóp, a term which in Cebuano and Waray, refers simply to the darkness of approaching night, or the darkness of the land or sky caused by heavy cloud.[80]
    kulóp eclipse of the sun; MA- or MAG- to go into eclipse (the sun); (PAG-)-AN to be in darkness during an eclipse (an area, people) [MDL]
Turning now to the everyday cycle of the sun and moon, Bikol has a term, kúlat, defining the initial lightening of sky just before the sun or moon is about to rise. The first rays of the sun which can be seen as dawn breaks over the horizon is bánag‑bánag. The horizon, sinugkáran, is derived from sugkád referring to the bottom of a river or seabed which is shallow enough to be touched with the feet or a pole when moving through the water on a boat.
    kulát MA- to be about to rise (the sun, moon); MA-, -AN to be about to rise over the horizon [MDL]

    bánag‑bánag MANG- to break (the dawn); to shine (the first rays of the sun); PANG--AN to be out and about at this time of day (a person); PANG-: an pamánag‑bánag dawn [MDL]

    sugkád MA- or MAG- to hit the bottom (as when jumping into shallow water); to touch bottom (the feet); MA-, -ON or MAG-, PAG--ON to touch the bottom with a pole (as when polling a boat in shallow water); MA-, I- or MAG-, IPAG- to touch the bottom with a pole, the feet); -AN: sinusugkáran the bottom; the seabed or riverbed; -AN: sinugkáran horizon [MDL]
The actual rising of the sun, moon or stars is súbang (see Section 1(i)), and the derived forms subángan or sinusubángan refer to the east, a reference realised in narratives and verse as ragangdángan. Also representing the east in modern Bikol is sirángan (see sírang), a term with the general nominal meaning of 'rays or beams of light' and the verbal meaning of 'to shine'. For Lisboa, the term referred to the bright light of the sun, moon or stars. The somewhat dimmer light of the sun or moon when about to rise or set was sínag.
    ragangdángan the east, used in place of subángan (see súbang) in narratives and verse [MDL]

    sírang rays or beams of light; MAG- to shine (the stars, the sun, a candle); to rise (the sun); MAG-, -AN to illuminate s/t; to shine a light on s/t; to strike (rays of light, the sun); MAG-, I- to direct the rays of light; PAG- shining; an pagsírang kan aldáw dawn; -AN the east [MDL: MA- or MAG- to shine (the sun, stars, a light); MA-, -AN or MAG-, PAG--AN to shine on s/t; MA-, I- or MAG-, IPAG- to send out rays of light; MANG-, PANG--AN to block the glare from one's eyes; to shield the eyes from glare; MANG-, IPANG- to use the hand to shield the eyes from glare; Taˈ daw taˈ pinaninirángan mo an matá mo? Why are you shielding your eyes?; Taˈ daw taˈ pinaninirángan mo iyán matá mo, tará bakóng maláˈad? Why are you shielding your eyes; the light isn't very bright?]

    sínag MA- the brightness of the moon or sun when rising or setting; the brightness of the sun at dawn or dusk; the glow in the sky of a distant fire; MA- or MAG- to give off this type of light; (PAG-)-AN to be lit up by this type of light [MDL]
The position of the sun or moon, having risen, but still inclined toward the east, was referred to as arahá, a term unlikely to have originated from within Bikol. Neither the other central Philippine languages, nor Malay, appear to have a term of this form. A possible origin may be found in Sanskrit where ardha has the meaning 'half' or 'part'. This forms a significant number of compounds with other terms, including candra 'moon' to give ardhacandra 'half-moon'. We might interpret the Bikol ararhá as 'half-risen', but until an intermediary language can be found which might explain the change in meaning and the link to Sanskrit, the connection must remain speculative.[81]
    ararhá MA or MAG- to be inclined toward the east (the sun, moon) [MDL]
The general term for the setting of the sun, moon and stars is sulnóp. The modern synonym, sulnód, is clearly derived from the root lúnod which has its primary meaning 'to sink'. While lúnod itself does not refer directly to the setting of the sun, another derived form, kalundán, means 'west' and is further defined by Lisboa as the direction where the sun appears to sink into the sea. A prefix of the from su‑ (or so‑) may have come from one of the words used to indicate time, asó, meaning 'when', but not used in forming a question. This analysis would also lead to the division of sulnóp into a prefix su‑ and a root, most likely of the form lunop. While neither this nor other possible forms can be found in Bikol, Waray and Cebuano have a relevant term where lunop refers to the flooding or the submerging of land under water.[82] Another term specifically referring to the setting of the sun in Bikol is saráray.
    sulnóp MAG- to set (the sun, moon, stars); PAG- the setting of the sun, moon: an pagsulnóp kan aldáw the setting of the sun; dusk, twilight; -AN the west [+MDL: MA- or MAG- to set (the sun, moon, stars; (PAG-)-AN to set over a particular area (the sun)] syn- sulnód

    lúnod MAG-, -ON to sink s/t; to scuttle, capsize, submerge or overturn s/t; MAKA-, MA- to sink, capsize, overturn; to get sunk, capsized, overturned [+MDL: MA- or MAG- to sink (as metal, a stone); MA-, -ON or MAG-, PAG--ON to flood a boat, causing it to sink; MA- to sink (a boat and those on board); MAPA-, PA--ON to sink s/t; KA--AN: kalundán west (the direction where the sun appears to sink into the sea)] var- lánod

    saráray MA- to set (the sun); -AN to set in the west; (fig) Nasaráray na lámang akó kon bagá sa saldáng I'm reaching the end, like the setting sun (Said when one feels they are reaching the end of their life) [MDL]
This pattern of referring to the direction 'east' by the rising of the sun or moon or the appearance of their rays of light, and 'west' as the sinking of the sun into sea, is repeated throughout the central Philippine languages. For Tagalog, silangan 'east' (from silang) and kanluran 'west' (from lunod),[83] for Waray and Cebuano sirangan (from sirang) and kalundan (from lunod),[84] and Kapampangan silangan ing aldaw or aslagan ing aldaw (from silang, aslag) and albogan (from albog).[85] Hiligaynon presents a number of choices for 'east', all based on the same pattern as seen above: subangan, siblangan and sirlangan (from subang, siblang and sirlang) and for 'west' kalundan (from lunor).[86] Other cardinal points and reference to their finer divisions are based on the direction of the prevailing or seasonal winds (see Section 4(i)).

In the middle of the day, the sun eventually reaches a position high in the sky (yadát, láway) where, on clear days, reference may be made to its glaring brightness (pásiˈ) or both its brightness and heat (tiˈál, ringgít), particularly in areas exposed to the sun either for a short time or for a major part of the day (láˈay, bantaˈákan).
    yadát MA- to be high in the sky (the sun); MA- -AN to be detained until afternoon (a person) ... [MDL]

    láway high in the sky (the sun): Láway na an aldáw The sun is high in the sky; Kaláway na kainíng aldáw It's very late [MDL]

    pásiˈ MA- to be blinded by the sun or other bright objects; MA--AN to be unable to look at s/t due to extreme brightness or glare (such as looking at the sun); MAKA- to be blinding (as the sun); PAGKA- blinding, glaring [MDL]

    tiˈál MA- or MAG- to burn hot and bright (the sun); (PAG-)-AN to bake or burn in the heat of the sun; to be exposed to the heat of the sun; Naghahápon akó pagtitiˈalí dihán sa umá I'm exposed to the heat of the sun in the fields for the whole day; MAGPA- to expose o/s to the heat of the sun: Anó taˈ nagpapatiˈál ka? Why are you out in the heat of the sun? [MDL]

    ringgít very hot (the weather); MA- or MAG- to burn brightly and hot (the sun); to be very hot (the weather); (PAG-)-AN to be exposed to the sun on a very hot day [MDL]

    láˈay MA- to be exposed to the sun; to be set out in the sun; MA--AN to be exposed to the sun (a particular area) [MDL]

    bantaˈákan a place exposed to the sun for the major part of the day [MDL]
The root of bantaˈákan is clearly táˈak. The ‑an suffix indicates location and a prefix of the form baN‑ most likely indicates 'likeness' or 'similarity'.[87] The basic meaning of táˈak in the central Philippines languages where it is found, that is Waray and Cebuano, is 'to step' or 'tread on something', with Waray adding the idea that it is an area such as a field of planted crops which is being trampled, and Cebuano adding the meanings of traversing areas of risk or danger, whether on land or at sea.[88] The meaning in Bikol carries the more abstract references of Cebuano, referring to making ones way through an expanse of dense forest or heading far out to sea. Is it reasonable to link a term referring to the exposure of an area to the almost constant heat of the sun to an area trampled or trod on, or to one harbouring inherent dangers? Possibly, although the link is far from evident.
    táˈak MA-, -AN or MAG-, PAG--AN to travel, making your way through dense forest; to travel far out to sea; MA-, -ON or MAG-, PAG--ON to move through dense forest or go out to sea to get s/t or for a particular reason [MDL]

The spring tides and neap tides each occur twice in a lunar month. A spring tide results in both a high tide that is higher than usual (tingarákol), and a low tide which is also lower than usual (nitíˈ). The term 'spring' does not refer to the season, but to the 'rise' of the oceans. Neap tides (ayáˈay) are more moderate, rising less high than usual, and also falling less than normal.

Spring tides are brought about by the general alignment of the sun, moon and earth. This occurs during the new moon when the moon is positioned between the sun and the earth, and during the full moon when the earth is positioned between the sun and the moon. In these positions, the gravitational pull of the moon is augmented by that of the sun.

Neap tides occur during the first and third quarter phases of the moon, that is, when the moon appears half full. In this position, the sun and moon are at right angles to each other and their gravitational pull on the earth is in different directions resulting in tides which are more moderate, both rising and falling less than average.[89]
    tingarákol spring tide; the highest point of the tide during the new or full moon; MA- or MAG- to rise (the tide) [MDL] var- tignarákol

    nitíˈ spring tide; MA- to ebb (the tide); IKA- to be the lowest point of the spring tide; MA--AN to be an area experiencing such a tide [MDL]

    ayáˈay neap tide; the tide at the time when the difference between high and low tide is the smallest, usually when the moon is in the first or third quarter [+MDL: MA- or MAG- to rise and fall only a small amount (the tide)]
Modern Bikol refers to the high point of the spring tide as tignarákol, using the variant shown in the above entry. Lisboa would have recorded the entry as tig̃narácol and there is a possibility that this written form was misread or miscopied producing the modern form of the entry. The modern form would have also given some recognisable meaning to the prefix tig‑ which indicates occurrence, marking the time that something takes place. What the root form would be for this particular entry is also not immediately clear. Dakól, indicating abundance, or plenty is the closest possibility.
    tig- nominal affix indicating 'the time of': urán rain, tigurán the time of the rain, the rainy season [+MDL: tigbaˈból time for cleaning the rice fields; tigpanhúˈom time for soaking rice grains; tigpanábaw (tábaw) time to make the seed beds for rice; tigtagbóng time to transplant rice in bundles to the edges of the field; tigsagamsám time to heap up the weeds cleared from the rice fields; tigtarók time to transplant rice to the main field; tighalát; time to wait for rice to mature; tigbúgaw time to protect the rice fields by chasing away birds, rodents; tigabót‑ábot time to make preparations for harvesting; tigáni time to harvest]

    dakól many, much, plenty, a lot; abundant, bountiful, copious, numerous, plentiful; MAG- to abound; to accumulate, increase in number; MAGPA-, PA--ON to augment; to increase the number of s/t; to multiply; PAGPA- multiplication; KA- very many, much; a great number of s/t; KA--AN: kadaklán a majority, a large part; kadaklán na óras often, frequently [+MDL: MA- or MAG- to grow in number or amount; MAPA-, PA--ON to increase the number or amount of s/t; MAPA-, PA--AN to add to an existing amount or quantity; KA--AN: kadaklán or PAGKA- abundance; a large number or amount; dakól‑dakól very large, very fat; also: neither too many nor too few]
There is a point at which the tide reaches its lowest level (atí, kubós). The verbal forms associated with these terms indicate the fall of the seas as well as areas which become exposed as the tide runs out.
    atí low or ebb tide; MAG- to fall (rivers, seas, the tide); to recede, ebb (the tide); to boil off (water); -AN to be exposed by the falling tide [MDL: Atí na The tide is out; MA- or MAG- to fall (the tide), (PAG-)-AN to be exposed by the falling tide (areas of land)]

    kubós out (the tide): Kubós na an táˈob The tide is out; MA- or MAG- to recede or fall (the tide); (PAG-)-AN to be left exposed by the falling tide; (fig-) Kubós‑kubosá iníng saímong buˈót Lower your expectations or Be more humble [MDL]
When the lowest point of the tide is reached, it turns and begins to rise (sagubsób). The rise can be slow and relatively low (uróng), as would be the case during periods of neap tide when the moon is generally at or near its first or third quarter, or the rise can be fuller and higher during the spring tide phase (lubág). The Lisboa entry refers to the full moon, but the same effect would be produced with a new moon.
    sagubsób referring to the turning of the low tide; MA- or MAG- to begin to rise (the sea after low tide); (PAG-)-AN to be covered by the rising tide; Sagubsób na The tide has begun to come in [MDL]

    uróng MA- or MAG- to rise slowly (the sea due to a weak tide or the presence of a first or third quarter moon (por ser ... chica la luna)); (PAG-)-AN to experience a slow rise in the sea (an area) [MDL]

    lubág MA- or MAG- to rise increasingly higher (the tide as the moon becomes full): Lubág na an túbig The tide is high [MDL]
Low lying land would gradually be covered by the rising tide (sináp), with higher ground always remaining dry (alubangiˈán). The push of the tide against the water flowing down from the rivers would have an effect at the mouth, but this would countered by the strength of the river currents from further upstream (tuˈóng).
    sináp referring to the gradual covering of land by the rising tide; MAKA- to gradually rise, flowing over the land (the tide); MA--AN to be covered by the slowly rising tide; to be wet by the rising tide; also: masinapán si lúnad to get wet by water which collects in a boat and must be bailed out (a passenger) [MDL]

    alubangiˈán land which remains above water when the tide rises around it; MA- or MAG- to be located in an area which becomes surrounded by the rising tide (land); (PAG-)-AN to be surrounded by the rising tide, yet not be submerged (land) [MDL]

    tuˈóng MA- or MAG- to rise (water at the mouth of a river caused by the rising tide, but not having an effect on water levels further upstream due to the force of the river current); (PAG-)-AN to meet at the mouth of a river (the rising tide and downward push of the river current); I(PAG)- to be carried downstream by the river current to where it meets the rising tide [MDL]
Examining the term alubangiˈán, we can clearly identify a root of the form bangíˈ, a suffix of the form ‑an and a prefix of the form alu‑ (or aluN‑). Unfortunately, this analysis yields very little useful information. While ‑an is a widely used locative suffix, no relevant meaning in Bikol nor the other central Philippine languages can be found for bangíˈ. Alu(N)‑ is identifiable as a prefix in the central Philippine languages, as well as Bikol, but it is a form for which an identifiable meaning is elusive. The only affixed and unaffixed pairs showing a possible relationship in Bikol are alupatíng / patíng and aluntagá / tagá which are presented below.
    alupatíng MAKA-, MA- to hear s/t faintly (as if in the distance, or when s/o speaks softly); MAKA-, MA--AN to overhear s/t from a particular place or person [MDL]

    patíng somewhat deaf, hard of hearing; deaf in one ear; also: s/o who has trouble keeping their balance; MA- to be hard of hearing; -ON: patíng‑patingón one who is partially deaf [MDL]

    aluntagá the landing on a flight of stairs; the attic, loft or garret of a house; MA-, -ON or MAG-, PAG--ON to construct a landing, loft; MA-, -AN or MAG-, PAG--AN to construct a landing, loft in a particular house; MAGKA- to have a one landing over another or one loft over another [MDL]

    tagá roost for chickens; MAG-, -AN to prepare a roosting place for chickens [+MDL: MA-, -AN to prepare a roosting place for chickens; MA-, I- to prepare such a roost from particular materials; MAG-, PAG--AN to raise s/o else's chickens, dividing the resultant chicks with the owner; to give the owner of the chickens one half of the chicks produced]
About six hours after falling to its lowest level, the tide will rise to a point where it moves no higher (táˈob). This is the time it neither rises nor falls (kúnong), and this point may be marked by a line in the sand or along the banks of a river (bakás). Following this the tide then begins to recede (húgot).
    táˈob high tide, flood tide; MAG- to rise (the tide) [+MDL: táˈob na high tide; MA- or MAG- to rise (the tide); (PAG-)-AN to be inundated at high tide; MAGHING-: maghinaráˈob to turn (the high tide); MAGKAHING- to reach the highest point (the high tide): Nagkahinaráˈob na The tide is now full]

    kúnong the turning of the high tide; the point at which the high tide neither rises nor falls; MA- or MAG- to be at the point of turning (the high tide); (fig-) Kúnong na an pagkatáwo ni kuyán kon bagá sa táˈob That person has reached the height of her abilities, just like the turning of the tide [MDL]

    bakás high-water mark, the line of high tide or high water left when the tide recedes or the level of water in a river drops [MDL]

    húgot MA- or MAG- to turn and begin to recede (the tide); (PAG-)-AN to be exposed by the turning of the tide (land) [MDL]
There are other more descriptive and figurative meanings associated with the turning of the tide, terms referring primarily to the evaporation of water (higkát) or to being stranded as when someone is brought to a particular place and left there (arurúhoy). The sea itself when the tide runs against the prevailing wind also presents the image of a poorly plowed field with haphazard rows of growing crops (rupók‑dupók).
    higkát MA- or MAG- to evaporate (water when boiling or when cooking); to diminish (water in one container after some is transferred to another); to recede (water when the tide goes out); (PAG-)-AN to have less water (a place, a container after some has evaporated or boiled off) [MDL]

    arurúhoy MA-, -AN or MAG-, PAG--AN to accompany s/o to a particular place, leave them there, and return alone; to go to a particular place and not return as requested; MA-, I- or MAG-, IPAG- take s/t to a particular place and leave it there; (fig-) Nagaarurúhoy na lámang an túbig The tide is beginning to recede [MDL]

    rupók‑dupók descriptive of a field plowed or planted in a haphazard way, and not in discernible rows; MAG-, -ON or MAG-, I- to sow crops in an unordered way; MAG-, -AN to plant or plow a field in an unordered way [+MDL: MA-, -ON or MAG-, PAG--ON / MA-, I- or MAG-, IPAG- to sow corps in a haphazard way; also descriptive of the sea when the tide runs against the prevailing wind; MA- or MAG- to be choppy (the sea when the tide runs against the wind); (fig-) Karupók‑dupók kainíng buˈót mo You're very confused]

At the time of Lisboa's residence in the Bikol region, banwáˈ was the term of reference for the weather. This was in addition to its more widespread and ubiquitous meaning of 'town' or 'region' which is still used in modern Bikol. In the Visayan languages banwá carried the same meaning as in Bikol.[90] In Tagalog it referred to the sky as well as to the weather, although Noceda noted that this was an old term at his time of writing in 1754.[91] For Kapampangan, Bergaño defines banwáˈ only as 'sky'.[92]

Banwáˈ was to also fall out of use in Bikol, replaced by panahón which is not a term given a headword entry by Lisboa. The figurative meaning in the entry kúrong‑kúsong shows the term banwáˈ still in use in 1754, but then replaced by panahón by 1865 in the second printed edition of the Vocabulario.
    banwáˈ weather: Maráy an banwáˈ The weather is good; Maráˈot an banwáˈ The weather is bad; var- anwáˈ [MDL]

    kúrong‑kúsong MA-, -ON or MAG-, PAG--ON to grab the head in displeasure, annoyance or fury; to be ready to pull that hair out of one's head in frustration; (fig-) Kiminúróng‑kúsong namán si banwáˈ The weather is again showing its fury (Said when there is a sudden storm or squall) [MDL] [+MDL 1865 (fig-) Kiminúróng‑kúsong namán si panahón The weather is again showing its fury (Said when there is a sudden storm or squall)]
There are a number of entries where banwáˈ appears in figurative examples. Two of these follow below, and two others are included, one in in Section 5 and one in Section 6. In these two examples the weather is first shown as unpredictable (talón) and then simply as returning to a state of calm (rupóy).
    talón untrustworthy; MA- or MAG- to be untrustworthy; (fig-) Nagtataró‑talón iníng banwáˈ The weather is unpredictable (rainy then sunny; clear, then overcast) [MDL]

    rupóy MA-, -ON or MAG-, PAG--ON to cease doing s/t which annoys others; Rupóy ka na Cut it out now!; (fig-) Narupóy‑rupóy si banwáˈ The weather has calmed down [MDL]

(i) Seasonal
The direction of the winds and the alternation between those that bring rain and those that bring clear skies and dry air is the main determining factor of seasonal change throughout the Philippines. This sets the rhythm for ordinary life, signaling a time for planting and a time for harvest, a time for repair and building, and a time for travel on the open seas. For most of Bikol, the drier months of March, April and May end with the coming of the southwest monsoon which brings moderate rains to the region, and coincides with the generation of typhoons in the Pacific which are drawn across the islands. When the rains of the southwest monsoon begin to diminish in the west of Luzon and the central and western Visayas during the month of September, the wind-borne rains of the Northeast monsoon begin to affect the Bikol region and the eastern Visasays, making October, November and December some of the wettest months of the year. With these winds and the changes they bring impinging so heavily on Philippine life, it is not surprising that it is the winds that impart their names to the cardinal and ordinal points of the compass.

Lisboa has relatively few entries dealing with the winds. Far more detailed information is provided by Sánchez de la Rosa for Waray and Encarnacion for Cebuano. Entries from these as well as the other central Philippines languages are incorporated in the discussion which follows. Unfortunately, while the terms may be shared, their referents frequently differ.

The first sign that the seasons are in transition is a change in wind direction (sibwá), and once the change has set in, this new season is introduced by the term bugábog.
    sibwá MA- or MAG- to begin to blow from a new direction (the wind, signifying a change in season); baˈgóng sibwá the wind from a new direction; Masibwá na an habágat The wind has begun to blow from the west (signaling the arrival of storms) [MDL]

    bugábog referring to the time or season a particular wind blows: Bugábog na amíhan ngunyán Now is it is the season of the amíhan; bugábog na habágat the season of the habágat [MDL]
In modern Bikol, amíhan is the north or northeast wind. Lisboa refers to this simply as the north wind, the direction also indicated in Waray, Cebuano and Kapampangan.[93] In Hiligaynon, amihan refers to the northeast winds, and in Tagalog, the east.[94]
    amíhan the north or northeast wind; trade wind; MAG- to blow (the wind from the north or northeast); -ON to be blown or affected by such a wind; -AN direction of such a wind [MDL: the north wind; MA- or MAG- to blow (the wind from the north); (PAG-)-ON to be blown by the north wind); -AN direction of such a wind; tagá amihánan referring to people from Quipayó]
The wind from the east or southeast is tímog in Bikol, a meaning shared by Cebuano and Hiligaynon.[95] In Tagalog, Noceda defines this as the wind from the southeast as is the case with Waray.[96] For modern Bikol and for Waray, winds from this direction also signal the passing of a typhoon. Bergaño's definition for Kapampangan is at odds with the other central Philippine languages. Timog is defined as 'vendaval', a term applied in Spain to the strong, southwest winds blowing across the Iberian Peninsula.[97]
    tímog the east or southeast wind; -AN the direction of this wind (a wind coming from this direction signals the passing of a typhoon) [+MDL: MA- or MAG- to blow from the east, southeast (the wind); (PAG-)-ON to be blown by this wind]
There are two terms for the west wind in Bikol, bárat, a term which is clearly a borrowing from Malay and not shared by the other central Philippine languages,[98] and habágat, which is the commonly shared term. While habágat is analysable into a prefix of the form ha‑ and a root of the form bágat, the cognate of bárat, neither Bikol nor the other central Philippine languages have this root as an independent form. As for ha‑, this is the adjectival prefix which shows height, depth or length in Bikol, with some evidence that in the past it also indicated direction.
    bárat the wind from the west, associated with the bringing of violent storms [+MDL]

    habágat southwest wind; -AN direction of the wind from the southwest [MDL: west wind; storm bearing winds blowing toward the east; MA- or MAG- to blow (the wind from the west)]
Habágat in modern Bikol refers to the southwest wind, while Lisboa records this as the west wind. The Spanish-Bikol vocabulary, added to the first published edition of the dictionary 145 years after Lisboa compiled the primary Bikol-Spanish section, defines this as the wind from the south. For Tagalog and Hiligaynon, this is the 'vendaval' or the southwest wind.[99] Habágat in Waray is the west wind, although Sánchez de la Rosa also records longer forms which carry much of the same meaning, habagat sa natundan and habagat sa kalundan. While it is not immediately clear how a root of the form tunda is related to the affixed form, lunod means 'to sink' (see Section 1(v)). The wind from the southwest in Waray is habagat sa kabarian or habagat sa sugbo. Again, the relationship between bari and kabarian is not immediately clear. Sugbo very possibly refers to 'Cebu', indicating a wind from the direction of that island.[100] For Cebuano, habágat is the wind from the south or southwest.[101]

In Bikol salátan refers to a wind which blows from any of the four cardinal directions, namely, north, east, south and west. The attributions for this term are more specific in the other central Philippine languages. For Tagalog, it refers to the wind from the southeast.[102] In Waray and Hiligaynon, reference is to the south wind.[103] The same reference is given for Cebuano, although Encarnacion's detailed entry reveals a somewhat more complex citation. He indicates that for most of the local inhabitants, salátan refers to any wind that blows from the east, south or the west, in other words, the southern arc of winds. For others, however, it refers to the wind from the west. For a wind specifically from the south or southeast Encarnacion cites batong gala, which he also defines as winds which blow over land as opposed to those coming in from the sea.[104]
    salátan a wind which blows from one of the four main directions (north, east, south, west); MA- or MAG- to blow from one of the four main directions (the wind) [MDL]
Lisboa's entries dealing with the winds end here. A small number of additional citations exist for Tagalog and Kapampangan, although the richer stock of references is found among the central Visayan languages.

For Tagalog, the wind from the north, as well as the direction, is hilaga. The wind from the north-northeast, as defined in the 1754 edition, is hilagang mababalak la'ot with the additional segment giving the probable meaning 'to probe the reaches of the open sea'. The 1860 edition defines this simply as the 'northeast wind', an unexplained revision. In both editions the northeast wind is given as balas or sabalas, a term shared with Kapampangan where only the affixed form, sabalas, is cited.[105]

The term hilaga is most probably a borrowing of the Brunei Malay iraga where reference is to the winds of the northeast monsoon which blow strongly across the South China Sea from December to February. It is a term still used in Brunei to refer to the season when fishermen restrict themselves to the more protected areas along the coast rather than risk the turbulence of the open sea.[106]

In the Visayas, the east wind in Waray is dumagsa, a direction represented by the term utala in Cebuano.[107] Also found across the Visayan languages is the term kanaway which appears with two different meanings. For Hiligaynon it refers to the wind from the north, while in Cebuano and Waray, it is the wind from the northwest. Sánchez de la Rosa adds that for Samar it is the most frightening of winds for it heralds the arrival of typhoons.[108] This term is further expanded in Cebuano to kanaway sa habagat for winds from the south-southeast, and kanaway sa amihan for winds from the north-northwest.[109] Additionally, in Waray kabunghan are the winds from the northeast [110] and in Hiligaynon, sulang are the winds from the north-northeast.[111]

(ii) Storms
For Bikol, dúros is 'wind', a form somewhat unique among the central Philippine central languages where the general term is either angin[112] or hangin.[113] The final vowel and consonant, ‑os, appears to be a repetitive onomatopoetic element in Bikol for terms relating to the wind, something which will become obvious as the discussion proceeds.
    dúros breeze, wind; MA- breezy, drafty, gusty, windy; MAG- to become windy; I- to get carried away by the wind; -ON to be buffeted by the wind; MA--AN to be exposed to the wind, whipped by the wind; to be caught in a draft; durós‑dúros MAGPA- to take in some air; to refresh oneself [+MDL: MA- or MAG- to blow (the wind); MA-, -AN or MAG-, PAG--AN to blow over a particular area; (PAG-)-ON to be blown by the wind]
The deadliest winds which strike the Philippines are those of the tropical cyclones or typhoons, and the east coast facing the Pacific Ocean, in particular the coasts of Samar and the Bikol provinces in the south of the typhoon range, Quezon and Aurora in the centre and Isabella and Cagayan in the north are the most frequently impacted as the typhoon makes landfall. Bagyó, a borrowing of the Sanskrit váyu 'wind',[114] is the term which is found throughout all of the central Philippines languages and, indeed, throughout most of the languages of the Philippines.[115]
    bagyó typhoon, hurricane, gale, storm, tempest; IGWÁ or MAY to have a typhoon; MAG- to storm (the weather); to have a typhoon; -ON to be affected or destroyed by a typhoon; -AN to suffer loss from a typhoon (a person, town [+MDL: an intense storm accompanied by strong wind and heavy rain that usually strikes the region every year, causing the winds to blow from all four directions in a day when particularly severe; MA- or MAG- to have a typhoon; (PAG-) -ON to be affected or destroyed by a typhoon; (PAG-)-AN to suffer the effects of a typhoon (a person, an area); (fig-) Garó iníng bagyóng dumalágan That person runs like the wind; also see salimagyó ] [SANSKRIT vāyu wind]
Typhoons are formed near the equator over wide expanses of ocean where the surface temperature is relatively warm. The unbroken sweep of the Pacific Ocean to the east of the Philippines is just such an area and gives rise to some of the most frequent and strongest typhoons occurring in the world.

Early in the formation of a typhoon warm water from the surface of the ocean evaporates and rises to a point where it cools and condenses to from clouds and rain. As the warm air rises, it creates an area of low pressure beneath it. The cooler air surrounding this rushes in and is warmed at the ocean's surface. It then also rises. As this cycle progresses, the system becomes stronger and more intense. The spinning effect seen in a typhoon is caused by the rotation of the earth with the winds of a low pressure system spinning anti-clockwise in the northern hemisphere and clockwise in the southern. This change of wind direction as a typhoon moves across land is noted (wúros), with winds coming from the northwest signaling the approach of a typhoon, and winds from the east or southeast signaling its end (see Section 4(i)).[116]
    wúros MA- or MAG- to change direction (the wind); to turn the head in a different direction; MA-, I- or MAG-, IPAG- to change from a particular direction; MA-, -AN or MAG-, PAG--AN to change to a particular direction; to turn or look in the direction of s/o [MDL]
There are any number of storms which strike the Philippines of lesser severity than a typhoon. One of these, salimagyó, shares the same root as bagyó but is preceded by a series of prefixes analysable as sa‑ + aliN‑ which imparts a meaning 'possessing a similarity to'.[117] A number of examples of roots taking the prefix aliN‑ conveying the meaning 'similarity', and discussed previously (see Chapter 11, 'Fibre, Cloth and Clothing,' Section 7(ii)), will be found among the entries which follow.
    salimagyó tempest, storm, gale (not as severe as bagyó); MA- or MAG- to storm; (PAG-)-AN to be lashed by a storm [MDL]
Roots which take the sa‑ + aliN‑ set of prefixes appear in all of the central Philippine languages, although those sets in which a relationship between the affixed and unaffixed form can be proven are few. Two relatively clear examples from Bikol, salibábaw / bábaw and salibóng / ibóng are presented below. Links to the clearest examples from four of the other central Philippines languages can be found in the endnotes.[118]
    salibábaw on top; MA-, I- or MAG-, IPAG- to place s/t on top; MA-, -AN or MAG-, PAG--AN to place s/t on top of s/t else [MDL]

    bábaw MAG-, I- to place s/t over s/t else; to put s/t on top; MAG-, -AN to cover s/t, placing s/t on top; to place s/t so that it overlaps with s/t else; MAGKA- to overlap

    salibóng MA- or MAG- to run from one place to another as if trying to escape a pursuer; MA-, -ON or MAG-, PAG--ON to chase after s/o or s/t that runs from place to place trying to escape; to run after s/o for a particular reason [MDL]

    ibóng SA on the other side [MDL: on the other side, generally of a river; MA-, -ON to do s/t on one side and then the other (as slapping one cheek and then the other); MA-, I- to place s/t on the opposite side; MA-, -AN to place s/t in front of s/t else or on the other side; MAPA-, PA--ON to go to the other side to get s/t; to send s/o to the other side; MAPAPAG- to send s/o to the other side; MAG-, PAG--AN to place two things on opposite sides; to take s/t with both hands; to do s/t with two feet or two hands; MAG-, IPAG- to place things on opposite sides; MAG-, PAG--ON to go to the opposite side for a particular reason; ibóng‑ibóng MAG- to play or do s/t with both hands]
The approach of a storm can be signaled in any number of ways, most clearly by the darkening of the sky (taˈóp). Also said to be the sign of an approaching storm is the movement of dolphins (lumód). I have one reference to the movement of dolphins to deeper water when they sense the approach of large storm. The heavy rain which precedes the arrival of the typhoon-force winds is said to temporarily reduce the salinity of the ocean in its path. The dolphins sense this change and move out to the deeper parts of the ocean, something which clearly protects them from later being washed up onto land by waves driven by strong typhoon winds.[119]
    taˈóp dark (the sky before a storm or due to the smoke of a large fire); MA- or MAG- to cause the sky to darken (smoke, a coming storm); (PAG-)-AN to be obscured by smoke, a darkening sky; Nagtaˈóp na iníng asó The smoke has darkened the sky; Nagtaˈóp na iníng uuránon The rainstorm has made the sky grow dark [MDL]

    lumód dolphin, porpoise (typ- marine mammal) [+MDL: the appearance of this mammal in the sea is said to signal the approach of a storm]
The occurrence of typhoons is part of the yearly cycle of storms which move across the region from the Pacific, generally from May to November. Warning signs signaling their arrival were noted and acted on to protect life and secure property. An explanation as to why these storms occurred was no doubt unavailable, but to find a reason for a particularly destructive typhoon, Bikolanos may have looked to problems within their own community, blaming a possible occurrence of incest for the destruction (dáwat).
    dáwat MA- or MAG- to rain heavily, causing flooding; to be hit by a strong typhoon (said to be caused by incest in the community: a man sleeping with his sister or with another close female relative); (PAG-)-ON to be punished by this catastrophe (those committing incest) [MDL]
Typhoons were not the only strong-wind phenomena to occur in the Philippines. Cyclones or tornados and whirlwinds over land and sea also occurred. Alipúros in modern Bikol has just such a referent. Although this is not a form cited by Lisboa, cognate forms occur in the other Visayan languages which provide an interesting comparison. Waray has three related forms. Both alimpupuros and alipuros mean 'whirlwind'. Puros, the root from which these nouns are derived, is the verb 'to blow with force (the wind)'.[120]

In Hiligayonon we have alimpulos alternating with alipulos for the meaning 'whirlwind',[121] and in Cebuano, alimpulos 'whirlwind'. Here we clearly have a prefix of the form aliN‑ (see above) which generally derives a noun showing similarities to the root. Encarnacion, in his Cebuano dictionary, includes a separate listing for alin‑ which he defines as a particle which, in combination with a second particle, ‑in‑, creates verbs of 'transformation'.[122] The infix ‑in‑ (which is always prefixed if the following form begins with a vowel), is the verbal element. Alin‑ is the prefix indicating the result of the transformation, and so an analysis of 'similarity' appears to hold.
    alipúros cyclone, tornado, whirlwind
There are numerous entries for whirlwinds, some primarily referencing wind (líso‑líso, unós) and others wind and accompanying rain squalls (aliwuswós, alusú'os). The repetitive onomatopoetic final consonant and vowel sequence, ‑os, is obvious in these examples as are the prefixes aliN‑ and aluN‑ although the putative roots for these affixed entries have no independent existence in Bikol.
    líso‑líso whirlwind; MA- or MAG- to develop into a whirlwind (the wind) [MDL]

    unós tornado, whirlwind; MA- or MAG- to have a tornado; -AN: unosán or unsán to be struck by a whirlwind; (fig-) Garó kitá inunsán It's as if we have been struck by a tornado (Said when one has had a lot of guests) [MDL]

    aliwuswós squall, whirlwind; IGWÁ or MAY to have a squall; MAG- to develop into a squall; -AN to be affected by a squall or whirlwind (a particular area); I- to be drawn up or carried away by a whirlwind [+MDL: MA- or MAG- to develop into a whirlwind or waterspout; (PAG-)-AN to be affected by a whirlwind or waterspout (a particular area); I(PAG)- to be draw up into a whirlwind or waterspout]

    alusúˈos squall, whirlwind; MA- or MAG- to form (a whirlwind, heavy squall); (PAG-)-AN to be affected by such a phenomenon (a particular area); I(PAG)- to be sucked up or carried away by a squall or whirlwind; (fig-) Iminalusúˈos siyá rugáring so‑baˈgó She was carrying on just a moment ago, but her anger has now passed; Garó na iminalusúˈos si kuyán That person is like a whirlwind (Meaning: He's quick on his feet) [MDL]
Buwáwi in modern Bikol is a cyclone or tornado. The entry in Lisboa, buháwi, is defined as 'a long column of dark, rain-laden clouds' which clearly refers to the appearance of a tornado. Buhawi is also found in Tagalog, with Noceda providing a definition like that found in modern Bikol.[123]
    buwáwi cyclone, tornado, whirlwind, waterspout [MDL: buháwi long columns of dark, rain-laden clouds in formation like a sleeve, which from a distance looks like a column; tornado MA- or MAG- to rain from such clouds; ‑AN or PAG‑AN to be affected by such a system (a particular area)]
Accompanying each of these weather phenomena are winds, gale-force such as those associated with a typhoon or cyclone (nusdós), gusting (lagbót) and producing a howling sound as they move over the land (pagusúpos), or enter a room (bagusbós) through cracks and crevices or other vulnerable openings (surót) forcing rain inside (talapás). The hollow, roaring sounds of a strong wind or storm-driven seas can also be equated (hagubúhob).
    nusdós gale-force winds; winds of a cyclone or typhoon; PANG--ON to be blown by such a wind; PANG--AN to be affected by such winds (an area) [MDL]

    lagbót a strong gust of wind; MA- or MAG- to blow in this way (the wind); (PAG-)-ON to be blown by a strong gust of wind [MDL]

    pagusúpos the sound of a strong wind; MA- or MAG- to make this sound; -AN to be affected by such a sound (a place) [MDL]

    bagusbós the sound of the wind blowing through a room, entering through cracks, crevices or other openings; MA-or MAG- to make such a sound (the wind) [MDL]

    surót MAKA- to enter through a window or opening (rain, wind, the sun); MA- to get wet by blowing rain (s/o or s/t); MA--AN to get wet (an area) [MDL]

    talapás MAKA-, MA--AN to rain into a house; to enter into a house (rain); MA- to get wet when rain blows into a house [MDL]

    hagubúhob roaring sound of a strong wind, raging seas; MA- or MAG- to make such a sound; (PAG-)-AN to emanate from a particular place (such a sound); Hagubúhob na iníng talínga ko There is a roaring sound in my ears [MDL]
All storms eventually pass. Winds die down (húpaˈ, harápay) and an area previously lashed by strong winds and rain returns to calm (tangóng, línaw).
    húpaˈ referring to the calming down of a strong wind, a storm; MAG- to abate, subside; to calm down, fall into a lull [MDL: MA- or MAG- to go down (a swelling); also: -IMIN-: himinúpaˈ or himimpáˈ; (PAG-)-AN to have a swelling go down (a person)]

    harápay MA- or MAG- to grow calm (the weather after a storm); to abate (strong winds); (PAG-) -AN to experience calmer weather (a place, a person) (fig-) Naghaharápay pa nang gayód an daghán ko It's like my abdomen is still calming down (Said when one still feels stomach discomfort) [MDL]

    tangóng calm, still (referring to a time with no wind); MA- or MAG- to grow calm; to be still; to abate (the wind); (PAG-)-AN to experience a time of calm or stillness (a place, a person) [MDL]

    línaw MA- clear ... [+MDL: MA- still, calm, tranquil (a day without wind, rain); clear (water); MA-, -ON or MAG-, PAG--ON to clear up (the weather); to become still, calm; (PAG-)-AN to enjoy the calm, stillness or tranquillity of the day (a person); MAKA- to bring about a calm or tranquil feeling]
Winds once dangerous, are now fresh (hayáhay), and gentle huyóp), perhaps just strong enough to rustle the leaves of trees as they whistle through the branches (haguwuhó).
    hayáhay fresh, refreshing; cool (as a breeze); airy (as a room); breezy, balmy; MAG- to get a refreshing breeze or a gust of air; to turn cool and pleasant (the weather); MAGPA- to refresh o/s; to take in some air [+MDL: MAPA- to get some air; MAPA-, PA--AN to put s/t out to air; to swarm (bees around a tree after the hive has been cut); (fig-) Mahayáhay an giginhawáhon ko My breath is fresh (Said when one is weak with hunger)] var- ayáhay

    huyóp‑huyóp MAG- to blow (wind); huyóp‑huyóp kan dúros a gust of wind [MDL: huyóp MA- or MAG- to blow gently (the wind); to have a breeze; (PAG-)-AN to be blown by a gentle breeze]

    haguwuhó a swishing sound (such as that made by a whip or a switch of wood, a fishing line rubbing against the side of a boat when pulled by a fish); the sound of the wind whistling through the branches of a tree; MAG- to make this sound [MDL]
The heavy winds which blow through a storm have noticeable effects, both while they are occurring and afterwards when the damage can be assessed. Clearly those areas which are sheltered from the wind (limbó), will sustain less damage than those areas and objects which are exposed (parangásan, tampák).
    limbó a place sheltered from the wind; MAPA- to take shelter from the wind; MAPA-, PA--AN to shelter from the wind at a particular place; MAPA-, IPA- to shelter s/t from the wind; MA--AN to be sheltered from the wind (a place); KA--AN sheltered from the wind [MDL]

    parangásan an area exposed to the wind [MDL]

    tampák exposed (a boat, a port); exposed to the wind; -AN an area exposed to the wind [MDL]
The winds associated with the strongest of the typhoons can have devastating consequences on both forest and crops as well as human infrastructure. The image of dolphins moving through the water, diving and surfacing, figuratively refers to typhoon-blown trees (púwat‑púwat). Lisboa's description is of trees which have been knocked over, although the image of trees dipping and rising before finally succumbing to the force of the wind can also apply.
    púwat‑púwat MAG- to dive into the water and surface again (as dolphins when swimming); to imitate this type of movement; (fig-) Si makuríng bagyó, namúwat‑púwat na si kakahóyan What a terrible typhoon, knocking over trees in the forest [MDL]
Lisboa has no entry for the defoliation of whole forests resulting from the slow passage of a strong typhoon, although the force of the wind and its effect on trees can be seen from the entry dagasdás referring to the stripping of the tree bark, peeled away by the wind. The wind also breaks limbs from trees (sárag), and leaves others leaning to one side as the calmer weather returns (rampíng).
    dagasdás MA-, -ON or MAG, PAG--ON to remove or plane off the outer bark of a tree; (PAG-)-AN to be stripped of its bark (a tree, by the wind) [MDL]

    sárag MA-, MA--AN to break off from a tree (a branch); MAKA-, MA- to break a branch off a tree (as the wind) [MDL]

    rampíng inclined, tilted, leaning to one side; MA- to be inclined or leaning (as a tree blown partially over by a strong wind) [MDL]
Tikmuhól refers to trees, as well as houses, which are left standing after the passage of a typhoon. This form, taken with its variants, clearly reveals a prefix, more likely tig‑ than tik‑ (see Section 2), although the devoicing of the final consonant is not readily explainable, which sets a particular time frame, and a root. Of the three root forms which are possible, none can be found with an independent, relevant listing in Bikol or the other central Philippine languages.

If we can speculate for a moment, there is a fourth form which completes the existing set of three which has either an internal glottal stop or h. That form is buhól which is a 'slip knot' or 'bowknot' and describes a knot where a loop is formed at the end. Can tikmuhól refer to a time when things are tied down, as on the approach of a typhoon? As mentioned, this is speculation.
    tikmuhól MA- or MAG- to be left standing after a typhoon or other strong wind (a house, tree); (PAG-)-AN to be an area where trees, house are left standing after a storm; (fig-) Daˈí máyong pinatikmuhól si kuyán kaidtóng sangpúloˈ katáwo, inúbos sanáng ipanagsáng (dagsáng) That person left none of the ten people standing, knocking them all to the ground; var- tigbuˈól, tikmuˈól [MDL]

    buhól slipknot, bowknot; a knot with a loop at the end; MA-, -ON or MAG-, PAG--ON to tie s/t with a such a knot MA-, -AN or MAG-, PAG--AN to tie s/t to s/t else with such a knot [MDL]
It is not only the trees in the forest which are devastated by strong winds. Grasslands and crops can be flattened (hugapáˈ) and small shrubs and bushes blown over (hápay), with other plants left leaning, pushed to the side by strong gusts of wind (hayóp).
    hugapáˈ MA- or MAG- to be flattened or beaten down (grass, reeds); (PAG-)-AN to have flattened grass, reeds (a particular area); MAKA- to beat down grass, reeds (as a strong wind) [MDL]

    hápay MA- or MAG- to fall over when blown by the wind; MA- to be knocked over by the wind (rice, reeds, grasses, small trees or shrubs); MAKA- to knock over reeds, shrubs (the wind) [MDL]

    hayóp MAG-, -ON to blow s/t away; MAG-, -AN to blow on s/t [+MDL: MA-, -ON or MAG-, PAG- -ON to blow on s/t (such as a fire; (fig-) Garó pinaghayóp iníng tinanóm It is as if these plants have been blown on (Said when plants have grown, showing the effects of the wind)]
Houses are also buffeted by the wind (tungyód), causing them to creak (ragtíˈos) and shake (tanyóg). Other items which have not been secured can be blown away (pálid).
    tungyód before the wind, a tail wind; MAKA- to drive a boat forward; to buffet a house; to blow a flame (the wind); MA--AN to be driven before the wind (a boat); to be buffeted by the wind (as a house); to be blown by the wind (a flame) [MDL]

    ragtíˈos creaking sound of wood when houses shake in an earthquake or move in a strong wind; MA- or MAG- to make such a sound [MDL]

    tanyóg MAG-, -ON to shake s/t with force, to jolt or jar s/t; MAKA-, MA- to get jolted, jarred [+MDL: MA-, -ON or MAG-, PAG--ON to make s/t shake (such as when entering a poorly built house, or climbing a small tree); MAKA-, MA- to shake (from a gust of wind, the blast of a piece of artillery]

    pálid MAG- or MAKA- or I- to be blown away or carried away by the wind [+MDL: MA-, I- or MAG-, IPAG- to blow or carry s/t away (the wind); MA-, -AN or MAG-, PAG--AN to blow things away in a particular area (the wind); PAG- the carrying off of s/t by the wind; (fig-) an aswáng: Habóˈ kong makipagbaláyi kaiyán pálid na mga táwo I don't want my child to marry into a family of aswáng]

The general term for clouds in Bikol is panganúron. The root word here is clearly ánod and the prefix-suffix combination of pang‑on is from the general affix series.[124] In modern Bikol, ánod refers to the current of water and its effect on floating items. While Lisboa does not have ánod with this meaning as a headword entry, it can be found in the other central Philippine languages with the same reference as that in modern Bikol.[125] Only in Hiligaynon is there also a reference to clouds. Panganor is defined as non rain-bearing clouds which are carried on the wind.[126] Dalás describes the quick movement of such clouds in Bikol.
    panganúron cloud; paró‑panganúron pall (as of smoke) [+MDL: Nakakarangóp sa lángit an panganúron The clouds seem to be stuck to the sky]

    ánod MAG- to bob on the surface of the water; I- to get carried away by the current; to drift; to be adrift; MAGPA-, PA--ON or MAGPA-, IPA- to set s/t adrift; also anód‑ánod.

    dalás MA- quick, referring to metal which liquefies quickly when heated, clouds which move quickly across the sky when driven by the wind; MA- or MAG- to liquefy quickly (metal when heated in a process of forming alloys with gold or silver) [MDL]
Reference is also found in Bikol to other types of clouds, alapáˈap, for those which hang low over the mountains, and alupúˈop for a low-lying mist or fog which forms at night. Lisboa has equated the two entries, with the more detailed definition of alapáˈap being made in the modern language. In Tagalog alapáˈap carries a similar meaning to that in Bikol, referring to fog or mist and, more broadly, to all clouds.[127] For Kapampangan reference is to the space between the heavens and the earth, and therefore, the sky.[128] For Waray and Cebuano, the reference is primarily to hard to discern items located far in the distance. Secondary reference is to that which is mysterious or unknowable.[129]
    alapáˈap clouds (typ- found hanging over mountainous areas); -ON cloudy (mountains, one's vision); MAG- to cloud up; -AN to be covered in clouds [MDL mist or fog; see alupúˈop]

    alupúˈop mist or low-lying fog over the mountains or lakes which rises at night; MA- or MAG- to rise (such mist or fog); -AN to be covered in such mist or fog; syn‑ alapáˈap [MDL]
Fog and mist are identical phenomena. Both occur with the formation of tiny water droplets which remain small and light enough to stay suspended in the air. These droplets form when warmer air, which can hold more moisture, comes into contact with a cooler surface causing the water to condense, the cooler air being able to hold less moisture. There are a number of ways this can happen. Warmer air over the surface of the ocean can move inland coming into contact with cooler air over the land. Fog can also form when the surface of the land loses heat, generally at night, thereby becoming cooler than the layer of air above it. Fog is more dense than mist, offering restricted visibility.[130]

Fogs or mists are common in the morning (ambón) for this is a time when the ground has had a long period of overnight cooling. If there is enough moisture which condenses in the air, fogs can become quite dense (dampóg). Each of these terms has changed somewhat over time with dampóg now referring to fog more generally, and the meaning of ambón extended to include dew.
    ambón dew; morning fog, mist, haze; MA- foggy, misty, hazy; MAG- to grow foggy; to form (mist, haze); -AN to be covered in dew [+MDL: morning fog; MA- or MAG- to become foggy; to descend (mist); (PAG-)-AN to be covered in mist; (fig-) Inaambón ka? Are you feeling refreshed? (Asked of s/o before they continue on a journey]

    dampóg foggy; moist; MAG- to become foggy; MA--AN to get caught in a fog [+MDL: dense fog; MA- or MAG- to become increasingly foggy]
When the temperature of warm, water-saturated air drops below a certain point, called the dew point, droplets of moisture form which become too heavy to remain suspended.[131] These droplets collect on the cooler surface of the ground and are particularly noticeable in the morning (hamók) when people awaken to find the rocks, leaves and grass wet with dew (puróg‑puróg). If the temperature difference is great enough and the condensation considerable, the ground can become quite wet (malaymáˈ), even causing run-off when enough dew has collected, particularly on naturally sponge-like matter such as moss (lánag‑lánag).
    hagmók morning dew; MA--AN to be covered with dew in the morning (the ground, a person) [MDL]

    puróg‑puróg MANG- to be wet with dew, mist: Puróg‑puróg na akó I'm wet with dew; Puróg‑puróg ka na doy You are very wet with dew [MDL]

    malaymáˈ MA- moist, damp; referring to soil, rocks, wood (not clothing); MA- or MAG- to become moist, damp; (PAG-)-AN to be wet with moisture or dampness [MDL]

    lánag‑lánag MA- or MAG- to drip or collect (water, as from a saturated sponge or from moss saturated with dew); (PAG-)-AN to be saturated with water; Lánag‑lánag na The water is really dripping [MDL]
Clouds become more dominant once the rainy season sets in, producing any number of dark, overcast days (lumlóm, rumárom). They grow even darker and heavier as they signal the approach of a squall or storm (daˈgóm). The sun becomes obscured (dáˈay), the clouds blocking its light (danyáp). Notice here again, as with the terms for wind, a repetitive onomatopoetic element in the final vowel and consonant segment, ‑om.
    lumlóm doleful, gloomy, melancholy, morose; dreary, drab, dull; overcast, cloudy; MAG- to become gloomy [MDL: MA- cloudy, overcast; MA- or MAG- to become overcast; (PAG-)-AN to be under cloudy skies (an area, a person); Abóng lumlóm kan aldáw What an overcast day it is]

    rumárom MA- cloudy, overcast; describing a time when either the sun or the moon is obscured by clouds; leaden (the color of the sky on stormy days); dim (light); murky; MAG- to become cloudy, overcast [+MDL: MA- or MAG- to be overcast; to burn dimly with poor light (a candle); Marumárom an banwáˈ The weather is overcast]

    daˈgóm MA- cloudy, overcast; MAG- or -UMIN- to grow cloudy; to become overcast [+MDL: dagóm heavy dark clouds signaling the imminent arrival of a heavy squall or whirlwind; MA- or MAG- to move closer together (such heavy, dark clouds)]

    dáˈay MA- or MAG- to become obscured (the sun); (PAG-)-AN to become darkened when the sun is obscured (a particular area); NAKA-: nakakadáˈay obscured (the sun) [MDL]

    dangyáp MA- or MAG- to block the light of the sun or moon (clouds, smoke); to obscure the sun or moon; to cover gold, diminishing its gleam (as soot); (PAG-)-AN to become obscured: the sun or moon by clouds, a mirror by steam, gold by soot; MAPA-, PA--AN to steam up a mirror; to take the shine off gold [MDL]
Clouds may also appear red, particularly at dawn or dusk (danggá). One of the reasons for this is the light of the sun reflecting off the moisture at the underside of the clouds. This occurs in the morning or in the evening when the sun is low in the sky. As weather systems generally more from west to east, this reddening of the sky has traditionally been used to predict the arrival of storms, or their passage. The sun rising in the clear sky of the east reflects off the moisture in clouds which are moving in from the west. These clouds will soon bring rain. A setting sun reflects off the moisture in clouds to east, clouds which have already passed and will continue to carry their rain away.[132]
    danggá reddish sky or clouds; MA- to be reddish (the sky, clouds) [MDL]

The cycle of monsoonal rains comes annually to the Philippines. For most of the Bikol region, these rains start in early June with the arrival of the southwest monsoon and continue into January, with the most significant rainfall occurring in October, November and December carried on the winds of the northeast monsoon.[133]

There are signs that the dry weather is about to end and the wet about to set in. Aside from the increasing frequency of late afternoon storms triggered by a build up of clouds, fish begin to spawn, something also seen as an harbinger of the coming change (gáwad‑gáwad).
    gáwad‑gáwad MA- or MAG- to approach (the rainy season, referring to the time fish appear and begin to spawn); (PAG-)-ON to change (the weather as this season approaches); (PAG-)-AN: (pag)gawád‑gawáran to be affected by this change (an area of land) [MDL]
The days become more humid with the weather turning hot and sultry (alungaˈáng). Two of the modern terms referencing days that are warm and muggy had more specific origins in old Bikol. Alingáhot referred to the uncomfortable feeling when wearing clothes which were too hot for the day or season; harasáhas was the warmth produced by a fever or an alcoholic stupor. The cloud cover brought by the increasing rains would break this spiral of increasing heat and humidity, and days would become relatively cool (lípot).
    alungaˈáng MA- hot, sultry, still (the weather); MA- or MAG- to become hot, sultry; (PAG-)-AN to have a spell of this type of weather (a place); to feel the affects of this type of weather (a person); var- alanguˈáng [MDL]

    alingáhot MA- warm, humid; MÁGIN MA- to become warm [MDL: MA- warm (one's clothing); MA-, MA--AN to feel uncomfortably warm due to the clothes one is wearing; var- aringáhot]

    harasáhas MA- warm and humid; muggy, sultry; MAG- to become sultry; KA--AN humidity [MDL: the feeling of great distress or discomfort accompanying a fever-producing illness or drunkenness; MA- or MAG- to have a high fever; (PAG-)-AN to feel the effects of a fever or drunkenness; var- arasáhas]

    lípot MA- chilly, cool, cold; ... MAG- to become chilly, cool; -ON or MA- to feel cold; MAGPA-, PA--ON to chill s/t; to make s/t cold; PAGKA- coldness, chill; TIG- winter [+MDL: MA--ON: maliliptón very cold; (PAG-)-AN: (pag)liptán to have chills (as after a fever)]
Rain (urán) is never quite absent from the Bikol region which still averages between 120 and 130 mm in each of the driest months of March, April and May. Falling unexpectedly, it can produce annoyance, or anger, whereby it is referred to as dunág or dusnág.
    urán rain; -ON: uuránon rain-bearing clouds; Garó na ing dagáˈ iníng uuránon This cloud is like the earth (Said when there is a dark cloud in the sky); (fig-) Kadaˈí nagrarának kainíng uuránon The downpour still has not stopped (Said when comparing rain to the falling of leaves or fruit from a tree); MA- rainy; MAG- to rain; MAG-, -AN to rain on s/t or a particular area; MA--AN to get caught in the rain; to get rained on or get wet from the rain; TIG- rainy season [+MDL: MA- or MAG- to rain; MA-, -ON or MAG-, PAG--ON to rain down (as arrows); MA-, -AN or MAG-, PAG--AN to rain down on s/o; (fig-) Garó na inuuranán kan dakól na pánaˈ It's like we're being rained down on by arrows]

    dunág rain, said in annoyance or anger in place of urán; var- dusnág
Before the monsoon sets in and the days become wetter and the sky more persistently overcast, the afternoons are punctuated by short heavy showers (bungák, lagbóng). Some of these falling from clear, sunny skies accompanied by thunder (dagarháˈ) and others producing heavy rain with large, widely spaced drops (parág).
    bungák a heavy shower that suddenly falls after a dry spell; MA- or MAG- to suddenly rain in this way; (PAG-)-ON to be caught in such a rain; (PAG-)-AN to be caught in such a rain; to be affected by such a rain (a place) [MDL]

    lagbóng describing a heavy shower that suddenly falls; MA- or MAG- to rain suddenly and heavily; (PAG-)-AN to be hit by a sudden shower; (fig-) Kalagbóngan na magtarám ni kuyán This person just blurts things out [MDL]

    dagarháˈ MA- or MAG- to have a sudden downpour (with thunder); to have a sun shower (accompanied by thunder); (PAG-)-ON to become wet in such a shower; (PAG-)-AN to be affected by such a shower (a particular area) [MDL]

    parág a heavy shower with large, widely-spaced drops of rain; MA- or MAG- to rain in such a way; (PAG-)-AN to be caught in such a rain [MDL]
The clear skies which are interrupted by these passing showers return again when the rain ends. If the light of the sun is dispersed and refracted off the remaining water droplets, this may bring about the formation of a rainbow (dawániˈ). This image of a legendary woman weaving what we see as a rainbow is not repeated again in the other central Philippine languages. For Tagalog and Kapampangan the image is of a G-string or loincloth, respectively bahag hari or a little-used bahag subay for Tagalog, and pindan for Kapampangan.[134] Also listed for Tagalog is balangaw, the term which is used in the three Visayan languages discussed here.[135]
    dawániˈ the legendary first woman of the world believed to have designed and woven the rainbow; rainbow; hablón nin dawániˈ rainbow [+MDL: a woman, said to have existed in ancient times, who was a great weaver and after whom the rainbow is named; hablón nin dawániˈ or haból nin dawániˈ cloth (typ- made with the colors and in the form of a rainbow)] [SANSKRIT dhanvan bow, sign of the constellation Sagittarius 'The Archer']
These early-season storms which collect the moisture of hot afternoons can be quite dramatic, often accompanied by lightning (kikilát) which discharges between clouds or to the ground where it aims for exposed and unsuspecting objects (tayháp). For modern Bikol lintíˈ is another term for lightning, but the reference in Lisboa is to both lightning and thunder. A second term, parák‑parák, while not equating the two, also refers to that moment when lightning and thunder appear as one. Even the sound symbolism of this last term is to the sharp crack of close, immediate thunder.
    kikilát lightning; MA- or MAG- to have lightning; (PAG-)-AN to be struck by lightning; var- kitkilát [MDL]

    tayháp MAKA- to strike (lightning); MA--AN to be struck by lightning [MDL]

    lintíˈ lightning; MAG- to flash (lightning); to have lightning; -AN or MA--AN to be struck by lightning [+MDL: thunder or lightning; MA- or MAG- to have a flash of lightning, a clap of thunder; PAG- a flash of lightning; Ngípon nin lintíˈ hail, hailstones; (fig-) Garó na naglilintíˈ si kuyán That person has a resounding, thunderous voice]

    parák‑parák a loud sound such as that of thunder; MA- or MAG- to make such a sound; to have thunder and lightning; (PAG-)-AN to be affected by such a sound; Harí ka dihán sa pantáw; parák‑parakán ka Get off the porch; you'll be struck by lightning; (fig-) Síˈisay iyán parák‑parák na? Who is making that thundering noise? (Said when one defecates with a lot of wind) [MDL]
More distant thunder has a variety of different terms, from that which is produced nearby, then rolls off into the distance (dalugdóg), to the terms which identify the rumble of far-off thunder (daguldól, daguˈróˈ, takróg, kurób‑kurób).
    dalugdóg a quick, sudden clap of thunder which is initially loud, then slowly rolls into the distance; MA- or MAG- to have a sudden clap of thunder; (PAG-)-AN to reverberate with this sound (a place) [MDL]

    daguldól thunder; MAG- to thunder [MDL: the sound of distant thunder; MA- or MAG- to make this sound (distant thunder); (PAG-)-AN to arise from a particular place (such a sound) [MDL]

    daguˈróˈ rumbling sound of thunder far in the distance (a sound more like the rumble of a kettle drum); MA- or MAG- to make this sound (very distant thunder); (PAG-)-AN to hear such a sound; to reach a particular area (such rumbling) [MDL]

    takróg din, noise, racket; MA- noisy (voices, traffic); MAG- to become noisy, make a racket [MDL: rumbling sound of thunder far in the distance (a sound more like the rumble of a kettle drum); MA- or MAG- to make this sound (very distant thunder)]

    kurób‑kurób the murmur of a crowd of people; the rumble of distant thunder; the sound made when covering the ears; MA- or MAG- to make this sound [MDL]
Heavy rains can be heard approaching, sometimes loud enough to make a sound comparable to the pounding of rice (katód‑katód). Those rain storms which are carried on the northeast monsoon and strike the region in December have a particular reference, gaságas.
    katód‑katód sound of pounding rice; MA- or MAG- to make such a sound (those pounding rice); (PAG-)-AN: (pag)katód‑katorán to be the place or origin of such a sound; (fig-) Katód‑katód na an banwá A heavy rain is approaching [MDL]

    gaságas rain storms which come from the north, generally in the month of December; MA- or MAG- to approach (such storms); (PAG-)-ON to be affected by such storms [MDL]
As the rain approaches, the leading edge of the storm produces scattered drops which begin to fall (turóˈ‑turóˈ). Eventually the rain becomes heavier (dungdóng) reaching its heaviest as it passes overhead (dukádok). Bagukbók describes the sound of this heavy rain. Notice again the repetitive onomatopoetic element in the final vowel-consonant segment, ‑ok, of these last two entries.
    turóˈ‑turóˈ MA- or MAG- to begin to rain (referring to the first drops which fall); (PAG-)-AN to be wet with the first drops of rain; Turóˈ‑turóˈ pa saná iníng urán Rain drops are just starting to fall [MDL]

    dungdóng MA- or MAG- to rain heavily; (PAG-) -AN to be drenched in a heavy rain (a place, things) [MDL]

    dukádok the heaviest part of a downpour; MA- or MAG- to be pelting down or pouring with rain; Maglalakáw ka kaiyán na nadukádok pa an urán? You're going to go out for a walk while it's still the height of the storm?; (PAG)-AN to be exposed to heavy rain (a person, place) [MDL]

    bagukbók the sound of a heavy downpour; MA- or MAG- to make such a sound (a heavy shower, rain): Bagukbók na an urán The rain is really heavy [MDL]
The smaller, early drops of approaching rain make a pattering sound on the roof (riník‑riník), later to be followed by the heavier drops falling with a splat as the passing storm moves overhead (lapaták). At the height of a storm so much water may fall as to approximate the sound of a waterfall or swiftly flowing water (agawáˈaw). Enough water falling heavily on a roof over a short period of time runs off into the rain gutters causing them to overflow (barisbís).
    riník‑riník the patter of rain on a roof; MA- or MAG- to make this sound [MDL]

    lapaták splat; MAG- to fall with a splat (as large drops of rain falling on a roof); to fall and make this sound [+MDL: MA- or MAG- to make this sound (as large drops of rain); (PAG-)-AN to reverberate with this sound (as a roof)]

    agawáˈaw the sound made by swiftly flowing water, a waterfall or water poured from one container to another; also used to describe the sound of a heavy rain; MA- or MAG- to make such a sound; Agawáˈaw na What a loud sound the water is making; Agawáˈaw na iníng urán The rain is loud [MDL]

    barisbís MAG- to flow or run, referring only to rain water which runs from a roof; -AN eaves [MDL: MA- or MAG- to overflow from the gutters of a roof (rainwater); -AN: rain gutters]
Heavy rain either over an extended period of time or falling intensively from large, local thunderstorms causes flooding (baháˈ). This can be minor, with water just rising above the banks of a river (guˈób) or it could be more extensive, with the water reaching higher levels (lapáy) and then overflowing to inundate the countryside (lantóp).
    baháˈ flood; -ON or MA- to get flooded, inundated; to be affected by a flood; -AN to be covered in flood (an area of land); to feel the effects of a flood (a family, town); MAG- to flood, overflow (as a river) [+MDL: bahá MA- or MAG- to flood (as a river); (PAG-)-ON to be flooded (as a house); (PAG-)-AN to be flooded (an area); to be affected by a flood (a person); Garó kamí binahán kaidtóng dakól na pananáwon mi so‑baˈgó It is as if we were flooded earlier by the large number of guests we had (Said when one is unexpectedly overwhelmed by a large number of visitors]

    guˈób inundation, flood (small, causing by the overflowing of a river); MA- or MAG- to flood (a river); (PAG-)-AN to be inundated, flooded (land around a river) [MDL]

    lapáy MA- or MAG- to overflow (water, rising to unusually high levels due to a storm, heavy rain a high tide); (PAG-)-ON or (PAG-)-AN to be inundated by such water (an area) [MDL]

    lantóp MAG- to overflow (water); ‑ON to be covered with water; to be inundated; MAKA- to overflow; MAKA-, MA--AN to overflow onto s/t; to pass beyond set bounds [+MDL: MA- or MAG- to overflow (as a river breaking its banks after an unusually heavy rain); MA-, -AN or MAG-, PAG--AN to flood a particular area (a river breaking its banks, an unusually high tide); to breach (as defenses); to pierce armor, a shield; (PAG-)-ON to be inundated; to be wounded when a weapon is able to piece a shield or armor]
Not all rain need be heavy. Ragirhí and tagithí describe light rains or drizzle. In modern Bikol apgí is also a light rain or shower, although for Lisboa this was a sprinkling of rain which blew into a house through an open window or door. The variants for ragirhí and tagithí are the modern equivalents, each of which has lost the penultimate h.
    ragirhí MA- or MAG- to fall (dew); to drizzle; to rain lightly; (PAG-)-ON to be wet with dew, a light rain (one's crops); (PAG-)-AN to be covered with dew, showered with a light rain (one's fields); Maraháy nang gayód taˈ rinaragirhí si saindóng tarók kaidtóng urán na didiˈít It's good that your newly planted rice has been watered with a light rain; var- ragíri [MDL]

    tagithí a light rain, drizzle; MA- or MAG- to drizzle; (PAG-)-AN to get wet in a light rain; var- tagití [MDL]

    apgí MAG- to drizzle, shower; MA--AN to be caught in a drizzle or shower [MDL: a sprinkling of rain which blows in through windows, doors; MA- or MAG- to blow in (such rain); (PAG-)-AN or MA--AN to be dampened by such rain; (fig-) MA--AN to be tainted by s/t bad which does not directly involve you: Garó na kitá naapgihán It is as if we have become associated with s/t bad]
The rains eventually ease (tiráˈ‑tíraˈ). This may be for a short period of time, only to return again to bring more wet weather (húbay), or it may signal the return of fine weather for an extended period (tibwás).
    tiráˈ‑tíraˈ MA- to ease (a heavy rain); to stop raining after a heavy shower or downpour; to clear up; MAPA- to wait for the rain to ease or stop [MDL]

    húbay (PAG-)-AN to experience a break in the bad weather (a place); to feel a period of relief (a person from pain, illness); to have a period of clarity (one suffering a mental illness); MA- or MAG- to clear or stop momentarily (wind, rain); to give some let-up or respite (pain, illness); húbay‑húbay MA- to have a short break or interval [MDL]

    tibwás MA- or MAG- to clear up; to become fine (the weather); (PAG-)-AN to have good weather (a place, a person) [MDL]
In the aftermath of the rain, drops fall from the leaves of trees (tagróˈ) and small pools of water form on the ground (timáw), to remain until they either evaporate or are absorbed.
    tagróˈ referring to drops of rain that fall from the leaves of trees after a rain; MA- or MAG- to fall (such drops); (PAG-)-AN to get wet by the falling of such drops; (fig-) Garó na akó sinakát na tagróˈ It's like I'm being visited by drops of rain falling from leaves (Said when one has to leave the house because of the arrival of guests) [MDL]

    timáw pools of water which remain after a heavy rain, or water which flows into a depression in the ground and remains there before evaporating; MA- or MAG- to form small pools; to collect in puddles (water); MA-, -AN or MAG-, PAG--AN to form (puddles) or collect (water) in a particular area [MDL]
The annual cycle of wet and dry eventually turns. Húraw can refer to anytime just after the rain, as it does in both old and modern Bikol, or, as it does in old Bikol alone, to the start of the dry season. This prolonged period of dry was tingáting in old Bikol. For modern Bikol the reference is to a diminished crop, something which may very well have occurred due to a lack of rain.
    húraw referring to the time just after the rain; MAG- to clear up following the rain (the weather) [+MDL: MA- or MAG- to move into the dry season with the ending of the rains; (PAG-)-ON to not have enough rain (as plants); (PAG-)-AN to experience dry weather (a place); to lack rain, water (an area, a person); Hinggál ko na mararáˈot an pároy kainíng húraw na makurí I'm afraid that the rice crop will be lost during this extremely long dry season; (fig-) Garó kitá hinuráwan nin dukádok It's like we have just come out of a heavy downpour (Said when people who have been making a lot of noise suddenly fall silent]

    tingáting a poor season, a poor harvest; scarcity in the yield of rice: Tingáting an naˈáni ko My harvest was poor; MÁGIN to become poor (the harvest) [MDL: the long dry period which follows the rainy season: Tingáting na iníng húraw ngunyán What a long dry spell this is]

The night sky changed with the movement of the earth around the sun, and with this movement came a change in the seasons. Constellations became associated with the yearly cycle of wet and dry for their appearance and position were always predictable. Many of these arrangements of stars were given names which represented their form or outline. Some of these were associated with constellations in the west by the early lexicographers, but many others remained unique to their local areas, differing from language to language.

The identification of the planets was harder, for their position was less predictable as they wandered in and out among the constellations. Venus was the most readily named planet either as the morning star, or the evening star, or both, but recognition of the other planets remained elusive. The tailed movement of comets and the more explosive movement of meteors were also identified, although the single term found across the central Philippine languages to identify both made specific identification difficult.

The Earth was most commonly referred to as a circle or sphere, although there were some variations. It was also seen as an uninterrupted expanse of land extending beyond the visible as well as a form ending in a curve at the horizon.

The 'sun' and 'day' were at first represented by the same term in Bikol, although over time these meanings became differentiated. The moon and its phases received their clearest and most detailed descriptions in two of the central Visayan languages, however, terms for its waxing and waning were common in all. An eclipse, particularly of the moon, gave rise to fear and speculation, with ceremonies held to prevent its occurrence, or to restore it to its former self. The primary directions of east and west were named, respectively, as the areas where the light of the sun could first be seen, or where the sun sank somewhere into the sea.

The rise and fall of the tides came with predicable regularity and the association of this movement with the alignment of the earth, sun and moon, at least when the moon was full, was clearly made. Weather was referred to by the early term banwá', coincident with the same term for 'town' or 'country', although this was to change in the nineteenth century when panahón came to replace it.

The seasons were defined by the rains, and the rains came with a change in the winds. It was the all important directions from which these winds blew that gave their names to the cardinal and ordinal points of the compass. Winds from the west were the most feared. Not only was this the direction of the strongest storms, but it was the direction from which the winds of the typhoons started to blow. Winds from the east or southeast were the most welcome, for these were gentler, also signaling the passing of a typhoon.

The rains for Bikol started with the arrival of the southwest monsoon in late May or early June. These winds would dominate the weather until early October. Although this month would see the end of the rains in the western Visayas and the western provinces of Luzon, the rains would only intensify for Bikol with the arrival of the northwest monsoon which brought even more wet and overcast days.

Days of increasing humidity culminating in afternoons of heavy, thunderous storms would signal the approach of the wet. The heat would eventually moderate as the sky became covered in denser and more widespread clouds. Then, as it came in May or June, by February there were signs that the rains were again waning, diminishing in intensity and becoming less frequent. One cycle was coming to an end, only to start again, bringing a change in season.


[1] Alonso de Mentrida, Diccionario de la lengua Bisaya, Hiliguena, y Haraya de la Isla de Panay, Manila: La Imprenta de D. Manuel y Felix Dayot, 1841, see bato nga halin.

[2] Antonio Sánchez de la Rosa, Diccionario español - bisaya para las provincias de Sámar y Leyte, 3rd edition, aumentado por Antonio Valeriano, Manila: Santos y Bermal, 1914, see panoy.

[3] 'Mercury and Jupiter,' Universe Today (accessed 8 September 2016).

[4] 'Venus, the Morning star and Evening Star,' Universe Today (accessed 8 September 2016); 'Venus,' Wikipedia, English, n.d. (accessed 8 September 2016).

[5] Juan José Noceda, and Pedro de Sanlucar, Vocabulario de la lengua Tagala, 1754, Manila: Imprenta de Ramirez y Giraudier, Reimpreso 1860, see bitoin.

[6] Fr. Leo James English, Tagalog - English Dictionary, Manila: Congregation of the Most Holy Redeemer, 1986, see tala.

[7] Juan de Plasencia, 'Customs of the Tagalogs,' 1589, in Blair and Robertson, vol. 7, p. 186.

[8] Sánchez de la Rosa, Sámar y Leyte, see aga, capanusan, panos.

[9] Juan Feliz de la Encarnacion,, Diccionario español- bisaya, Manila: Imprenta de los amigos del pais, á cargo de M. Sanchez, 1852, see macabanglos, banglos, cabogason, bogas.

[10] Noceda and de Sanlucar, Tagala, see tanglao daga, daga.

[11] Fr. Diego Bergaño, Vocabulario de la lengua Pampanga, en romance, 1732, Manila: Imprenta de Ramirez y Giraudier, Reimpreso 1860, see sulungdaguis, daguis.

[12] de la Encarnacion, Bisaya, see cahaponanon, hapon.

[13] de Mentrida, Bisaya, Hiliguena, y Haraya, see cahapunauan nga bitoon, bagio bagio, bagio.

[14] Noceda and de Sanlucar, Tagala, see bitoin; de la Encarnacion, Bisaya, see bitoon; de Mentrida, Bisaya, Hiliguena, y Haraya, see bitoon; Sánchez de la Rosa, Sámar y Leyte, see bitoon; Bergaño, Pampanga, see bituin.

[15] Sánchez de la Rosa, Sámar y Leyte, see bulalacao; de la Encarnacion, Bisaya, see bolalacao.

[16] de Mentrida, Bisaya, Hiliguena, y Haraya, see bulalacao.

[17] Bergaño, Pampanga, see bulalacao.

[18] Noceda and de Sanlucar, Tagala, see bulalacao.

[19] de la Encarnacion, Bisaya, see molo polo; de Mentrida, Bisaya, Hiliguena, y Haraya, see molo polo.

[20] 'Pléyades (astronomía),' Wikipedia, Spanish, n.d. (accessed 20 September 2016).

[21] Sir John F. W. Herschel, Tratado de Astronomia, Imprenta de la Sociedad Literaria y tipográfica, 1884, p. 338.

[22] Francisco Ignacio Alcina, The Muñoz text of Alcina's History of the Bisayan Islands, 1668, part 1; transliteration from a microfilm of the Spanish text in the Biblioteca de Palacio, Madrid, by Victor Baltazar; Book 3, p. 45.

[23] Sánchez de la Rosa, Sámar y Leyte, see marocapoc.

[24] Noceda and de Sanlucar, Tagala, see polonpolon.

[25] de Plasencia, 'Customs of the Tagalogs,' in Blair and Robertson, vol. 7, p. 186.

[26] Noceda and de Sanlucar, Tagala, see polon.

[27] Noceda and de Sanlucar, Tagala, see balatic.

[28] 'Cinturón de Orión,' Wikipedia, Spanish, n.d. (accessed 28 September 2016).

[29] de Plasencia, 'Customs of the Tagalogs,' in Blair and Robertson, vol. 7, p. 186, 189.

[30] de la Encarnacion, Bisaya, see balatic.

[31] John U. Wolff, A Dictionary of Cebuano Visayan. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines, 1971, see balatik.

[32] Sánchez de la Rosa, Sámar y Leyte, see balatic; Alcina, The Muñoz text of Alcina's History of the Bisayan Islands, 1668, part 1; Book 3, p. 45.

[33] 'El_Carro_(asterismo),' Wikipedia, Spanish, n.d. (accessed 28 September 2016).

[34] de Mentrida, Bisaya, Hiliguena, y Haraya, see balatic.

[35] Dante L. Ambrosio, 'Balatik: Katutubong bituin ng mga Pilipino,' Philippine Social Science Review, vol. 57, no. 1-4, 2005, pp. 1-28.

[36] Ambrosio, Balátik and Moropóro, Stars of Philippine skies, Philippine Daily Inquirer, first posted 02/02/2008, (accessed 25 October 2016).

[37] Sánchez de la Rosa, Sámar y Leyte, see tolong.

[38] Your Sky, by John Walker (accessed 22 October 2016); the sky over Naga City can be found by changing the coordinates to 13.6218 N latitude and 123.1948 E longitude and the date to 2016/06/15 (for mid-June) and the time to 19.00 for early evening.

[39] Sánchez de la Rosa, Sámar y Leyte, see pogot.

[40] de Mentrida, Bisaya, Hiliguena, y Haraya, see casing; de la Encarnacion, Bisaya, see casing; Sánchez de la Rosa, Sámar y Leyte, see casing.

[41] The Muñoz text of Alcina's History of the Bisayan Islands, part 1; Book 3, p. 45.

[42] Noceda and de Sanlucar, Tagala, see pasil, camaliyng, liing.

[43] Noceda and de Sanlucar, Tagala, see balais; 'Ursa Minor,' Wikipedia, English, n.d. (accessed 15 October 2016).

[44] Noceda and de Sanlucar, Tagala, see macapanis; 'Arturo (estrella),' Wikipedia, Spanish, n.d. (accessed 15 Ocrober 2016); 'Arcturus,' Wikipedia, English, n.d. (accessed 15 October 2016).

[45] Noceda and de Sanlucar, Tagala, see bitoin, bulansaguan.

[46] Noceda and de Sanlucar, Tagala, see bula, saguan, bulang saguan.

[47] Noceda and de Sanlucar, Tagala, see bitoin, may carang, carang.

[48] de Mentrida, Bisaya, Hiliguena, y Haraya, see alimango; de la Encarnacion, Bisaya, see alimango.

[49] de Mentrida, Bisaya, Hiliguena, y Haraya, see manoc; de la Encarnacion, Bisaya, see manoc.

[50] de la Encarnacion, Bisaya, see solang; de Mentrida, Bisaya, Hiliguena, y Haraya, see sulang.

[51] 'Climate: Iloilo City, ' Meteoblue (accessed 5 October 2016); Census of the Philippine Islands, Bulletin 2, The Climate of the Philippines, Department of Commence and Labor, Bureau of Census 1904, Rev. José Algué. S.J., Director of the Philippine Weather Bureau, p. 66.

[52] de la Encarnacion, Bisaya, see silib.

[53] de Mentrida, Bisaya, Hiliguena, y Haraya, see silib, balaguiohon.

[54] de la Encarnacion, Bisaya, see calalao, sag-ob.

[55] Sánchez de la Rosa, Sámar y Leyte, see libut, calibutan; de la Encarnacion, Bisaya, see libot, calibutan; de Mentrida, Bisaya, Hiliguena, y Haraya, see libot, calibotan.

[56] Noceda and de Sanlucar, Tagala, see libot, sangcalibotan.

[57] Sánchez de la Rosa, Sámar y Leyte, see nayap, canayapan, canay-pan.

[58] Noceda and de Sanlucar, Tagala, see daygdig, sangdaigdigan.

[59] Noceda and de Sanlucar, Tagala, see hilihid, hilihir.

[60] Bergaño, Pampanga, see yato.

[61] Noceda and de Sanlucar, Tagala, see arau; Sánchez de la Rosa, Sámar y Leyte, see adlao; de la Encarnacion, Bisaya, see adlao; de Mentrida, Bisaya, Hiliguena, y Haraya, see arlao; Bergaño, Pampanga, see adlao.

[62] R. O. Winstedt, Unabridged Malay-English Dictionary, Singapore: Kelly & Walsh Ltd, nd., see ledang.

[63] Noceda and de Sanlucar, Tagala, see bouan.

[64] '22° Halo,' Wikipedia, English, n.d. (accessed 22 October 2016).

[65] '22 Halo,' Wikipedia, English, n.d. (accessed 22 October 2016).

[66]] Sánchez de la Rosa, Sámar y Leyte, see bulan.

[67] Malcolm W. Mintz, Bikol Dictionary, vol. I: English-Bikol Index; vol. II: Bikol-English Dictionary, Australia: Indonesian/ Malay Texts, 2004, see Introduction, Section 6.9.

[68] Mintz, Bikol Dictionary, vol. I: English-Bikol Index, see Introduction, Section 6.19.

[69] Sánchez de la Rosa, Sámar y Leyte, see bulan.

[70] de la Encarnacion, Bisaya, see luna.

[71] de Mentrida, Bisaya, Hiliguena, y Haraya, see luna.

[72] Sanskrit Dictionary

[73] Noceda and de Sanlucar, Tagala, see laho; Bergaño, Pampanga, see lauo.

[74] Tomás Ortiz, Práctica del Ministério, ca. 1731, in Blair and Robertson, vol. 43, p. 112.

[75] Merito B. Espinas,, 'A critical study of the Ibalong, the Bikol folk epic fragment,' in Unitas, vol. 41, no. 2 (1968), pp. 173-249.

[76] de Mentrida, Bisaya, Hiliguena, y Haraya, see bacunaua.

[77] de la Encarnacion, Bisaya, see baconaoa; Sánchez de la Rosa, Sámar y Leyte, see bacunaua.

[78] 'Lunar node,' Wikipedia, English, n.d. (accessed 15 October 2016).

[79] Sanskrit Dictionary.

[80] de la Encarnacion, Bisaya, see baconaoa; Sánchez de la Rosa, Sámar y Leyte, see colop.

[81] Sanskrit Dictionary .

[82] Sánchez de la Rosa, Sámar y Leyte, see lonop; de la Encarnacion, Bisaya, see lonop.

[83] Noceda and de Sanlucar, Tagala, see silang, silangan, lonod, calonoran.

[84] Sánchez de la Rosa, Sámar y Leyte, see sirang, sirangan, lonud, calundan; de la Encarnacion, Bisaya, see sirang, sirangan, lonud, calondan.

[85] Bergaño, Pampanga, see silang, aslag, albug.

[86] de Mentrida, Bisaya, Hiliguena, y Haraya, see subang, siblang, sirlang, calundan, lonor.

[87] Mintz, 'The Fossilized Affixes of Bikol,' Currents in Pacific Linguistics: Papers on Austronesian Languages and Ethnolinguistics in Honor of George W. Grace, ed. by Robert Blust, Canberra: Pacific Linguistics C-117, 1991, pp. 265-291, p. 276.

[88] Sánchez de la Rosa, Sámar y Leyte, see taac; de la Encarnacion, Bisaya, see taac.

[89] 'Tide,' Wikipedia, English, n.d. (accessed 29 November 2016); 'Spring and Neap Tides,' National Ocean Service (accessed 29 November 2016).

[90] Sánchez de la Rosa, Sámar y Leyte, see banua; de la Encarnacion, Bisaya, see banoa; de Mentrida, Bisaya, Hiliguena, y Haraya, see banua.

[91] Noceda and de Sanlucar, Tagala, see banoua.

[92] Bergaño, Pampanga, see banua.

[93] Sánchez de la Rosa, Sámar y Leyte, see amihan; de la Encarnacion, Bisaya, see amihan; Bergaño, Pampanga, see amian.

[94] de Mentrida, Bisaya, Hiliguena, y Haraya, see amihan; Noceda and de Sanlucar, Tagala, see amihan.

[95] de la Encarnacion, Bisaya, see timog; de Mentrida, Bisaya, Hiliguena, y Haraya, see timog.

[96] Noceda and de Sanlucar, Tagala, see timog; Sánchez de la Rosa, Sámar y Leyte, see timug.

[97] Bergaño, Pampanga, see timog; 'Vendaval,' Weather Online (accessed 6 November 2016).

[98] Winstedt, Unabridged Malay-English Dictionary, see barat.

[99] ] Noceda and de Sanlucar, Tagala, see habagat; de Mentrida, Bisaya, Hiliguena, y Haraya, see habagat.

[100] [ Sánchez de la Rosa, Sámar y Leyte, see habagat, habagat sa natondan, habagat sa calondan, habagat sa cabarian, habagat sa sugbo.

[101] de la Encarnacion, Bisaya, see habagat.

[102] Noceda and de Sanlucar, Tagala, see salatan.

[103] Sánchez de la Rosa, Sámar y Leyte, see salatan; de Mentrida, Bisaya, Hiliguena, y Haraya, see salatan.

[104] de la Encarnacion, Bisaya, see salatan, batonggala.

[105] Noceda and de Sanlucar, Tagala, see hilaga, hilagang mababalaclaot, balac, laot, balas; Bergaño, Pampanga, see sabalas

[106] H. B. Marshall, with notes by J. C. Moulton, 'A Vocabulary of Brunei Malay,' Journal of the Straits Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, No. 83, April 1921, pp. 45-74, p. 57; Ooi Keat Gin, ed., Brunei - History, Islam, Society and Contemporary Issues, London and New York: Routledge, 2016, p. xxvii, 169.

[107] Sánchez de la Rosa, Sámar y Leyte, see dumagsa, de la Encarnacion, Bisaya, see otala.

[108] de Mentrida, Bisaya, Hiliguena, y Haraya, see canauay; Sánchez de la Rosa, Sámar y Leyte, see canauay; de la Encarnacion, Bisaya, see canauay.

[109] de la Encarnacion, Bisaya, see canauay sa habagat, canauay sa amihan.

[110] Sánchez de la Rosa, Sámar y Leyte, see cabonghan.

[111] de Mentrida, Bisaya, Hiliguena, y Haraya, see sulang.

[112] Bergaño, Pampanga, see angin.

[113] Noceda and de Sanlucar, Tagala, see hangin; de la Encarnacion, Bisaya, see canauay sa habagat, hangin; Sánchez de la Rosa, Sámar y Leyte, see hangin; de Mentrida, Bisaya, Hiliguena, y Haraya, see hangin.

[114] Sanskrit Dictionary .

[115] Noceda and de Sanlucar, Tagala, see bagyo; Sánchez de la Rosa, Sámar y Leyte, see baguio; de la Encarnacion, Bisaya, see bagio; de Mentrida, Bisaya, Hiliguena, y Haraya, see bagio; Bergaño, Pampanga, see bag-guio.

[116] 'How do Hurricanes Form,' NASA Space-place (accessed 18 November 2016); 'What Causes Typhoons?' Tech FAQ (accessed 18 November 2016); 'Cyclone,' Wikipedia, English, n.d. (accessed 22 November 2016).

[117] Mintz, 'The Fossilized Affixes of Bikol', p. 283.

[118] Noceda and de Sanlucar, Tagala, see dayao / salindayao; papar / salinparpar; de la Encarnacion, Bisaya, see abut / saliabot; Sánchez de la Rosa, Sámar y Leyte, see botong / salimbotong; orug / salinorug; Bergaño, Pampanga, see gutgut / saligutgut, padpad / salipadpad.

[119] Dolphin Quest (accessed 18 November 2016).

[120] Sánchez de la Rosa, Sámar y Leyte, see alimpoporos, aliporos, poros.

[121] de Mentrida, Bisaya, Hiliguena, y Haraya, see alimpolos, alipolos.

[122] de la Encarnacion, Bisaya, see alimpolos, alin.

[123] Noceda and de Sanlucar, Tagala, see bohaui.

[124] Mintz, Bikol Dictionary, vol. I: English-Bikol Index, see Introduction, Section 6.5.

[125] Noceda and de Sanlucar, Tagala, see anod; Bergaño, Pampanga, see anod in the Spanish-Kampangan Index and añyud in the dictionary proper; Sánchez de la Rosa, Sámar y Leyte, see anud; de la Encarnacion, Bisaya, see anod.

[126] de Mentrida, Bisaya, Hiliguena, y Haraya, see anor.

[127] Noceda and de Sanlucar, Tagala, see alapaap.

[128] Bergaño, Pampanga, see alapaap.

[129] Sánchez de la Rosa, Sámar y Leyte, see alapaap; de la Encarnacion, Bisaya, see alapaap.

[130] 'Fog and Mist,' Weather Online (accessed 10 December 2016).

[131] 'Dew,' Wikipedia, English, n.d. (accessed 10 December 2016).

[132] 'Red Sky at Morning,' Wikipedia, English, n.d. (accessed 10 December 2016).

[133] 'Naga City,' Weather Online (accessed 5 January 2017).

[134] Noceda and de Sanlucar, Tagala, see bahag hari, bahag subay, balangao; Bergaño, Pampanga, see pindan.

[135] Sánchez de la Rosa, Sámar y Leyte, see balangao; de la Encarnacion, Bisaya, see balangao; de Mentrida, Bisaya, Hiliguena, y Haraya, see balangao.



Published with the support of Gender and Cultural Studies, School of Culture, History and Language, College of Asia and the Pacific, The Australian National University.
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Last modified: 30 March 2023 1303