Intersections: Gender and Sexuality in Asia and the Pacific
Monograph 1: The Philippines at the Turn of the Sixteenth Century


Malcolm W Mintz


Select a chapter


THE PHILIPPINES AT THE TURN OF THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY
with particular reference to the Bikol region


CONTENTS


INTRODUCTION


Chapter 1: War and Conflict
  1. Weapons
  2. Shields and Protective Clothing
  3. Wounding and Dying
  4. Piracy and Boats
  5. Defence and Offence
  6. Captives, Subjugation and Tribute
  7. Conclusion

Chapter 2: Food
  1. Drinking Customs
    1. Alcoholic Beverages
    2. Tubáˈ
    3. Pangási
    4. Intós
  1. Food Scarcity
  2. Food in Business Transactions
  3. Food, Ritual and Healing
  4. Food and Social Behaviour
    1. Invitations
    2. Sharing
    3. Social Stratification
    4. Serving
  1. Food and Personal Behaviour
  2. Conclusion

Chapter 3: Christianity
  1. The Coming of the Spanish
  2. Arrival of the Religious Orders
  3. The Encomienda System
  4. Marcos de Lisboa and the Vocabulario de la lengua Bicol
  5. Early Religious Beliefs
  6. The Introduction of Christianity
    1. Baptism
    2. Confession and Comunion
    3. Sins and Sinners
    4. Heaven, Hell and the Devil
    5. Exorcism and Salvation
  1. A New System of Worship
    1. God
    2. Christ and the Apostles
    3. Death and Resurection
    4. Sermons and Teachings
    5. Prayer
    6. Homage and Supplication
    7. Saints, Spirits and Priests
  1. Religious Observations and Celebrations
  2. Places of Worship
    1. The Church and Mass
    2. Construction and Decoration of the Church
    3. The Altar and Religions Objects
  1. Conclusion

Chapter 4: Crime and Punishment
  1. Social Stratification
  2. Laws and Jurisdiction
  3. Civil Disputes and Criminal Cases
    • Civil Disputes
      1. Insults
      2. Adultery
      3. Trade and Deception
      4. Defaulting on Loans
    • Criminal Cases
      1. Piracy and Plunder
      2. Theft
      3. Assaults and Murder
  1. Punishment and Incarceration
  2. Administration of Justice
    1. Trials
    2. Trial by Ordeal
    3. Miscarriage of Justice
  1. Conclusion

Chapter 5: Childhood
  1. Population
  2. Marriage and Children
  3. Pregnancy and Birth
  4. Nursing, Weaning and the First Solid Food
  5. Circumcision
  6. Head Flattening
  7. Naming
  8. Stages of Development
  9. Ceremonies and Beliefs
  10. Interacting with the Child
    1. Caring for the Child
    2. Endearing Expressions and Actions
    3. Carying and Lifting
    4. The Lack of Care
    5. Discipline
    6. Tantrums and Crying
  1. Orphans and Adoption
  2. Death, Sickness and Health
  3. Recreation
  4. Conclusion

Chapter 6: Rice
  1. Lowland Rice Cultivation
    1. Establishing the Fields
    2. Varieties of Rice
  1. Preparing the Fields
    1. Clearing the Fields
    2. Working the Fields
    3. Irrrigation
  1. The Cycle of Cultivation
    1. Overview
    2. Sowing and Germination
    3. Transplanting
    4. Anmals, Birds, Insects and Vermin
    5. The Maturing Rice
  1. The Harvest
    1. Gathering Rice from the Field
    2. Threshing
    3. Drying
    4. Pounding
    5. Winnowing
    6. Milling
  1. Storage and Transportation
  2. Consuming the Rice
    1. Cooking
    2. Serving and Eating
  1. Measures and Transactions
  2. Conclusion

Chapter 7: Money, Weights and Measures
  1. Currency
    1. Spanish Terms
    2. Bikol Terms
  1. Gold
  2. Weights and Balances
  3. Numbers and Counting
    1. Cardinal and Ordinal Numbers
    2. Counting
    3. Numerical Classifiers
  1. Linear Measurement
  2. Volume
  3. Conclusion

Chapter 8: Jewellery and Body Ornamentation
  1. Tattoos
  2. Tooth Decoration
  3. Hair and Head Coverings
  4. Finery
  5. Necklaces
  6. Earrings
  7. Bracelets, Armbands and Anklets
  8. Rings
  9. Chains
  10. Conclusion

Chapter 9: Metals and Metalworking
  1. Gold
    1. Types and Attributes
    2. Deception
    3. Quality Testing
    4. Mining
  1. Other Metals
    1. Silver
    2. Lead and Tin
    3. Iron
    4. Copper, Brass and Bronze
  1. Smelting
    1. Iron Smelting
    2. Copper Smelting
  1. Charcoal
  2. The Fire
  3. The Bellows
  4. Refining
  5. Craftsmen and Their Tools
  6. Tempering and Hardening
  7. Forging
  8. Inlay and Gilding
  9. Soldering and Welding
  10. Metal Threads and Wires
  11. Working with Gold
  12. Conclusion

Chapter 10: Health and Personal Hygiene
  1. Bathing
  2. The Call of Nature
    1. Defecating
    2. Passing Wind
    3. Urinating
  1. Head and Body Lice
  2. Oral Hygiene
    1. The Breath
    2. The Teeth
    3. The Mouth and Lips
  1. The Ears and Eyes
    1. The Ears
    2. The Eyes
  1. The Hands and Feet
    1. Disability
    2. Skin Ailments
    3. Calluses and Blisters
  1. Abscesses, Boils and Ulcers
  2. Wounds
  3. Medicine and Medicinal Plants
  4. Medical Implements
  5. Sickness and Health
  6. Course of an Illness
  7. Care and Treatment
  8. Other Ailments
    1. Allergies and Asthma
    2. Edema and Dropsy
    3. Stroke and Epilepsy
    4. Hernia and Bleeding
    5. Coughs and Colds
  1. Conclusion

Chapter 11: Fibre, Cloth and Clothing
  1. Abaca
    1. Description
    2. Cutting
    3. Cleaning
    4. Selection of Fibres
    5. Preparation for Weaving
  1. Other Fibres
  2. Weaving
    1. The Loom
    2. The Process
    3. Problems
    4. Finishing and Treatment
  1. Cloth
  2. Dying
  3. Sewing
    1. Stiching
    2. Embroidering
    3. Tailoring
  1. Clothing
    1. Garments
    2. Blankets
    3. Dressing
    4. Suitability
    5. Condition
    6. Washing and Storage
  1. Headwear
    1. Hats
    2. Other Head Coverings
  1. Conclusion

Chapter 12: Stars and Seasons
  1. The Heavens
    1. Planets
    2. Comets and Meteors
    3. Constellations
    4. The Earth and Sky
    5. The Sun and Moon
  1. Tides
  2. Weather
  3. Winds
    1. Seasonal
    2. Storms
  1. Clouds
  2. Rain
  3. Conclusion
BIBLIOGRAPHY

BIBLIOGRAPHIC DETAILS

Main


Published with the support of Gender and Cultural Studies, School of Culture, History and Language, College of Asia and the Pacific, The Australian National University.
URL: http://intersections.anu.edu.au/monograph1/mintz_contents.html
© Copyright
Page constructed by Malcolm Mintz and Carolyn Brewer.
Last modified: 31 March 2017 1433